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Bolivia

Between Pachamama and Mother Earth: Gender, Political Ontology and the Rights of Nature in Contemporary Bolivia

Citation:

Tola, Miriam. 2018. "Between Pachamama and Mother Earth: Gender, Political Ontology and the Rights of Nature in Contemporary Bolivia." Feminist Review 118 (1): 25-40.

Author: Miriam Tola

Abstract:

Focusing on contemporary Bolivia, this article examines promises and pitfalls of political and legal initiatives that have turned Pachamama into a subject of rights. The conferral of rights on the indigenous earth being had the potential to unsettle the Western ontological distinction between active human subjects who engage in politics and passive natural resources. This essay, however, highlights some paradoxical effects of the rights of nature in Bolivia, where Evo Morales’ model of development relies on the intensification of the export-oriented extractive economy. Through the analysis of a range of texts, including paintings, legal documents, political speeches and activist interventions, I consider the equivocation between the normatively gendered Mother Earth that the state recognises as the subject of rights, and the figure of Pachamama evoked by feminist and indigenous activists. Pachamama, I suggest, has been incorporated into the Bolivian state as a being whose generative capacities have been translated into a rigid gender binary. As a gendered subject of rights, Pachamama/Mother Earth is exposed to governmental strategies that ultimately increase its subordination to state power. The concluding remarks foreground the import of feminist perspectives in yielding insights concerning political ontological conflicts.

Keywords: rights of nature, Pachamama, extractivism, decolonial feminism, indigenous political ontology, Bolivia

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2018

Land Tenure and Forest Rights of Rural and Indigenous Women in Latin America: Empirical Evidence

Citation:

Bose, Purabi. 2017. "Land Tenure and Forest Rights of Rural and Indigenous Women in Latin America: Empirical Evidence." Women's Studies International Forum 65: 1-8.

Author: Purabi Bose

Abstract:

Latin America's land-use and communal forests needs a better understanding through a lens of women. This research article aims to examine Latin America's secured individual land tenure legal reforms and communal rights in indigenous territories. Two empirical case studies are presented to assess the current dynamics of rural women's land title rights in coffee agroforestry under Colombia's new Formalización Propiedad Rural program, and indigenous Quechua women's communal forest land rights for indigenous foods like kañawa and quinoa farming in highland Bolivia. In doing so, it also gives an introduction to the five empirical research papers that are part of this Special Section edited by the author. The specific case studies are from the Brazilian Amazon, Bolivia's Gran Chaco area, Nicaragua's indigenous territories and two studies from Mexico – one from Oaxaca's central valley and the other is based on smallholder farming in Calakmul rural area. In conclusion, the author discusses the need to prioritise women's role in individual land rights and communal forest tenure in Latin American countries. 

Keywords: Latin America, communal forests, indigenous peoples, women, land tenure, food security, joint titling, Brazilian Amazon, Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua

Topics: Food Security, Gendered Power Relations, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Mexico, Nicaragua

Year: 2017

Women, Men, and the Legal Languages of Mining in the Colonial Andes

Citation:

Bigelow, Allison Margaret. 2016. “Women, Men, and the Legal Languages of Mining in the Colonial Andes.” Ethnohistory 63 (2): 351–80. doi:10.1215/00141801-3455347.

Author: Allison Margaret Bigelow

Abstract:

Histories of colonial Latin American mining have cemented the image of a scientifically backward society whose pursuit of easy wealth sacrificed the lives of indigenous and African miners in places like Potosí. By examining a mid-seventeenth-century mine dispute between an Andean woman and a Spanish man, this article suggests how legal archives can reveal indigenous women’s contributions to the history of colonial silver. It also provides an appendix with one hundred cases of indigenous, creole, and Spanish women miners, refiners, and managers in Alto Perú, 1559–1801, suggesting how women of different socioeconomic and technical backgrounds participated in the silver industry.

Keywords: colonial science, technical literacies, law, gender, Andes

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia, Peru

Year: 2016

Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005

Citation:

Mercier, L., and J. Gier-Viskovatoff. 2006. Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: L. Mercier, J. Gier-Viskovatoff

Abstract:

This book explores gender relations and women's work and activism in different parts of the world. It also explores the subject from multiple perspectives and links each of these not only to cultural and domestic arrangements but also to an emerging industrial and capitalist system from the Eighteenth through the Twentieth centuries. (Abstract from Palgrave Macmillan)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Mercier, Laurie et al.
 
2. Mining Women, Royal Slaves: Copper Mining in Colonial Cuba, 1670–1780
Díaz, María Elena
 
3. Making a Difference in Colonial Interventionism in Gold Mining in Wassa Fiase, Gold Coast (Ghana): The Activism of Two Women, 1874–1893
Akurang-Parry, Kwabena O.
 
4. Lifting the Layers of the Mountain’s Petticoats: Mining and Gender in Potosí’s Pachamama
Absi, Pascale
 
5. Kamins Building the Empire: Class, Caste, and Gender Interface in Indian Collieries
Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala
 
6. Sociability, Solidarity, and Social Exclusion: Women’s Activism in the South Wales Coalfield, ca. 1830 to 1939
Jones, Rosemary
 
7. Gender Relations in Iron Mining Communities in Sweden, 1900–1940
Blomberg, Eva
 
8. Invisible Labor: A Comparative Oral History of Women in Coal Mining Communities of Hokkaido, Japan, and Montana, USA, 1890–1940
Yoshida, Kayoko (et al.)
 
9. Coal Mining Women Speak Out: Economic Change and Women Miners of Chikuho, Japan
Sone, Sachiko
 
10. “I’m a Johnny Mitchell Man”: Gender and Labor Protest in the Pennsylvania Hard Coal Uprising, 1900–1902
Stepenoff, Bonnie
 
11. Violence and the Colorado National Guard: Masculinity, Race, Class, and Identity in the 1913–1914 Southern Colorado Coal Strike
DeStefanis, Anthony
 
12. “I Hate to Be Calling Her a Wife Now”: Women and Men in the Salt of the Earth Strike, 1950–1952
Baker, Ellen
 
13. Godless Communists and Faithful Wives, Gender Relations and the Cold War: Mine Mill and the 1958 Strike against the International Nickel Company
Steedman, Mercedes
 
14. Just a Housewife? Miners’ Wives between Household and Work in Postwar Germany
Jung, Yong-Sook
 
15. Women into Mining Jobs at Inco: Challenging the Gender Division of Labor
Keck, Jennifer (et al.)
 
16. From Ludlow to Camp Solidarity: Women, Men, and Cultures of Solidarity in U.S. Coal Communities, 1912–1990
Guerin-Gonzales, Camille
 
17. Epilogue
Gier, Jaclyn J.

Topics: Caste, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Bolivia, Cuba, Ghana, India, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2006

Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts

Citation:

Perez Fragoso, Lucia, and Corina Rodriguez Enriquez. 2016. “Western Hemisphere: A Survey of Gender Budgeting Efforts.” IMF Working Paper No. 16/153. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

Authors: Lucia Perez Fragoso, Corina Rodriguez Enriquez

Abstract:

Gender budgeting is an approach to fiscal policy and administration that integrates considerations of women's equality and advancement into the budget. Latin American countries have undertaken diverse gender budgeting initiatives, most of them addressing public expenditures. This paper surveys and assesses some key initiatives, including those in Mexico, Mexico City, Ecuador, Bolivia, and El Salvador, and briefly summarizes others. The five key initiatives offer different perspectives on how countries approach gender budgeting. We find that these initiatives are contributing to the reduction of gender inequality and the advancement of women in Latin America, though there is scope to strengthen them.

Keywords: gender budgeting, Fiscal Policy & Administration, Latin America, gender inequality

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico

Year: 2016

Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America

Citation:

Tsikata, Dzodzi, and Pamela Golah. 2010. Land Tenure, Gender and Globalization: Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia and Latin America. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Authors: Dzodzi Tsikata, Pamela Golah

Abstract:

Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it. A central theme is the people's resistance to global forces, frequently through an insistence on the uniqueness of their livelihoods." "For instance, in the Amazon, the focus is on the social movements that have emerged in the context of struggles over land rights concerning the extraction of Brazil nuts and babatu kernels in an increasingly globalised market. In Viet Nam, the process of 'de-collectivising' rights to land is examined with a view to understanding ho* gender and other social differences are reworked in a market economy." "The book addresses a gap in the literature on land tenure and gender in developing countries. It raises new questions about the process of globalisation, particularly about who the actors are (local people, the state, NGOs, multinational companies) and the shifting relations amongst them. The book also challenges the very concepts of gender, land and globalisation. (Abstract from WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Dzodzi Tsikata 
 
2. Gender, Land Tenure and Globalisation: Exploring the Conceptual Ground
 Fiona D. Mackenzie 
 
3. Gender, Globalisation and Land Tenure: Methodological Challenges and Insights
Allison Goebel
 
4. Economic Liberalisation, Changing Resource Tenures and Gendered Livelihoods: A Study of Small-Scale Gold Mining and Mangrove Exploitation in Rural Ghana
Mariama Awumbila and Dzodzi Tsikata 
 
5. The Politics of Gender, Land and Compensation in Communities Traversed by the Chad- Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project in Cameroon
Joyce B.M. Endeley
 
6. Facing Globalisation: Gender and Land at Stake in the Amazonian Forests of Bolivia, Brazil and Peru 
Noemi Miyasaka Porro, Luciene Dias Figueiredo, Elda Vera Gonzalez, Sissy Bello Nakashima and Alfredo Wagner B. de Almeida 
 
7. Gender, Kinship and Agrarian Transitions in Vietnam 
Steffanie Scott, Danièle Bélanger, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, and Khuat Thu Hong 
 
8. Conclusion: For a Politics of Difference
Noemi Miyasaka Porro

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Globalization, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, Peru, Vietnam

Year: 2010

States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America

Citation:

Piscopo, Jennifer M. 2015. “States as Gender Equality Activists: The Evolution of Quota Laws in Latin America.” Latin American Politics and Society 57 (3): 27–49. doi:10.1111/j.1548-2456.2015.00278.x.

Author: Jennifer M. Piscopo

Abstract:

This article examines two decades of strengthening, expansion, and diffusion of gender quota laws in Latin America. The analysis departs from studies of quotas’ adoption, numerical effectiveness, or policy impacts, instead focusing on states’ use of coercive power to integrate women into public and private institutions. Viewing these policies in light of feminist theories of the poststructuralist state reveals how state institutions act to restructure government and promote gender equality. In building this argument, the article presents an up-to-date empirical survey and conceptual understanding of quota evolution in Latin America, including recent developments in countries such as Chile, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Uruguay.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Quotas Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, South America Countries: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay

Year: 2015

Women’s Spaces, Gender Mainstreaming, and Development Priorities: Popular Participation as Gendered Work in Rural Bolivia

Citation:

Hippert, Christine. 2011. “Women’s Spaces, Gender Mainstreaming, and Development Priorities: Popular Participation as Gendered Work in Rural Bolivia.” Women’s Studies International Forum 34 (6): 498–508. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.07.004.

Author: Christine Hippert

Abstract:

This paper examines Bolivian popular participation as a gendered process. By comparing and contrasting ethnographic examples of development work in a rural community, this article examines participation in its cultural context and engages indigenous conceptions of participation, gender, and development. Contrary to research and popular assumptions, this study demonstrates that women are extremely visible in development contexts. But poor rural women appeal to more holistic understandings of development that are predicated upon the understanding of women's roles as wives and partners in relationships with poor, indigenous men — another vulnerable, but untargeted, group. In order to foster inclusion, collaboration, and engagement in popular participation, women attempt to both maintain conventional gender norms at the same time that they struggle to transform them. This case study shows that development work is identity work, or the negotiation of varied perceptions of appropriate gendered identities to successfully target groups for development attention or funding. Because of its inattention to the intersectionality of class, ethnicity, and gender and how these positionalities are negotiated in development work, gender mainstreaming has had little effect on rural women's lives except to overburden them.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2011

Solidarity Economy for Development and Women's Emancipation: Lessons from Bolivia

Citation:

Hillenkamp, Isabelle. 2015. “Solidarity Economy for Development and Women’s Emancipation: Lessons from Bolivia.” Development and Change 46 (5): 1133–58. doi:10.1111/dech.12193.

Author: Isabelle Hillenkamp

Abstract:

This article critically assesses the relationship between the solidarity economy (SE) and women's emancipation through a case study of SE groups in El Alto, Bolivia. It highlights the fact that the failure to harness the potential of SE as a development alternative and as a means for the emancipation of women can partly be attributed to the neglect of gender-related issues in the study of SE. Following an examination of SE in the Bolivian context of class and ethnicity, the article deepens the analysis by focusing on gender. It shows that the significant participation of women in SE is a response to the double imperative imposed by the current processes of monetization of production and home-based reproduction. Compared with their insertion into the market individually, participation in SE allows women to increase and smooth their income. In general, however, their income remains lower than that of men and also below the poverty line. This reflects a continuing gender asymmetry and points to the limitations to what solidarity among poor women can achieve. The article concludes with an assessment of the possibilities as well as the difficulties inherent in a new pathway to women's emancipation through SE, a pathway which would necessitate a reorganization of the social sphere of reproduction.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 2015

Development Alternatives

Citation:

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 2015. “Development Alternatives.” Development and Change 46 (4): 855–74. doi:10.1111/dech.12179.

Author: Sarah A. Radcliffe

Abstract:

Development alternatives arguably emerge out of practices, negotiations and critiques of dominant development narratives and paradigms. Critical Development Studies’ (CDS) practices of insightful critique and a willingness to challenge hegemonic paradigms are alive and well. Yet this article argues that CDS could fruitfully pay attention to emergent issues that have yet to receive sustained analysis and critique. The article focuses on three very different registers of development futures: evolutionary and resilience-base thinking; post-neoliberal experiments in Latin America; and the challenge of social heterogeneity. After summarizing the issues involved with respect to each topic, the article suggests some aspects that require further research and debate.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, Venezuela

Year: 2015

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