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Bangladesh

Land Asset and Food Insecurity in Gender-Segregated Rural Households in Bangladesh

Citation:

Animashaun, J. 2018. “Land Asset and Food Insecurity in Gender-Segregated Rural Households in Bangladesh.” Paper presented at 30th International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Vancouver, British Columbia, July 28-August 2.

Author: J. Animashaun

Abstract:

We explore the contributory role of land assets in explaining the dynamics of gender-segregated rural households food expenditure in Bangladesh. We apply both panel random and fixed effect OLS and quantile regression models on segregated households data for the periods 1991 and 1998. Results offer useful insights on the dynamics and determinants of food security and conclude with policy recommendations for land reform that would recognise the vulnerable members of both genders headed households in rural areas.

Keywords: land ownership and tenure, land reform, food security

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Households, Land Tenure, Security, Food Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2018

Impact of Flood-Induced Migration on Livelihood and Gender Relations: A Study on Chulmari, Kurigram

Citation:

Chowdhury, Mahabub, and Marjina Masud. 2020. “Impact of Flood-Induced Migration on Livelihood and Gender Relations: A Study on Chulmari, Kurigram.” International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology 5 (5): 1–7.

Authors: Mahabub Chowdhury, Marjina Masud

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of flood induced migration on people’s livelihood and gender relations within households. Kurigram is the severely poverty affected and one of the most disaster prone districts of Bangladesh. Different studies show that people of this district face disasters like flood, river bank erosion, extreme cold and cyclones every year. Chilmari (a sub-district of Kurigram) is known as one of the most flood affected areas of the district. To escape the adverse impact of flood, people use to migrate both permanently and temporarily to nearby and far cities and towns in search of livelihood. Using qualitative research techniques including semi-structured interview, focus group discussion, informal group discussion, conversational exchange and case study method, this study revealed that people migrate permanently and temporarily to escape flood in search of alternative livelihood which has an impact on their livelihood such as a rise in income and alternative earning source during flood and gender relations such as changed role of men and women, women’s access to decision making and their mobility compare to the male counterparts as well. The findings of this study will help the policy makers, development experts and concerned stakeholders to understand the insights and act accordingly.

Keywords: flood, gender relations, livelihood, migration

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Climate Displacement, Migration, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2020

Adapting the Built Environment: The Role of Gender in Shaping Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Extremes in Dhaka

Citation:

Jabeen, Huraera. 2014. “Adapting the Built Environment: The Role of Gender in Shaping Vulnerability and Resilience to Climate Extremes in Dhaka.” Environment & Urbanization 26 (1): 147–65.

Author: Huraera Jabeen

Abstract:

The relationship between the built environment and vulnerability and resilience is a little-studied area of research and demands an exploration of constraints and windows of opportunity. Given gender roles and the division of labour between women and men within urban poor households, the impacts of climate extremes are likely to be gendered. But conceptualizing gender only in terms of the vulnerability of women can mean overlooking the complex and intersecting power relations that marginalize women and men differently. These power relations are manifested in spatial practices, while spatial relations are manifested in the construction of gender. Thus, the power to make decisions in the built environment based on gender roles, and the nature of gender subordination, rights and entitlements contribute significantly to the capacity to adapt to climate extremes. 

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2014

Mothers, Mercenaries and Mediators: Women Providing Answers to the Questions We Forgot to Ask

Citation:

Henty, Pip, and Beth Eggleston. 2018. “Mothers, Mercenaries and Mediators: Women Providing Answers to the Questions We Forgot to Ask.” Security Challenges 14(2): 106-23.

 

Authors: Pip Henty, Beth Eggleston

Abstract:

Current initiatives in countering violent extremism (CVE) often see women excluded or marginalised from the development, implementation and evaluation of these efforts. From informal grassroots levels to formal government platforms, women’s participation and perspectives in CVE continue to be absent or minimal. This paper analyses the role women can play in CVE, including leveraging global frameworks such as the Women, Peace and Security agenda. In providing case studies of Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Tajikistan, this paper seeks to elaborate on and promote women’s engagement for more effective CVE outcomes.

 

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Peace and Security, Terrorism, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Tajikistan

Year: 2018

Gender-Based Vulnerability: Combining Pareto Ranking and Spatial Statistics to Model Gender-Based Vulnerability in Rohingya Refugee Settlements in Bangladesh

Citation:

Nelson, Erica L., Daniela Reyes Saade, and P. Gregg Greenough. 2020. “Gender-Based Vulnerability: Combining Pareto Ranking and Spatial Statistics to Model Gender-Based Vulnerability in Rohingya Refugee Settlements in Bangladesh.” International Journal of Health Geographics 19 (1): 1–14.

Authors: Erica L. Nelson, Daniela Reyes Saade, P. Gregg Greenough

Abstract:

Background: The Rohingya refugee crisis in Bangladesh continues to outstrip humanitarian resources and undermine the health and security of over 900,000 people. Spatial, sector-specific information is required to better understand the needs of vulnerable populations, such as women and girls, and to target interventions with improved efficiency and effectiveness. This study aimed to create a gender-based vulnerability index and explore the geospatial and thematic variations in gender-based vulnerability of Rohingya refugees residing in Bangladesh by utilizing preexisting, open source data.

Methods: Data sources included remotely-sensed REACH data on humanitarian infrastructure, United Nations Population Fund resource availability data, and the Needs and Population Monitoring Survey conducted by the International Organization for Migration in October 2017. Data gaps were addressed through probabilistic interpolation. A vulnerability index was designed through a process of literature review, variable selection and thematic grouping, normalization, and scorecard creation, and Pareto ranking was employed to rank sites based on vulnerability scoring. Spatial autocorrelation of vulnerability was analyzed with the Global and Anselin Local Moran’s I applied to both combined vulnerability index rank and disaggregated thematic ranking.

Results: Of the settlements, 24.1% were ranked as ‘most vulnerable,’ with 30 highly vulnerable clusters identified predominantly in the northwest region of metropolitan Cox’s Bazar. Five settlements in Dhokkin, Somitapara, and Pahartoli were categorized as less vulnerable outliers amongst highly vulnerable neighboring sites. Security- and health-related variables appear to be the most significant drivers of gender-specific vulnerability in Cox’s Bazar. Clusters of low security and education vulnerability measures are shown near Kutupalong.

Conclusion: The humanitarian sector produces tremendous amounts of data that can be analyzed with spatial statistics to improve research targeting and programmatic intervention. The critical utilization of these data and the validation of vulnerability indexes are required to improve the international response to the global refugee crisis. This study presents a novel methodology that can be utilized to not only spatially characterize gender-based vulnerability in refugee populations, but can also be calibrated to identify and serve other vulnerable populations during crises.

Keywords: Rohingya, refugees, gender, open-source data, vulnerability index, spatial analysis, GIS, Pareto ranking, spatial autocorrelation

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Health, Humanitarian Assistance, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Myanmar

Year: 2020

Case-Study: Battery-Operated Lamps Produced by Rural Women in Bangladesh

Citation:

Khan, Hasna J. 2003. “Case-Study: Battery-Operated Lamps Produced by Rural Women in Bangladesh.” Energy for Sustainable Development 7 (3): 68–70.

Author: Hasna J. Khan

Annotation:

Summary:
“Through consultations with community members and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) about energy needs in an area of remote islands outside the reach of the grid, electric lighting was identified as a high priority. The project identified a low-cost solution for improving the quality of indoor lighting of rural households by replacing the traditional kerosene lamps with modern battery-operated lamps. The project trained rural women to produce the lamps in a micro-enterprise manufacturing facility and distribute them through rural markets. By helping women shift away from traditional farm labour to skilled labour and gainful employment in the energy sector, the project has elevated the knowledge base of rural women and exposed them to mainstream commercial activities, while also meeting community needs for lighting” (Khan 2003, 68).

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Energy, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2003

Women, Conflict and Conflict Reporting: The Deeply Gendered Discourse on the Rohingya Crisis in the News Websites in India

Citation:

Malaviya, Ritambhara. 2020. "Women, Conflict and Conflict Reporting: The Deeply Gendered Discourse on the Rohingya Crisis in the News Websites in India." In Citizenship, Nationalism and Refugeehood of Rohingyas in Southern Asia, edited by Nasreen Chowdhory and Biswajit Mohanty, 171-88. Singapore: Springer, Singapore.

Author: Ritambhara Malaviya

Abstract:

History shows how female bodies have been the site of contestation in violent conflicts across the world. There are innumerable instances of the use of rape as a systematic weapon for proving the superiority of one’s own race during conflicts, for instance, during the Bosnian crisis, or even earlier during the 1971 war of independence of Bangladesh. While conflicts impact women and children especially because of their vulnerability, the very understanding of why and how the conflict happened is deeply gendered. The Rohingya crisis is a case in point. This chapter attempts to understand the gendered discourse underpinning the discussion on the Rohingya crisis in India through a study of some major news websites in India. As per the framework used by Galtung (The Missing Journalism on Conflict and Peace and the Middle East, 2005), news reporting in India on the Rohingya is split into two camps, the war/victory-oriented journalism and the alternative peace-oriented approach. This chapter notes that while war journalism draws upon concepts which are masculinist, the softer peace journalism resembles the approach of feminists towards conflicts and cooperation. Feminism has analysed how the categories like state, sovereignty, security and militarization are deeply gendered. The patterns of reporting, however, are seen to follow the mainstream masculinist framework. These masculinist lenses are seldom questioned, and how power operates through these categories is rarely the subject of reporting. Therefore, through a careful study of the news portals, the chapter tries to understand how the discourse on the Rohingya encompasses within it gendered stereotypes and power equations.

Keywords: Rohingya, gender, power, control, state, conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Media, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, India

Year: 2020

Linkages Between Women and Energy Sector in Bangladesh

Citation:

Amin, Sakib Bin, and Saanjaana Rahman. 2019. “Linkages Between Women and Energy Sector in Bangladesh.” In Energy Resources in Bangladesh: Trends and Contemporary Issues, 89–92. Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Authors: Sakib Bin Amin, Saanjaana Rahman

Abstract:

Energy and women can be interrelated in many ways. The nature of the energy resource base, the features of the household, the effectiveness of energy policy and the position of women in the households can affect the relationship between energy and women. Women are usually deprived in Bangladesh regarding ownership and access to land, natural resources, credit, information and decision-making, at all levels. The energy industry is one of the most gender imbalanced sectors across the world. This hinders the development process of the developing and transition countries. Since the goal of Bangladesh government is to ensure everyone has access to sustainable energy, it is important for policymakers to understand the crucial and vital connection between gender and sustainable energy. To bridge the gender knowledge gap of macro energy projects, an initiative needs to be taken to unite mitigation practitioners to share optimum practices and insights into mainstreaming gender in the renewable energy sector. Incorporating gender perspectives into energy projects, policy and planning are essential to ensuring their effectiveness.

Keywords: gender, women, rural, Bangladesh, development, cooking, renewable, policy, energy

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

When the Disaster Strikes: Gendered (Im)mobility in Bangladesh

Citation:

Ayeb-Karlsson, Sonja. 2020. "When the Disaster Strikes: Gendered (Im)mobility in Bangladesh." Climate Risk Management 29.

Author: Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson

Abstract:

Gender influences people’s behaviour in various ways. This study investigates gendered (im) mobility during cyclone strikes in Bangladesh. During such strikes people have described being unable to move away from environmentally high-risk locations and situations. The Q-based Discourse Analysis used by this study shows how and why gender-roles (im)mobilised people in three coastal locations during the cyclones. People (and especially women) explained that failing to evacuate to the cyclone shelters when a disaster strikes was not uncommon. Gender, or feminine and masculine social roles, played a significant role in these evacuation decisions while facilitating or constraining their mobility. The gendered subjectivities presented different accepted social behaviours and spaces for women and men. In this way, immobility (social, psychological, and geographical) was strongly gendered. Masculine roles were expected to be brave and protective, while female ‘mobility’ could be risky. Women’s mobility therefore ended up being constrained to the home. In other words, when the disaster strikes, everyone did not have the same ability to move. These empirical insights are important to inform climate policy in a way that it better supports vulnerable populations worldwide as they confront global environmental changes today and in the future.

Keywords: disaster, (im)mobility, non-evacuation behaviour, trapped populations

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2020

Post-Disaster Recovery in the Cyclone Aila Affected Coastline of Bangladesh: Women's Role, Challenges and Opportunities

Citation:

Alam, Khurshed, and Md. Habibur Rahman. 2019. "Post-Disaster Recovery in the Cyclone Aila Affected Coastline of Bangladesh: Women's Role, Challenges and Opportunities." Natural Hazards 96: 1067-90.

Authors: Khurshed Alam, Md. Habibur Rahman

Abstract:

The present study deals with the gender aspects of water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) situation in post-cyclone Aila period in Bangladesh. Data were collected using participatory approaches like individual interview, key informant interview, focus group discussion and field level observation. Study reveals that after Aila, women had to travel 500 m–2 km per day to fetch water from safe water sources spending 30–90 min. People used pit and hanging latrines, uncovered water framed latrines as well as had open defecation. Considering the impromptu needs, government and other aid-giving agencies focused on immediate WaSH programme. The paper is an outcome of a critical assessment of those arduous efforts made to overcome the WaSH challenges after Aila, particularly women’s role in and challenges faced by them to improving the situation. Also attempt has been made to examine the opportunities and challenges of sustainability of WaSH programme pursued in the post-disaster period. For recovery of the WaSH system, a two-part strategy was followed where one was to make technology (tubewell, pond and filter, saline purification and rainwater harvesting plants) that supporting social arrangement and another was social arrangement (group formation, capacity building on construction, operation and maintenance) that supporting technology. A techno-social contingent model has been followed for addressing the post-disaster WaSH situation following a WasH approach. Women’s these roles in meeting the households’ WaSH requirements might be called WaSH-feminism. The main finding is that although there was a technical challenge to overcome the water and sanitation crises, after the disaster a set of appropriate technologies could remove it considerably, but a corresponding social arrangement was required there to operate it. Many kinds of technical and social limiting factors were there for women that could be removed partly but not totally.

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

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