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Côte D'Ivoire

Factors Associated with the Use of Maternal Health Services by Mothers in a Post-Conflict Area of Western Côte d'Ivoire in 2016


Samba, Mamadou, Akissi Régine Attia-Konan, Abou Dramane Sangaré, Gotré Jules Youan, Luc Philippe Kouadio, and Ramata Bakayoko-Ly. 2020. "Factors Associated with the Use of Maternal Health Services by Mothers in a Post-Conflict Area of Western Côte d'Ivoire in 2016." BMC Health Services Research 20.

Authors: Mamadou Samba, Akissi Régine Attia-Konan, Abou Dramane Sangaré, Gotré Jules Youan, Luc Philippe Kouadio, Ramata Bakayoko-Ly


Background: In Côte d’Ivoire, maternal health service utilization indicators remain low despite improvements in health coverage and the availability of free health care for pregnant women. The objective of the study was to identify the determinants associated with the use of maternal health services in the department of Bloléquin, in western Côte d’Ivoire. 
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with an analytical focus. The study sample size was 400 women. Study participants were selected through a two-stage cluster survey. The data were collected using a standardized questionnaire whose items concerned socio-demographic data, the different uses of maternal health services, namely childbirth assisted by a health professional, use of family planning, prenatal consultation and postnatal consultation. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with the use of maternal health services. The significance of the statistical tests was set at 5%. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and interpreted. 
Results: The results showed that women made less use of family planning services (OR = 0.4), prenatal consultation (OR = 0.2) and assisted childbirth (OR = 0.2) when they provided the funding for care themselves. Women with monthly incomes above $26.8 used family planning services 4 times more than those with lower incomes. Married women used prenatal consultations 3 times more often than unmarried women (CI95% = 1.4–7.3). Desiring pregnancy increased the use of post-natal consultations by 3 times (CI95% = 1.5–6.1). 
Conclusion: Improving the use of maternal health services in western Côte d’Ivoire requires taking into account women’s socio-cultural and economic challenges. In initiatives related to the financial empowerment of women, efforts must be made at the level of emotional considerations related to pregnancy.

Keywords: determinants, Côte d'Ivoire, maternal health services, accessibility

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Reproductive Health, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire

Year: 2020

Simone Gbagbo: First Lady of Cote D'Ivoire, First Woman Indicted by the International Criminal Court, One among Many Female Perpetrators of Crimes Against Humanity


Zaldivar-Giuffredi, Alessandra M. 2018. "Simone Gbagbo: First Lady of Cote D'Ivoire, First Woman Indicted by the International Criminal Court, One among Many Female Perpetrators of Crimes Against Humanity." ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law 25 (1): 1-31.

Author: Alessandra M. Zaldivar-Giuffredi


"Prosecutor v. Gbagbo presents us with a certain novelty: a female defendant indicted by the ICC.4 Her indictment may be emblematic of an important shift towards a post-gender model of international criminal justice, a recognition that both women and men are capable of committing atrocities and crimes against humanity—including the perpetration of rape and sexual violence.5 Nevertheless, the supposed “novelty” of this case is predicated on the problematic view of women as inherently peaceful and merely ‘victims’ of war, incapable of independent violent agency.6 Women have long been involved in the commission and perpetration of mass crime.7 An analysis of S. Gbagbo’s case, then, requires questioning her ‘uniqueness’ as a defendant and the role gender may or may not have played in her indictment by the ICC, and considering its implications for international criminal law. Looking past the problematic gender narratives relating to Prosecutor v. Gbagbo, an important issue of complementarity arises.8 In March 2017, S. Gbagbo was acquitted by Ivoirian courts; nevertheless, her indictment by the ICC persists, as the Pre-Trial Chamber found an absence of meaningful domestic proceedings against her.9 Furthermore, even after Cote d’Ivoire challenged this finding on appeal, the Appeals Chamber confirmed the Pre Trial Chamber’s finding on admissibility.10 Thus, we are left to reckon with the relationship between domestic and international investigations: What is the scope of the ICC’s role in ensuring justice, aiding victims, and furthering the internal unification of the affected States?" (Zaldivar-Giuffredi 2018, 1)

Topics: Gender, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, Sexual Violence, Female Perpetrators, Rape, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire

Year: 2018

A Scoping Review of the Health of Conflict-Induced Internally Displaced Women in Africa


Amodu, Oluwakemi C., Magdalena S. Richter, and Bukola O. Salami. 2020. "A Scoping Review of the Health of Conflict-Induced Internally Displaced Women in Africa." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (4): 1-21. 

Authors: Oluwakemi C. Amodu, Magdalena S. Richter, Bukola O. Salami


Armed conflict and internal displacement of persons create new health challenges for women in Africa. To outline the research literature on this population, we conducted a review of studies exploring the health of internally displaced persons (IDP) women in Africa. In collaboration with a health research librarian and a review team, a search strategy was designed that identified 31 primary research studies with relevant evidence. Studies on the health of displaced women have been conducted in South- Central Africa, including Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); and in Eastern, East central Africa, and Western Africa, including Eritrea, Uganda, and Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, and Nigeria. We identified violence, mental health, sexual and reproductive health, and malaria and as key health areas to explore, and observed that socioeconomic power shifts play a crucial role in predisposing women to challenges in all four categories. Access to reproductive health services was influenced by knowledge, geographical proximity to health services, spousal consent, and affordability of care. As well, numerous factors affect the mental health of internally displaced women in Africa: excessive care-giving responsibilities, lack of financial and family support to help them cope, sustained experiences of violence, psychological distress, family dysfunction, and men’s chronic alcoholism. National and regional governments must recommit to institutional restructuring and improved funding allocation to culturally appropriate health interventions for displaced women.

Keywords: internally displaced women, scoping review, women's health, Africa, health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Households, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2020

Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development: Past Achievements and Remaining Challenges


Ravnborg, Helle Munk, Rachel Spichiger, Rikke Brandt Broegaard, and Rasmus Hundsbæk Pedersen. 2016. “Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development: Past Achievements and Remaining Challenges.” Journal of International Development 28 (3): 412–27. 

Authors: Helle Munk Ravnborg, Rachel Spichiger, Rikke Brandt Broegaard, Rasmus Hundsbæk Pedersen


Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure.

Keywords: land tenure, gender equality, customary, statutory, legal, development, cooperation

Topics: Economies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land Tenure, Governance, Rights, Land Rights Countries: Côte D'Ivoire

Year: 2016

Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan


Stork, Adrienne, Cassidy Travis, and Silja Halle. 2015. “Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan.” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27 (2): 147–55. doi:10.1080/10402659.2015.1037617.

Authors: Adrienne Stork, Cassidy Travis, Silja Halle


"This essay builds on the 2013 report and investigates how the key issues of gender and natural resources play out in two different conflict-affected settings. Based on UNEP’s field experiences in Côte d’Ivoire and Darfur, the first section discusses the findings of a gender analysis conducted as part of a Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment of Côte d’Ivoire in 2013, and identifies concrete entry points for addressing the identified risks and opportunities. The second part examines how gender considerations have been incorporated into UNEP’s activities in the Wadi El Ku region of Darfur in Sudan, providing tangible examples of how these issues can be taken into account in ground-level programming" (Stork et al., 2015, p. 148-49). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Sudan

Year: 2015

An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries


Graham, Jay P., Mitsuaki Hirai, and Seung-Sup Kim. 2016. “An Analysis of Water Collection Labor among Women and Children in 24 Sub-Saharan African Countries.” PLOS ONE 11 (6): e0155981. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155981.

Authors: Jay P. Graham, Mitsuaki Hirai, Seung-Sup Kim



It is estimated that more than two-thirds of the population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) must leave their home to collect water, putting them at risk for a variety of negative health outcomes. There is little research, however, quantifying who is most affected by long water collection times.


This study aims to a) describe gender differences in water collection labor among both adults and children (< 15 years of age) in the households (HHs) that report spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, disaggregated by urban and rural residence; and b) estimate the absolute number of adults and children affected by water collection times greater than 30 minutes in 24 SSA countries.


We analyzed data from the Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) (2005–2012) to describe water collection labor in 24 SSA countries.


Among households spending more than 30 minutes collecting water, adult females were the primary collectors of water across all 24 countries, ranging from 46% in Liberia (17,412 HHs) to 90% in Cote d’Ivoire (224,808 HHs). Across all countries, female children were more likely to be responsible for water collection than male children (62% vs. 38%, respectively). Six countries had more than 100,000 households (HHs) where children were reported to be responsible for water collection (greater than 30 minutes): Burundi (181,702 HHs), Cameroon (154,453 HHs), Ethiopia (1,321,424 HHs), Mozambique (129,544 HHs), Niger (171,305 HHs), and Nigeria (1,045,647 HHs).


In the 24 SSA countries studied, an estimated 3.36 million children and 13.54 million adult females were responsible for water collection in households with collection times greater than 30 minutes. We suggest that accessibility to water, water collection by children, and gender ratios for water collection, especially when collection times are great, should be considered as key indicators for measuring progress in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector.

Topics: Age, Youth, Gender, Women, Men, Girls, Boys, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte D'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Zimbabwe

Year: 2016

Peacebuilding Through a Gender Lens and the Challenges of Implementation in Rwanda and Côte d'Ivoire


Hudson, Heidi. 2009. “Peacebuilding Through a Gender Lens and the Challenges of Implementation in Rwanda and Cote d'Ivoire.” Security Studies 18 (2): 287–318.

Author: Heidi Hudson


With the hypothesis in mind that discrimination against women increases the likelihood that a state will experience internal conflict, this article contends that considering gender is a key part of an effective peacebuilding process. Evidence gathered by studying peacebuilding from a feminist perspective, such as in Rwanda and Cote d’Ivoire, can be used to reconceptualize the peace agenda in more inclusive and responsible ways. Following from this, the article argues that a culturally contextual gender analysis is a key tool, both for feminist theory of peacebuilding and the practice of implementing a gender perspective, in all peace work. Using the tools of African feminisms to study African conflicts, this contribution warns against “adding women” without recognizing their agency, emphasizes the need for an organized women’s movement, and suggests directions for the implementation of international laws concerning women’s empowerment at the local level. The article concludes by suggesting that implementation of these ideas in practice is dependent on the way in which African feminists employ main- streaming, inclusionary, and transformational strategies within a culturally sensitive context of indigenous peacebuilding processes.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Genocide, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, International Law, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Non-state Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, SV against women, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Rwanda

Year: 2009

Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Cote D’Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women’s Social and Economic Empowerment Programming


Falb, K. L., J. Annan, E. King, J. Hopkins, D. Kpebo, and J. Gupta. 2014. “Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Cote D’Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women’s Social and Economic Empowerment Programming.” Health Education Research 29 (6): 1015–27. doi:10.1093/her/cyu058.

Authors: J. Annan, E. King, J. Hopkins, D. Kpebo, J. Gupta, K. L. Falb


Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men’s perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men’s experiences with a women’s empowerment program and highlights men’s perceptions of gender norms, poverty and armed conflict, as they relate to achieving programmatic goals. Data are from 32 Ivorian men who participated in indepth interviews in 2012. Interviews were undertaken as part of an intervention that combined gender dialogue groups for both women and their male partners with women’s only village savings and loans programs to reduce IPV against women. Findings suggested that in the context of armed conflict, traditional gender norms and economic stressors experienced by men challenged fulfillment of gender roles and threatened men’s sense of masculinity. Men who participated in gender dialogue groups discussed their acceptance of programming and identified improvements in their relationships with their female partners. These men further discussed increased financial planning along with their partners, and attributed such increases to the intervention. Addressing men’s perceptions of masculinity, poverty and armed conflict may be key components to reduce men’s violence against women in conflict-affected settings.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Budgeting, Households, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire

Year: 2014

Preventing Gender-Based Violence Engendered by Conflict: The Case of Côte d'Ivoire


Blay-Tofey, Morkeh, and Bandy X. Lee. 2015. “Preventing Gender-Based Violence Engendered by Conflict: The Case of Côte d’Ivoire.” Social Science & Medicine 146 (December): 341–47. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.009.

Author: Morkeh Blay-Tofey


Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire

Year: 2015

Gender and Public Social Spending: Disaggregating Benefit Incidence


Demery, Lionel. 1996. "Gender and Public Social Spending: Disaggregating Benefit Incidence." Poverty and Social Policy Department Discussion Paper, Washington DC: World Bank.

Author: Lionel Demery


This note describes how the gender dimension of public spending on health and education can be captured in part through benefit incidence analysis. It contains two basic messages. First, gender disaggregations are important in their own right, since they highlight gender differences in benefit incidence which are of policy concern. Second, these gender differences are also important in understanding other matters of policy concern. The example taken here is poverty, or more specifically, the targeting of government spending to the poor. The paper begins, in section II, with a brief review of the benefit incidence approach and establishes how gender disaggregations can be readily incorporated in the methodology. Illustrations are then provided (in section III) from estimates of benefit incidence of social spending in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. But the benefit incidence of government spending is only part of the story. In order to gain access to government-funded services, households generally have to incur out-of-pocket expenditures. These may also be subject to gender differences. Section IV considers these using household survey data in Ghana. Section V makes some concluding observations.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Health Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Ghana

Year: 1996


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