Cambodia

Gendering Legitimacy Through the Reproduction of Memories and Violent Discourses in Cambodia

Citation:

Lilja, Mona. 2008. “Gendering Legitimacy Through the Reproduction of Memories and Violent Discourses in Cambodia.” Asian Perspective 32 (1): 71-97.

Author: Mona Lilja

Abstract:

This article argues that the legitimacy of both male and female politicians in Cambodia is partly built on discourses of violence and reconstructed memories of the past. From this standpoint, this article looks at how women's and men's relation to violence- and memories of violence- creates and undermines their legitimacy as political leaders. Additionally, it relates how women use memories of violence in their strategies to increase their political authority. Based on interviews with fifty-two female and male politicians and nongovernmental workers in Cambodia, this article addresses how discourses on politics rely on notions of "then" and "now" of violence and the images of identity emerging from these.

Keywords: Cambodia, East Asian politics, democracy- East Asia, gender studies

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Men, Governance, Political Participation, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2008

What Is Forced Marriage - Towards a Definition of Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity

Citation:

Toy-Cronin, Bridgette A. 2010. “What Is Forced Marriage - Towards a Definition of Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 19 (2): 1.

Author: Bridgette A. Toy-Cronin

Abstract:

The Special Court for Sierra Leone’s Trial and Appeals Chambers handed down judgments considering, for the first time, forced marriage as a crime against humanity. This Article critiques those decisions against the Appeals Chamber’s stated aim of “enriching the jurisprudence of international criminal law.” This Article argues that there is a need to recognize a crime of forced marriage, but in order to enrich current jurisprudence, it should be limited to only the conferral of the status of marriage and the ongoing effects of that status on the victim. Other crimes that occur within the marriages should not be collapsed into the prosecution of forced marriage; they are separate offenses that need separate recognition. Two contrasting examples of forced marriage are compared: so-called “forced marriages” in a number of African conflicts involving the abduction of women and girls by rebels and forced marriage between 1975 and 1979 in Khmer Rouge-ruled Cambodia. The African examples are drawn from published research, while a portrait of forced marriage in Cambodia is sketched through stories gathered in field research conducted in Cambodia in 2006, along with some published material. This Article argues that there is a lacuna in the law that requires the recognition of forced marriage as a crime. The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (the “ECCC”), established to try Khmer Rouge crimes, has the opportunity to address this crime and to create a record of the fact that forced marriages were traumatic events that deeply affected thousands of Cambodian lives.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Sierra Leone

Year: 2010

Hope for Gender Equality? A Pattern of Post-Conflict Transition in Masculinity

Citation:

Haque, Md. Mozammel. 2013. “Hope for Gender Equality? A Pattern of Post-Conflict Transition in Masculinity.” Gender, Technology and Development 17 (1): 55–77.

Author: Md. Mozammel Haque

Abstract:

Challenging the findings of existing studies on masculinity in conflict situations and post-conflict transition in masculinity, some former soldiers in the Cambodian civil war during the 1970s have constructed peaceful and responsive masculinities in a new gender order in post-war Cambodia. This is mainly because of the new dominant social discourse on maleness pervading the country, which expects men to be model husbands and fathers able to uplift their families by raising their economic and educational status. Family members, particularly wives, play an important role in actualizing the social discourse among these former soldiers. This study provides hope for gender equality through engagement with men and boys. They can be motivated to promote gender equality and end violence against women through the development of popular discourses on responsive masculinity and good fatherhood.

Keywords: masculinity, Cambodia, gender order, post-conflict transition in masculinity, Khmer Rouge, women, men

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Male Combatants, Men, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2013

Gender, Legitimacy and Patronage-Driven Participation: Fisheries Management in the Tonle Sap Great Lake, Cambodia

Citation:

Resurrección, Bernadette P. 2008. “Gender, Legitimacy and Patronage-Driven Participation: Fisheries Management in the Tonle Sap Great Lake, Cambodia.” In Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility and Interventions, edited by Bernadette P. Resurreccion and Rebecca Elmhirst, 151-74. London: Earthscan.

Author: Bernadette P. Resurrección

Topics: Civil Society, Economies, Gender Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2008

Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity: Problems of Definition and Prosecution

Citation:

Jain, Neha. 2008. “Forced Marriage as a Crime Against Humanity: Problems of Definition and Prosecution.” Journal of International Criminal Justice 6 (5): 1013–32.

Author: Neha Jain

Abstract:

Forced marriages are a pervasive feature of armed conflicts around the world, such as in Sierra Leone, Cambodia, Rwanda and Uganda. Despite forced marriage having been charged and recently affirmed as an international crime before the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL), courts and commentators have paid little attention to examining its viability as a distinct category of crime in international law. This article analyses the SCSL's characterization of forced marriage as conduct subsumed within the category of other inhumane acts. It isolates the constituent elements of the crime of forced marriage through comparative case studies of Sierra Leone and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge. The author addresses the issue of whether forced marriage can be distinguished from arranged marriages on the one hand, and sexual slavery on the other, to justify its prosecution as an ‘other inhumane act’ as part of crimes against humanity.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, International Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Uganda

Year: 2008

Burma and Cambodia: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV/AIDS

Citation:

Beyrer, Chris. 1998. “Burma and Cambodia: Human Rights, Social Disruption, and the Spread of HIV/AIDS.” Health and Human Rights 2 (4): 84–97.

Author: Chris Beyrer

Abstract:

The debate around the issues raised by HIV/AIDS and human rights has largely focused on the protection from rights violations of individuals or groups affected by the disease. The relationship between political and social conditions where human rights abuses are frequent and the spread of HIV infection has been less studied. Two countries in Southeast Asia, Burma and Cambodia, are currently undergoing serious and uncontrolled epidemics of HIV; both are marked by political cultures of state violence and corruption, chronic civil war and insurgency, and widespread human rights violations. This article attempts to investigate associations between rapid HIV spread and political and social crises, using Burma and Cambodia as case studies. The climate and context of rights abuses are seen as significant factors of national vulnerability to the epidemic spread of HIV/AIDS.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Health, HIV/AIDS, Rights, Human Rights, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Myanmar

Year: 1998

Gender Conflict and Development Volume II: Case Studies: Cambodia; Rwanda; Kosovo; Algeria; Somalia; Guatemala and Eritrea

Citation:

Byrne, Bridget, Rachel Marcus, and Tanya Powers-Stevens. 1995. Gender, Conflict and Development Volume II: Case Studies: Cambodia; Rwanda; Kosovo; Algeria; Somalia; Guatemala and Eritrea. 35. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.

Authors: Bridget Byrne, Rachel Marcus, Tanya Powers-Stevens

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Gender Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Algeria, Cambodia, Eritrea, Guatemala, Kosovo, Rwanda, Somalia

Year: 1995

Men, Militarism, and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis

Citation:

Whitworth, Sandra. 2004. Men, Militarism, and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Author: Sandra Whitworth

Abstract:

Sandra Whitworth looks behind the rhetoric to investigate - from a feminist perspective - the realities of military intervention under the UN flag. Whitworth contends that there is a fundamental contradiction between portrayals of peacekeeping as altruistic and benign and the militarized masculinity that underpins the group identity of soldiers. (WorldCat)

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Militarization, Peacekeeping Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Canada, Somalia

Year: 2004

War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia

Citation:

Beyrer, Chris. 1998. War in the Blood: Sex, Politics and AIDS in Southeast Asia. London: Zed Books.

Author: Chris Beyrer

Abstract:

This engaging and vivid book investigates the course of the HIV epidemic in seven countries of South East Asia: Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Vietnam and China’s Yunnan Province. Emphasising the impact of the cultural and political landscapes of these countries on the progress of the disease, the book is the product of both working and travelling in the area. Not merely a commentary on obfuscating government statistics, the author draws upon his encounters with people dealing with the effects of the epidemic and opponents of the regimes of the countries he describes. The epidemic is seen as being vitally linked to the general condition of human rights in the societies.

In the first part of the book the author travels to each country in turn chronicling the different approaches adopted to the epidemic. The second part covers issues involving specific groups at risk - among other topics, women and contraception, prostitution and the traffic in women, HIV and the US military, the Heroin trade, gay sex workers, prisoners, and the work of local activists. The third part of the book looks at policy and the general effect of culture on public health care, stressing the need for local empowerment of populations, and in particular women, to effect social changes that would go hand in hand with improvements in the handling of the HIV epidemic. Both passionate and well-informed, this book is a labour of love that discusses the HIV epidemic while giving an intimate, and ultimately celebratory account of South East Asia and asserting the real possiblity for affirmative action. (Amazon)

Topics: Governance, Health, HIV/AIDS, Reproductive Health, Livelihoods, Sexual Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Human Trafficking, Sex Trafficking Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Year: 1998

Gender Mainstreaming in Government Offices in Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos: Perspectives from Below

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko. 2005. “Gender Mainstreaming in Government Offices in Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos: Perspectives from below.” Gender & Development 13 (2): 46–56.

Author: Kyoko Kusakabe

Abstract:

In this article, I aim to examine the ways in which gender concerns have been 'mainstreamed' into government activities. I focus on three countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region: Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. While gender mainstreaming policies are in place at the national level in these countries, the 'evaporation' (Longwe 1995) of such policies at the lower levels has been a problem. The article concentrates on challenges of implementation which exist at provincial/commune and department levels. Drawing on the experience of middle and low-level government officers, I argue here that policy evaporation occurs partly because of lack of political commitment to gender mainstreaming at different levels. Another problem is that the concept of gender mainstreaming itself remains vague, and is thus difficult to translate into action.

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand

Year: 2005

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