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A Radical More-Than-Human Intersectionality in Ecologically Compromised Times


Fejzic, Sanita. 2020. "A Radical More-Than-Human Intersectionality in Ecologically Compromised Times." In Handbook of Research on New Dimensions of Gender Mainstreaming and Women Empowerment, edited by Moly Kuruvilla and Irene George, 509-29. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Author: Sanita Fejzic


Gender-based analysis+(GBA+) efforts by the Canadian government that attend to climate change often focus on ‘sustainable management' of ‘resources' alongside inclusion of vulnerable groups at decision-making tables; meanwhile, scholars and activists focus attention toward eco- and social-justice models couched in good nation-to-nation relations with Indigenous communities. This chapter suggests that attunement to Indigenous knowledges and other-than-humans (nonhuman animals, plants, and elements such as water) is necessary in the wake of global ecological collapse, founded on principles of responsibility and respect of Indigenous sovereignty over land and attunement to Indigenous ‘caretaking relations' with other-than-humans. (Summary from original source)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Canada’s ‘Feminist’ International Assistance


Aylward, Erin, and Stephen Brown. 2020. “Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Canada’s ‘Feminist’ International Assistance.” International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis 75 (3): 313–28.

Authors: Erin Aylward, Stephen Brown


Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP), launched in June 2017, marks the first time that sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been mentioned in an overarching Canadian aid policy. The inclusion of SOGI in the policy document sent an important signal to domestic and international development partners on the need to consider these sources of discrimination and marginalization. This article asks two basic research questions. First, what is the place of SOGI in Canada’s “feminist” international assistance? Second, what additional steps does Canada’s development program need to take to protect the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) people in the Global South? Based on an analysis of official documents and secondary sources, we argue that FIAP itself sends only a weak signal about the importance of SOGI-related concerns, but Canadian foreign aid has expanded its understanding of LGBTI issues and has begun to commit dedicated resources to addressing them. Nonetheless, the initial programming (2017–2019) was channelled in an ad hoc manner and through one, major stand-alone commitment, rather than through a broader framework that would guide SOGI’s integration into Canadian programs over the long term. If serious about addressing LGBTI rights more systematically, the Canadian government needs to expand its definition of what SOGI entails and move beyond niche programming to recognize the cross cutting dimension of LGBTI rights in foreign aid, especially in the area of sexual and reproductive health and rights.

Keywords: foreign aid, sexual orientation, gender identity, LGBTI, Canada, feminism

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Health, Reproductive Health, LGBTQ, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Built on Shaky Ground: Reflections on Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy


Cadesky, Jessica. 2020. “Built on Shaky Ground: Reflections on Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy.” International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis 75 (3): 298–312.

Author: Jessica Cadesky


In October 2017, Canada launched its Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP). While Canada’s explicit use of the words “feminist” and “feminism” may be refreshing, critical questions on the FIAP’s interpretation and application of these concepts remain. These challenges are not unique to the FIAP. Rather, the central weaknesses of the FIAP can be seen as symptomatic of several endemic challenges that persist in the current policies and practices that seek to promote gender equality in the developing world and beyond. This article presents the theoretical and conceptual lineage that has informed the FIAP, drawing from challenges present within literature on security, gender equality, and gender mainstreaming. Three main shortcomings relevant to both the literature and the FIAP are explored: first, the assumptions and essentialization of “gender” to mean “women”; second, the frequent conflation of “gender equality” with “women’s empowerment”; and last, the paradox of gender, gender equality, and feminism being simultaneously overpoliticized and depoliticized to suit prevailing policy environments, with particular implications for the global coronavirus pandemic, as well as impacts in fragile and conflict-affected states. This analysis sheds light on persistent challenges in feminist foreign policymaking and offers insights for the development of Canada’s White Paper on feminist foreign policy.

Keywords: feminist foreign assistance policy, gender equality, women, empowernment, discourse, fragile and conflict-affected states, COVID-19

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Which Feminism(s)? For Whom? Intersectionality in Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy


Morton, Sam E., Judyannet Muchiri, and Liam Swiss. 2020. “Which Feminism(s)? For Whom? Intersectionality in Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy.” International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis 75 (3): 329–48.

Authors: Sam E. Morton, Judyannet Muchiri, Liam Swiss


The Government of Canada introduced its new Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP) to guide its foreign aid programming in June 2017. This feminist turn mirrors earlier adoptions of feminist aid and foreign policy by Sweden and echoes the current Canadian government’s feminist rhetoric. This paper examines the FIAP and its Action Areas Policies to ask what kind(s) of feminism are reflected in the policy and what groups of people it prioritizes. The paper examines the values, goals, and gaps of the policy in order to understand what feminist values and goals are being operationalized and pursued and what gaps and contradictions exist. By examining the FIAP’s Action Area Policies using a discourse network analysis of the groups represented in the policies, we demonstrate the failings of the FIAP to incorporate an intersectional approach. Our results show that the FIAP adopts a mainstream liberal feminism that excludes many peoples and groups from the core of Canada’s aid efforts.

Keywords: foreign aid, feminism, feminist foreign policy, Canada

Topics: Feminisms, Feminist Foreign Policy, Intersectionality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Canada’s Feminist Foreign Policy and Human Security Compared


Smith, Heather, and Tari Ajadi. 2020. “Canada’s Feminist Foreign Policy and Human Security Compared.” International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis 75 (3): 367–82.

Authors: Heather Smith, Tari Ajadi


Canadian federal governments regularly try to craft a unique image of Canada in the world; however, the Trudeau government’s embrace of feminist foreign policy feels strikingly similar to the late 1990s when human security was embraced. There seems to be a “sameness” in the promotion of a progressive values-based discourse that has transformative potential for Canadian foreign policy. The question is, does this sense of sameness bear out when we dig into the comparison? Drawing on speeches given by government ministers; policy documents, such as the Feminist International Assistance Policy (FIAP); media; and scholarship, we compare and contrast analyses of the sources of the human security and feminist foreign policy discourses and then identify common critiques. We also examine two significant differences. We find there is consistent Liberal articulation of values-based discourses and policies that have unmet transformative potential. In both cases, style and rhetoric are privileged over transformative change.

Keywords: human security, feminist, Canadian foreign policy, feminist foreign policy, gender

Topics: Feminist Foreign Policy, Gender, Security, Human Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2020

Territorio y el ser decolonial: Pervivencia de las mujeres y los pueblos en tiempos de conflicto, paz y desarrollo


Gruner, Sheila. 2018. "Territorio y el ser decolonial: Pervivencia de las mujeres y los pueblos en tiempos de conflicto, paz y desarrollo." In Movimientos indígenas y autonomías en América Latina: Escenarios de disputa y horizontes de posibilidad, edited by Flores Pavel C. López and Guerreiro Luciana García, 259-84. Buenos Aires, Argentina: CLACSO.

Author: Sheila Gruner



La autonomía de los movimientos étnico-territoriales está orientada por conceptualizaciones de territorio y los derechos políticoterritoriales, y las relaciones sociales de producción que se producen y reproducen dentro del mismo territorio. Para entender lo que está en juego para pueblos indígenas y negros tanto como sociedad en general, se requiere abordar temas del desarrollo, conflicto y paz en su conjunto, mirar las tendencias de violencia contra las mujeres, y las mujeres racializadas en específico, desde un marco crítico, global y decolonial, tanto como anti-racista y depatriarcal. En este artículo serán explorados movimientos étnico-territoriales en Colombia y Canadá, examinando aquellos que han avanzado hacia formulaciones ontológicas alternativas al desarrollo, representado en conceptos como el buen vivir, ubuntu, y mino-bimaadiziwin. En este escrito se examinarán de igual forma los esfuerzos de los pueblos indígenas y negros en Colombia en cuanto a la construcción de la paz, la defensa del territorio y su autonomía, y la inclusión del Capítulo Étnico en los Acuerdos de paz de la Habana.


The autonomy of ethno-territorial movements is oriented by conceptualizations of territory, political and territorial rights and the social relations of production that are produced and reproduced within this same territory. To understand what is at stake for indigenous and black people, as well as for society in general, issues of development, conflict, and peace must be addressed in relation to each other, examining tendencies of violence against women and racialized women in particular, from within a critical, global and decolonial framework, that is also anti-racist and depatriarchal. Ethno-territorial movements in Colombia and Canada will be explored, examining those that express ontologies alternative to that which underpins dominant development, represented in concepts such as good life, ubuntu and mino-bimaadiiziwin. Efforts of indigenous and afrocolombian communities will also be explored in relation to the construction of peace, the defense of territory, autonomy and will centre on the inclusion of the Ethnic Chapter in the Havana Peace Accords.

Keywords: decolonial, buen vivir, good life, ubuntu, mino-bimaadiiziwin, movimiento etno-territorial, ethnoterritorial movement, territorio ancestral, ancestral territory, Acuerdos de Habana, Havana Accords, Ethnic Chapter, Capitulo Etnico

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Peacebuilding, Race, Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America, South America Countries: Canada, Colombia

Year: 2018

Counting on Marilyn Waring: New Advances in Feminist Economics


Bjørnholt, Margunn and Ailsa McKay, eds. 2014. Counting on Marilyn Waring: New Advances in Feminist Economics. Ontario, Canada: Demeter Press.

Authors: Margunn Bjørnholt, Ailsa McKay


This second edition, which includes an epilogue by Marilyn Waring, maps new advances in theories and practices in feminist economics and the valuation of women, care and nature since Marilyn Waring’s 1988 groundbreaking critique of the system of national accounts, If Women Counted. It features theoretical, practical and policy oriented contributions, empirical studies, and new conceptualizations, theorizations and problematizations of defining and accounting for the value of nature and unpaid household work, eco-feminism, national and international policy processes, unpaid care and HIV/AIDS policy, activism and artwork, and mirrors the wide-ranging impact and resonance of Waring’s work as well as the current frontiers of feminist economics. (Summary from Amazon)


Table of Contents:

1. Advances in feminist economics in times of economic crisis
Margunn Bjørnholt and Ailsa Mckay

2. Feminist economics as vision for a sustainable future
Iulie Aslaksen, Torunn Bragstad, and Berit Ås

3. Everything needs care : toward a context-based economy
Sabine O'Hara

4. Reflections on unpaid household work, economic growth, and consumption possibilities
Iulie Aslaksen and Charlotte Koren

5. Women's unpaid work was counted but ...
Johanna Varjonen and Leena M. Kirjavainen

6. Accounting for death : infant mortality, the MDGs, and women's (dis)empowerment
Monica J. Casper and William Pual Simmons

7. Substantive equality, Stockholm Syndrome and the costs of child sexual abuse
Shirley Jülich

8. A Pacific way of counting
Tagaloate Peggy Fairbairn-Dunlop

9. Narrative trumps numbers : Marilyn Waring in the world
Rod Dobell and Jodie Walsh

10. If mothers counted : status symbols for the invisible art of mothering
Hadara Scheflan Katzav and Shira Richter

11. Whose rights count? : a research journey with Marilyn Waring on unpaid HIV care and the economics of dignity
Meena Shivdas and Anit N. Mukherjee

12. Rural, northern Canadian women's caregiving experiences in the context of economic values
Heather I. Peters, Dawn Hemingway, and Jo-Anne Fiske

13. Creating conceptual tools for change : Marilyn Waring's influence in Australia
Marty Grace and Lyn Craig

14. Making mothers' milk count
Julie P. Smith

15. Resilient feminism : social movement strategy in a conservative regnum
Mara Fridell and Lorna Turnbull

16. Counting embodied learning : Marilyn Waring and feminist pedagogical practice
Jill Eichhorn

17. Post-graduate supervision with MJW
Karen Webster

18. Epilogue: Wow! Marilyn Waring

Topics: Economies, Care Economies, Feminist Economics, Gender Regions: Americas, North America, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada

Year: 2014

Three Sides to Every Story: Gender Perspectives in Energy Transition Pathways in Canada, Kenya and Spain


Lieu, Jenny, Alevgul H. Sorman, Oliver W. Johnson, Luis D. Virla, and Bernadette P. Resurrección. 2020. “Three Sides to Every Story: Gender Perspectives in Energy Transition Pathways in Canada, Kenya and Spain.” Energy Research & Social Science 68.

Authors: Jenny Lieu, Alevgul H. Sorman, Oliver W. Johnson, Luis D. Virla, Bernadette P. Resurrección


Transitions toward a low-carbon future are not only technical and economical, but also deeply social and gendered. The gendered nature of energy transitions is often implicit and unexplored. As a corrective, this paper explores energy pathways by applying concepts from innovations and gender studies. We examine gender perspectives and niche energy innovations which could disrupt the regime. The regime represents the mainstream pathway that includes the dominant gender perspective and energy system. We explore different gender perspectives of energy transition pathways by applying an Alternative Pathways framework that includes: (1)  on-stream pathways that exist within the mainstream pathway to promote equal opportunities for women and men, as well as niches for energy innovations without challenging the high-carbon energy regime; (2) off-stream pathways that depart from the mainstream and promote differences across different genders while creating niches outside the energy regime; and (3) transformative pathways that are fundamentally different from the previous mainstream and includes all gender perspectives in a new energy regime. Applying this framing, in Canada, we explored Indigenous perspectives in the oil sands sector; in Kenya, we studied largescale renewable energy impacting Indigneous communities; in Spain, we evaluate the movement away from fossil fuels and towards renewable technologies. The framework helped to identify that mainstream pathways represented the dominant male perspective while woman's perspective were largely left out. Such absence generate energy pathways that are disconnected from local realities, lack public buy-in and slow-down a sustainable energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition pathways, renewable energy, gender, women, intersectionality, Indigenous people

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Indigenous, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, North America, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Canada, Kenya, Spain

Year: 2020

Eco/Feminism, Non-Violence and the Future of Feminism


Moore, Niamh. 2008. “Eco/Feminism, Non-Violence and the Future of Feminism.” International Journal of Politics 10 (3): 282-98.

Author: Niamh Moore


This article turns to an eco/feminist peace camp of the early 1990s in order to revisit the often passionate and troubled debates in feminism about pacifism, non-violence, maternalism and essentialism. Many readings of feminist peace activism, and eco/ feminism, have collapsed a complicated politics into simple manifestations of maternalism, while at the same time reducing maternalism to essentialism. In this process essentialism has been invoked to disavow feminist peace activism and eco/feminist activism. Yet the critique of essentialism has now been the subject of much reflection by feminists. Rather than ascribing the category of ‘essentialism’, genealogical approaches attend to how the categories of ‘essentialism’ and ‘woman’ are invoked and to what ends. Such approaches thereby open up possibilities for understanding ecofeminist activism beyond essentialism. While an eco/feminist peace camp may appear an archetypal site for the re-inscription and repetition of essentialism, I suggest that without returning to such sites it will remain impossible to go beyond essentialism. Through a genealogical examination of contestations over the meanings and practice of eco/feminism at the camp, I understand this late-twentieth century peace camp, not as a quaint throwback to the disavowed activism of the 1970s and 1980s, but as a site through which the future of eco/feminist politics was, and can be, re-imagined.

Keywords: Clayoquot Sound, ecofeminism, essentialism, genealogy, maternalism, non-violence, peace camp, the 1980s, the 1990s

Topics: Feminisms, Ecofeminism Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2008

Women, Tax and Social Programs: The Gendered Impact of Funding Social Programs Through the Tax System


Young, Claire F.L. 2000. Women, Tax and Social Programs: The Gendered Impact of Funding Social Programs Through the Tax System. Ottowa: Status of Women Canada. 

Author: Claire F.L. Young


This study examines the impact on women of funding social programs through the tax system. It does so using the framework of tax expenditure analysis, which allows one to view any departure from the normative tax system (i.e., those basic rules, such as the tax rate and the tax unit, that comprise the revenue-raising part of the system) as a spending measure. The analysis also takes into account the socio-economic realities of women’s lives and concludes that many tax measures that are subsidies in respect of social programs do not benefit women to the same extent that they benefit men. Tax measures explored include the childcare expense deduction, the Canada Child Tax Benefit, tax subsidies for retirement saving, the disability tax credit and tax relief for caregivers. The conclusion is that in many instances women have less access to these tax subsidies and, often, the amount they receive is less than the amount that men receive. The study concludes with a list of issues that should be considered by those involved in the tax policy process in order to ensure that women are not disadvantaged in comparison to men when tax subsidies are used to fund social programs.

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Women, Men Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2000


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