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Brazil

Diferenças regionais na reforma agrária brasileira: gênero, direitos à terra e movimentos sociais rurais.

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana. 2002. "Diferenças regionais na reforma agrária brasileira: gênero, direitos à terra e movimentos sociais rurais," Estudos Sociedade e Agricultura, 18: 112-146.

Author: Carmen Diana Deere

Abstract:

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:

Mesmo que as mulheres tenham conquistado a igualdade formal nos direitos à terra na Constituição Federal de 1988, sua parcela de participação no programa de reforma agrária, se comparada a de outros países da América Latina, continua sendo muito baixa. Além disso, o índice de beneficiárias varia consideravelmente por região e estado. O argumento deste artigo sugere que o índice de mulheres beneficiárias pela reforma agrária esteja vinculado tanto à discriminação particularmente das mulheres chefes de família pelo Incra, como pelo fato de o efetivo direito das mulheres à terra não ser prioridade dos movimentos sociais até fins dos anos 90. No entanto, o papel destes na reforma agrária também variou consideravelmente por região e estado, explicando muito a variação regional daquele índice.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Even though women achieved formal equality in land rights in the 1988 Federal Constitution, they represent a much lower share of agrarian reform beneficiaries in Brazil than in other Latin American countries. Moreover, the share of female beneficiaries varies considerably by region and state. In this article, the low share of female reform beneficiaries is attributed both to discrimination, particularly of female household heads, by the agrarian reform institute, as well as to the fact that attaining effective land rights for women was not a priority of any of the rural social movements until the late 1990s. However, the role of the social movements in the agrarian reform also varied considerably by region and state which accounts for much of the regional variation in women’s participation rates.

Keywords: reforma agraria, gênero, movimentos sociais, agrarian reform, gender, social movements

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Political Participation, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2002

A Luta pela Terra sob Enfoque de Gênero. Os lugares da diferença no Pontal do Paranapanema.

Citation:

Franco García, María. 2004. "A Luta Pela Terra Sob Enfoque de Gênero. Os lugares da diferença no Pontal do Paranapanema." PhD diss., Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho-UNESP.

Author: María Franco García

Abstract:

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Esta pesquisa tem como problema a diferença existente na produção e reprodução de relações sociais de gênero nos lugares da Luta pela Terra, ou seja,os assentamentos e acampamentos rurais. Esta falta de sintonia espacial e de gênero tem repercussões políticas diretas. Se de um lado verificamos nos assentamentos com origem na luta do MST, a redução da esfera de participação da mulher trabalhadora na vida social e gestão territorial do seu entorno imediato, também observamos nos acampamentos uma tomada de consciência da contradição social em termos de classe e de gênero, através da mobilização social e organizativa. A observação desses lugares nos leva a constatar a estrutura generificada do espaço como produto da organização social. E, nos encaminha a refletir a relação dialética da produção do espaço e construção das relações de gênero na dinâmica territorialização - desterritorialização - reterritorialização da Luta pela Terra. Ainda, analisar esta relação não se restringe apenas aos lugares da luta, os acampamentos e assentamentos rurais, enquanto realidades isoladas ou monolíticas, mas atingir a espacialidade escalar e abordar a dinâmica que os anima. As redefinições do mundo do trabalho, e do ser que trabalha, na escala global junto com as transformações recentes da agropecuária brasileira são os recortes para apreendermos o desenho societal dos trabalhadores e trabalhadoras sem-terra. Todavia, a análise do espaço se dirige para geograficidade das práticas e relações de poder que se estabelecem entre diferentes sujeitos sociais, homens e mulheres, em acampamentos e assentamentos rurais, entendendo estes lugares como escalas geográficas onde os trabalhadores e trabalhadoras Sem-Terra, anteriormente fragmentados, se unem numa comunidade definida politicamente.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El problema central de nuestra investigación reside en la diferencia existente en la producción y reproducción de las relaciones sociales de género en los lugares de la Lucha por la Tierra, es decir, los campamentos y asentamientos rurales. La falta de armonía espacial y de género tiene repercusiones políticas directas. Si por un lado verificamos en los asentamientos cuyo origen es la lucha del MST, la reducción de la esfera de participación de las mujeres trabajadoras en la vida social y en la gestión territorial de su entorno inmediato, también observamos en los acampamentos la toma de conciencia de la contradicción social en términos de clase y género, por medio de la movilización social y organizativa. El examen de estos lugares nos lleva a constatar la estructura generificada del espacio como producto de la organización social. Asimismo, nos orienta hacia la reflexión de la relación dialéctica de la producción del espacio y la construcción de las relaciones de género en la dinámica territorializacióndesterritorialización-reterritorialización de la Lucha por la Tierra. Pero, analizar esta relación no se limita apenas a los lugres de la lucha, los campamentos y asentamientos rurales, como realidades aisladas o monolíticas, sino alcanzar la espacialidad escalar y abordar la dinámica que los anima.
Las redefiniciones del mundo del trabajo y del ser que trabaja a escala global y las transformaciones recientes de la agropecuaria brasileña son los recortes que usamos para comprender el diseño societal de los trabajadores y trabajadoras sintierra. Además, el análisis espacial se dirige hacia la geograficidad de las prácticas y relaciones de poder que se establecen entre diferentes sujetos sociales, mujeres y hombres, en los lugares construidos a lo largo del proceso de la Lucha por la Tierra. Siendo estos lugares escalas geográficas donde estos trabajadores y trabajadoras sin tierra, anteriormente fragmentados, se unen en una comunidad definida políticamente.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Our research interest resides in the existent difference in the production and reproduction of the social relationships of gender in the places of the Land Struggle, that is, the encampments and rural settlements. The lack of space harmony and of gender has direct political repercussions. If on one hand we verify in the settlements whose origin is the struggle of the MST, the reduction of the sphere of the hard-working women's participation in the social life and in the territorial administration of its immediate environment, we also observe in the encampments the taking of conscience of the social contradiction in class terms and gender, by means of the social and organizational mobilization.
The exam of these places takes us to verify the generificated structure of the space as product of the social organization. Also, it guides us toward the reflection of the dialectical relationship of the production of the space and the construction of the gender relationships in the dynamic territorialization–desterritorialization–reterritorialization of the Land struggle. But, to analyze this relationship is not hardly limited to the places of the struggle, the encampments and rural settlements, as isolated or monolithic realities, but reaching the scalar spatiality and to approach the dynamics that encourages them. The redefinitions of the labour world and the being who works to global scale and the recent transformations of the Brazilian agriculture and cattle are the cuttings that we use to understand the class configuration of landless workers. Also, the space analysis goes toward the geographiality of the practices and relationships of power that settle down among different social subject, female and male, in the built places along the process of the Land Struggle. These kind of places are geographical scales where these landless workers, previously broken into fragments, they unite politically in a defined community.

Keywords: relações de gênero, classe trabalhadora, escala geográfica, lugar, assentamento, acampamento, luta pela terra, gender relationships, hard-working class, geographical scale, place, encampments, settlements, the land struggle

Topics: Agriculture, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

MNCs and micro-entrepreneurship in emerging economies: The case of Avon in the Amazon

Citation:

Chelekis, Jessica, and Susan M. Mudambi. 2010. “MNCs and Micro-Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies: The Case of Avon in the Amazon.” Journal of International Management 16 (4): 412–24.

Authors: Jessica Chelekis, Susan M. Mudambi

Abstract:

This article examines the activities of multinational corporations (MNCs) in the direct sales industry through an ethnographic case study of micro-entrepreneurship in the Brazilian Amazon. In large emerging economies, intra-country heterogeneity poses challenges for MNCs. Because national trends often obscure regional variations, the case study highlights the realities of the rural Amazon, and the specific challenges and potential for MNCs. Findings from the case study support three propositions. The development of direct sales networks in remote areas facilitates: (1) additional entrepreneurship, and encourages a progression from necessity to opportunity entrepreneurship; (2) social change in gender norms, including higher level of female empowerment and decision-making within families and communities; and (3) a reconciliation of local and global values on beauty and fashion for customers, leading to stronger brand relationships. By leveraging micro-entrepreneurship, MNCs can compete with local firms, even in rural areas lacking basic infrastructure, to the benefit of communities and individuals.

Keywords: Emerging economies, entrepreneurship, ethnography, direct selling, gender, Base of the pyramid

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Multi-National Corporations Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2009

Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: a Cross-National Study

Citation:

Shandra, John M., Carrie L. Shandra, and Bruce London. 2008. “Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study.” Population and Environment 30 (1-2): 48–72.

Authors: John M. Shandra, Carrie L. Shandra, Bruce London

Abstract:

There have been several cross-national studies published in the world polity theoretical tradition that find a strong correlation between nations with high levels of environmental nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and low levels of various forms of environmental degradation. However, these studies neglect the role that women’s NGOs potentially play in this process. We seek to address this gap by conducting a cross-national study of the association between women’s NGOs and deforestation. We examine this relationship because deforestation often translates into increased household labor, loss of income, and impaired health for women and, as a result, women’s non-governmental organizations have become increasingly involved in dealing with these problems often by protecting forests. We use data from a sample of 61 nations for the period of 1990–2005. We find substantial support for world polity theory that both high levels of women’s and environmental NGOs per capita are associated with lower rates of deforestation. We also find that high levels of debt service and structural adjustment are correlated with higher rates of forest loss. We conclude with a discussion of findings, policy implications, and possible future research directions.

Keywords: deforestation, women, non-governmental organizations, cross-national

Topics: Economies, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Hungary, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Year: 2008

Factories, Forests, Fields and Family: Gender and Neoliberalism in Extractive Reserves

Citation:

Hecht, Susanna B. 2007. “Factories, Forests, Fields and Family: Gender and Neoliberalism in Extractive Reserves.” Journal of Agrarian Change 7 (3): 316–47.

Author: Susanna B. Hecht

Abstract:

This paper explores the theoretical debates on extraction and development in Amazonia, and the emergence of extractive reserves (ERs) as a tropical development alternative. It reviews the role of women in Amazonian rural economies and then analyzes the (often invisible) tasks of women within the reserves through an analysis of the gender division of labour in the collecting and processing of non-timber forest products and agriculture. It then considers how lack of attention to rural women's labour obligations played out in a development project, Projeto Castanha, that began as an urban factory, but was later recast as a neoliberal decentralized processing and outsourcing programme. The project failed to appreciate the demands on, and the opportunity costs, of women's time and thus had very limited success as women withdrew their labour. The paper argues that there may be many more options for supporting extractive economies (and the women who work in them) in more peri-urban and village projects even though extractive reserves are valuable ecologically and socially in the regional economy.

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2007

'Who Is the Macho Who Wants to Kill Me?’ Male Homosexuality, Revolutionary Masculinity, and the Brazilian Armed Struggle of the 1960s and 1970s

Citation:

Green, James N. 2012. "'Who Is the Macho Who Wants to Kill Me?' Male Homosexuality, Revolutionary Masculinity, and the Brazilian Armed Struggle of the 1960s and 1970s." Hispanic American Historical Review 92 (3): 437-69. doi:10.1215/00182168-1600288.

Author: James N. Green

Keywords: LGBT, homophobia, homosexuality, armed conflict, non-state actors, Brazil

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-State Armed Groups, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2012

Advances and Setbacks in Women’s Participation in Water Management in Brazil

Citation:

Ferreira Jacques de Moraes, Andrea. 2015. “Advances and Setbacks in Women’s Participation in Water Management in Brazil.” In A Political Ecology of Women, Water and Global Environmental Change, edited by Stephanie Buechler and Anne-Marie S. Hanson, 77–96. New York: Routledge.

Author: Andrea Ferreira Jacques de Moraes

Annotation:

The author analyzes the paradox of the importance of women in water management and their lack of resources and power to manage water, and the political and developmental projects that reinforce such gendered dimensions. Women’s participation in water management in the Brazilian semi-arid region is analyzed in this chapter. The One Million Cisterns program is cited, along with women’s participation in the National Council of Water Resources and Watershed Committees. A feminist political ecology approach identifies the paradox listed above, while providing insight on possible solutions to the gendered limitations to water resource management. 

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Ethnicity, Feminisms, Feminist Political Ecology, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2015

Coercive Harmony in Land Acquisition: The Gendered Impact of Corporate ‘Responsibility’ in the Brazilian Amazon

Citation:

Miyasaka Porro, Noemi, and Joaquim Shiraishi Neto. 2014. “Coercive Harmony in Land Acquisition: The Gendered Impact of Corporate ‘Responsibility’ in the Brazilian Amazon.” Feminist Economics 20 (1): 227–48. 

Authors: Noemi Miyasaka Porro, Joaquim Shiraishi Neto

Abstract:

In rural development, women’s access to land is recognized as a condition for reaching gender equality. This contribution discusses the tension between this formal recognition and concrete realities in rural development for traditional Amazonian communities by examining large-scale land acquisitions in Brazil, a land-abundant developing country, in the wake of the 2007–08 global food price crises. This study applies anthropological and legal perspectives to analyze problems related to gender inequality caused by large-scale land acquisitions. It argues that inequalities cannot be resolved by simply changing regulations related to traditional communities’ and women’s rights and that gender relations and land tenure issues reflect interconnected social arrangements based on historical specificities of traditional communities. Case studies show that land acquisitions by outsiders disrupt these arrangements, despite stated commitments to social and environmental responsibility. Such “coercive harmony” is only unmasked when communities are conscious of their rights, enabling effective use of the legal apparatus.

Keywords: gender, food security, land, development, Amazon

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Land Tenure, Land Grabbing, Multi-National Corporations, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights, Food Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2014

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