Budgets as if People Mattered: Democratizing Macroeconomic Policies


Çağatay, Nilüfer, Mümtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal, and James Lang. 2000. “Budgets as if People Mattered: Democratizing Macroeconomic Policies.” SEPED Conference Paper Series, UNDP, New York.

Authors: Nilüfer Çağatay, Mümtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal, James Lang


This UNDP conference paper, published in May 2000 by Nilufer Cagatay, Mumtaz Keklik, Radhika Lal and James Lang, provides a contextual framework for budget initiatives and discusses how much progress has been made towards achieving the commitments declared in Copenhagen and Beijing. The paper makes a case for rethinking macroeconomics such that social policy becomes a constitutive element of macroeconomics. The authors further discuss the need for and role of people-centered budgets, pro-poor and gender-sensitive budgets. The lessons learned from these initiatives are brought forth as well as recommendations for future budget exercises. (Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Philippines, South Africa

Year: 2000

Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice


Budlender, Debbie, and Guy Hewitt. 2002. Gender Budgets Make More Cents: Country Studies and Good Practice. London, UK: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Authors: Debbie Budlender, Guy Hewitt


This Commonwealth Secretariat publication by Debbie Budlender and Guy Hewitt (2002), documents "good practice" in gender budget work from across the globe. Practitioners share their first-hand experiences and in-depth knowledge of the why, where and how of gender responsive budget (GRB) initiatives. They reflect on both the challenges and successes of initiatives in the Andean region, Australia, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Rwanda, Scotland, South Africa and the UK. A chapter on the Commonwealth Secretariat's involvement in developing and implementing GRB initiatives is also included to suggest the role that can be played by external agencies at the national, regional and international level.

This book builds on a previous publication, Gender Budgets Make Cents, which was designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of GRB initiatives. It described the conceptual framework, evolution of the work and lessons learned, and provided brief summaries of country initiatives. Together, these titles show the importance of integrating a gender perspective into budgetary policies to promote equality between women and men. 

(Abstract from UN Women)

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, North America, Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Mexico, Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, South Korea, United Kingdom

Year: 2002

Gender-Responsive Budgeting


Khan, Zohra. 2015. “Gender-Responsive Budgeting.” In The Oxford Handbook of Transnational Feminist Movements, edited by Rawwida Baksh and Wendy Harcourt, 485-506. New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199943494.013.022. 

Author: Zohra Khan


This chapter situates gender-responsive budgeting, or GRB, within the debates and research in feminist economics and analysis of macroeconomics, poverty and inequality. It traces the origins of GRB back to seminal experiences in Australia and South Africa that laid the foundation for more recent practice in countries including Ecuador, Morocco and Nepal. It looks at the actors, strategic alliances and partnerships that have supported the mushrooming of GRB around the world to show that one of the main strengths of this work is the transitional networking and coming together of feminists, inside and outside bureaucracies, in support of more and better resources for women. Charting the journey of GRB, it illustrates that where it has succeeded, it has resulted in better alignment between policy commitments and financing for gender equality. Some of main critiques of GRB are addressed and important questions about the future of this work are considered.

Keywords: gender-responsive budgeting, GRB, feminist economics, poverty inequality, women's organization, national women's machinery

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Oceania Countries: Australia, Ecuador, Morocco, Nepal, South Africa

Year: 2015

Refugees, Race, and Gender: The Multiple Discrimination against Refugee Women


Pittaway, Eileen, and Linda Bartolomei. 2001. “Refugees, Race, and Gender: The Multiple Discrimination against Refugee Women.” Refuge 19 (6): 21-32.

Authors: Eileen Pittaway, Linda Bartolomei


This paper examines the intersectionality of race and gender in refugee situations, and the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by refugee women. It explores the notion of racism as a root cause of refugee generation, and the gendered nature of the refugee experience. The manner in which racism and sexism intersect to compound the human rights violations that refugee women experience is explored in the treatment of sexual violence in international and domestic law and policy; during armed conflict; in refugee camps; in countries of first asylum; and in countries of resettlement. Using a case study of one strand of refugee policy in Australia, it illustrates the impact of this discrimination on refugee women. The forthcoming World Conference against Racism offers a unique opportunity for this phenomenon to be addressed by the international community.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, International Law, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), International Organizations, Race, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against Women, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2001

‘Add women and stir’: the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands and Australia’s implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325


Westendorf, Jasmine-Kim. 2013. “‘Add women and stir’: the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands and Australia’s implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.” Australian Journal of International Affairs
 67 (4): 456-74.

Author: Jasmine-Kim Westendorf


With the changing nature of warfare and the increasing awareness of the specific gender dimensions of war and peace, the international legal framework has been expanded to address the particular challenges faced by women in conflict and post-conflict contexts. This process culminated in 2000 with the first United Nations document to explicitly address the role and needs of women in peace processes: United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on women, peace and security. Thirteen years on, this article assesses the extent to which Australia’s stated commitment to women, peace and security principles at the level of the international norm has translated into meaningful action on the ground in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). The analysis shows that despite it being an ideal context for a mission informed by UNSCR 1325, and Australia being strongly committed to the resolution’s principles and implementation, the mission did not unfold in a manner that fulfilled Australia’s obligations under UNSCR 1325. The RAMSI case highlights the difficulty in getting new security issues afforded adequate attention in the traditional security sphere, suggesting that while an overarching policy framework would be beneficial, it may not address all the challenges inherent in implementing resolutions such as UNSCR 1325.

Keywords: conflict, Gender, peace-building, peace process, strategic studies

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia, Solomon Islands

Year: 2013

Feminist theory, globalization and comparative labour law: women workers in Australia and Ireland


Jamieson, Suzanne. 2004. “Feminist theory, globalization and comparative labour law: women workers in Australia and Ireland.” International Journal of Human Resource Management 15 (3): 459-65.

Author: Suzanne Jamieson


This project has sought to evaluate the contextual differences between Australia and Ireland in the way in which the equal pay and EEO legislation have impacted on working women while using a variety of traditional and critical legal methodological approaches within an overtly feminist theoretical framework. Law continues to hold out hope while delivering limited returns. 


Keywords: women, Gender, Labour law, Australia, Ireland, feminist theory, globalization

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Globalization Regions: Europe, Western Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Ireland

Year: 2004

Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law


Dauvergne, Catherine, and Jenni Millbank. 2010. “Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law.” The Modern Law Review 73 (1): 57–88.

Authors: Catherine Dauvergne, Jenni Millbank


This article reports on our analysis of 120 refugee cases from Australia, Canada, and Britain where an actual or threatened forced marriage was part of the claim for protection. We found that forced marriage was rarely considered by refugee decision makers to be a harm in and of itself. This finding contributes to understanding how gender and sexuality are analysed within refugee law, because the harm of forced marriage is experienced differently by lesbians, gay men and heterosexual women. We contrast our findings in the refugee case law with domestic initiatives in Europe aimed at protecting nationals from forced marriages both within Europe and elsewhere. We pay particular attention to British initiatives because they are in many ways the most far-reaching and innovative, and thus the contrast with the response of British refugee law is all the more stark.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, International Law, Sexual Violence, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Northern Europe, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada, United Kingdom

Year: 2010

The Impact of Mining on Women: Lessons from the Coal Mining Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia


Sharma, Sanjay. 2010. “The Impact of Mining on Women: Lessons from the Coal Mining Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia.” Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal 28 (3): 201–15.

Author: Sanjay Sharma


The select indicators of gender equity from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Census 2006 reveal that women of the mining towns of the Bowen Basin region of central Queensland are at a substantial social and economic disadvantage to men. Through a review of select social science literature on mining communities the paper examines work, family and community structures and processes that promote and sustain patriarchy in mining communities and within households that could negatively influence mental health and relationship wellbeing of women in mining towns. This is a relatively neglected field of inquiry in the social impact assessment processes of large-scale mining in Australia. The paper suggests areas of research and policy initiatives to enhance women’s economic self-sufficiency, gender equality and wellbeing.

Keywords: SIA, mining towns, status of women, Bowen Basin, patriarchy, role overload

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance, Health, Mental Health, Households, Livelihoods Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2010

Women’s Absence, Women’s Power: Indigenous Women and Negotiations with Mining Companies in Australia and Canada


O’Faircheallaigh, Ciaran. 2013. “Women’s Absence, Women’s Power: Indigenous Women and Negotiations with Mining Companies in Australia and Canada.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 36 (11): 1789–807.

Author: Ciaran O'Faircheallaigh


This article documents the agency of indigenous women in negotiations surrounding major resource projects on indigenous lands. The dominant view in the academic and activist literature is that indigenous women are excluded from negotiations, which helps explain their failure to share in project benefits. The author’s experience as a negotiator for indigenous communities in Australia and his research in Canada reveals a different picture, indicating that indigenous women often play a central role in negotiations. The article seeks to explain the inconsistency between the findings reported here and much of the literature, in terms of a broader tendency in the latter to downplay the agency of women in relation to mining; and its failure to adequately recognize the multiple and complex ways in which indigenous women can influence negotiations, and the role of specific cultural, institutional and political contexts in shaping women’s participation.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, aboriginal, power, land rights, mining

Topics: Economies, Ethnicity, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Indigenous, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, North America, Oceania Countries: Australia, Canada

Year: 2013

On Australia’s Doorstep: Gold, Rape, and Injustice


Knuckey, Sarah. 2013. “On Australia’s Doorstep: Gold, Rape, and Injustice.” The Medical Journal of Australia 199 (3): 1.

Author: Sarah Knuckey



"Many Australians, like others in Western countries that are home to the world’s largest mining companies, benefit economically from extractive industries. We want mine operations to be socially and environmentally responsible, and we expect our governments to fairly regulate corporate activity to prevent or mitigate harm.

But some communities in Papua New Guinea bear the brunt of poorly regulated extractives projects, carried out with insufficient attention to their social impacts. When things go wrong, harms can be compounded by justice and health care systems ill equipped to respond effectively. Australian health professionals have expertise in many of the problems facing those living near PNG mines, and could have much to offer, working in partnership with local communities."

(Knuckey, 2013, p. 1).

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Governance, Health, Justice, Multi-National Corporations, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia, Papua New Guinea

Year: 2013


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