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Argentina

Gender Equity in the Argentine Tax System: An Estimation of Tax Burdens by Household Type

Citation:

Rossignolo, Dario. 2018. “Gender Equity in the Argentine Tax System: An Estimation of Tax Burdens by Household Type.” CEPAL Review, no. 124: 177-202.

Author: Dario Rossignolo

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the gender dimension into the analysis of tax incidence in Argentina. To that end, the impact of direct and indirect taxes on income and distribution by gender is calculated to establish the progressivity of taxes and the effects on gender equity when household classifications are analysed. The findings show that while the tax system is moderately progressive and the heaviest burden falls on households with male breadwinners, differences emerge when the impact of indirect and direct taxes is considered separately. The indirect tax system is heavily regressive and female-breadwinner households bear the largest burden, since they are concentrated in the lower income brackets. Households with children bear the highest direct tax burden, particularly male-breadwinner and dual-earner households. 

Keywords: Fiscal policy, gender, households, income, gender equality, Argentina, taxation

Topics: Economies, Public Finance, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Households Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina

Year: 2018

Irrigation and Equality: An Integrative Gender-Analytical Approach to Water Governance with Examples from Ethiopia and Argentina

Citation:

Imburgia, Laura. 2019. “Irrigation and Equality: An Integrative Gender-Analytical Approach to Water Governance with Examples from Ethiopia and Argentina.” Water Alternatives 12 (2): 571-87.

Author: Laura Imburgia

Abstract:

This paper proposes the use of an integrative framework for better conceptualisation and operationalisation of research geared toward understanding irrigation systems, practices and processes, especially as relates to gender equality in water governance. More specifically, it discusses the importance of developing an integrative gender-analytical approach that enables both researchers and practitioners to analyse the complex interactions between technical and social dimensions of water governance, in order to determine how they contribute to, and thus effect, the overall success and sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Consequently, this paper provides a detailed account of the framework’s key components; including how it is informed by feminist, ecological and sociological theories. There is also an account of the framework’s practical application through a focus on specific outcomes in the dynamic field of water governance. To this end, the paper presents some results derived from an application of the integrative gender-analytical framework on data from a comparative study of small-scale irrigation systems in Ethiopia and Argentina. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to promote a more nuanced and holistic approach to the study of water governance—one that takes both social and technical dimensions into similar account; particularly, if the aim is to promote broader social equality and the sustainability of irrigation systems.

Keywords: small-scale irrigation, gender-analytical framework, water governance, social relations, ethiopia, Argentina

Topics: Agriculture, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Ethiopia

Year: 2019

Justice and Reparation Policies in Peru and Argentina: Toward the Delegitimization of Sexual Violence?

Citation:

Henriquez, Narda, and Rosario Figari Layus. 2018. "Justice and Reparation Policies in Peru and Argentina: Toward the Delegitimization of Sexual Violence?" In Gender in Human Rights and Transitional Justice, edited by John Idriss Lahai and Khanyisela Moyo, 207-37. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Narda Henriquez, Rosario Figari Layus

Abstract:

The chapter analyzes the role of trials for crimes against humanity and reparation policies in the treatment of sexualized violence, in which they are systematically used as a disciplinary political resource within political violence scenarios such as the internal armed conflict in Peru and the military dictatorship in Argentina.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, Reparations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Peru

Year: 2018

Gender in Human Rights and Transitional Justice

Citation:

Lahai, John Idris, and Khanyisela Moyo, ed. 2018. Gender in Human Rights and Transitional Justice. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: John Idriss Lahai, Khanyisela Moyo

Annotation:

Summary:
This volume counters one-sided dominant discursive representations of gender in human rights and transitional justice, and women’s place in the transformations of neoliberal human rights, and contributes a more balanced examination of how transitional justice and human rights institutions, and political institutions impact the lives and experiences of women. Using a multidisciplinary approach, the contributors to this volume theorize and historicize the place of women’s rights (and gender), situating it within contemporary country-specific political, legal, socio-cultural and global contexts. Chapters examine the progress and challenges facing women (and women’s groups) in transitioning countries: from Peru to Argentina, from Kenya to Sierra Leone, and from Bosnia to Sri Lanka, in a variety of contexts, attending especially to the relationships between local and global forces. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillan)

Table of Contents:

1. Gender in Human Rights and Transitional Justice

2. Feminism during Social and Political Repression in Egypt: Making or Breaking Resistance Through Legal Activism

3. Power, Prejudice and Transitional Constitution-Making In Kenya: The Gender of Law and Religious Politics in Reproductive Choice

4. Civil Society and the Regulation of Laws Against Gender Violence in Timor-Leste

5. Addressing Violence Against Women Through Legislative Reform In States Transitioning From The Arab Spring

6. Human Rights Frameworks and Women’s Rights In Post-Transitional Justice Sierra Leone

7. Engendering Justice: The Promotion of Women in Post-Conflict and Post-Transitional Criminal Justice Institutions

8. Justice and Reparations Policies in Peru and Argentine: Towards The De-legitimization of Sexual Violence

9. Women Between War Scylla and Nationalist Charybdis: Legal Interpretations of Sexual Violence in Countries of Former Yugoslavia.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Gender-Based Violence, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, East Africa, North Africa, West Africa, Americas, South America, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Balkans, Oceania Countries: Argentina, Egypt, Kenya, Peru, Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2018

Feminist Political Ecology and the Economics of Care: In Search of Economic Alternatives

Citation:

Bauhardt, Christine, and Wendy Harcourt, eds. 2018. Feminist Political Ecology and the Economics of Care: In Search of Economic Alternatives. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Christine Bauhardt, Wendy Harcourt

Annotation:

Summary:
This book envisages a different form of our economies where care work and care-full relationships are central to social and cultural life. It sets out a feminist vision of a caring economy and asks what needs to change economically and ecologically in our conceptual approaches and our daily lives as we learn to care for each other and non-human others.
 
Bringing together authors from 11 countries (also representing institutions from 8 countries), this edited collection sets out the challenges for gender aware economies based on an ethics of care for people and the environment in an original and engaging way. The book aims to break down the assumed inseparability of economic growth and social prosperity, and natural resource exploitation, while not romanticising social-material relations to nature. The authors explore diverse understandings of care through a range of analytical approaches, contexts and case studies and pays particular attention to the complicated nexus between re/productivity, nature, womanhood and care. It includes strong contributions on community economies, everyday practices of care, the politics of place and care of non-human others, as well as an engagement on concepts such as wealth, sustainability, food sovereignty, body politics, naturecultures and technoscience.
 
Feminist Political Ecology and the Economics of Care is aimed at all those interested in what feminist theory and practice brings to today’s major political economic and environmental debates around sustainability, alternatives to economic development and gender power relations. (Summary from Routledge)

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction: Conversations on Care in Feminist Political Economy and Ecology
Wendy Harcourt and Christine Bauhardt
 
2. Nature, Care and Gender: Feminist Dilemmas
Christine Bauhardt 
 
3. White Settler Colonial Scientific Fabulations on Otherwise Narratives of Care
Wendy Harcourt 
 
4. Environmental Feminisms: A Story of Different Encounters
Karijn Van Den Berg
 
5. Climate Change, Natural Disasters and the Spillover Effects of Unpaid Care: The Case of Super-typhoon Haiyan
Maria S. Floro and Georgia Poyatzis
 
6. Care-full Community Economies
Kelly Dombroski, Stephen Healy and Katharine McKinnon 
 
7. Care as Wellth: Internalising Care by Democratising Money
Mary Mellor 
 
8. Diverse Ethics for Diverse Economies: Considering the Ethics of Embodiment, Difference and Inter-corporeality at Kufunda
Pamela Richardson-Ngwenya and Andrea J. Nightingale 
 
9. Striving Towards What We Do Not Know Yet: Living Feminist Political Ecology in Toronto’s Food Network
Carla Wember 
 
10. ‘The Garden has Improved My Life’: Agency and Food Sovereignty of Women in Urban Agriculture in Nairobi
Joyce-Ann Syhre and Meike Brückner 
 
11. Transnational Reconfigurations of Re/Production and the Female Body: Bioeconomics, Motherhoods and the Case of Surrogacy in India
Christa Wichterich
 
12. Menstrual Politics in Argentina and Diverse Assemblages of Care
Jacqueline Gaybor 
 
13. Bodies, Aspirations and the Politics of Place: Learning from the Women Brickmakers of La Ladrillera Azucena
Gollaz Morán 
 
14. Towards an Urban Agenda from a Feminist Political Ecology and Care Perspective

The Gendered Dimensions of Resource Extractivism in Argentina’s Soy Boom

Citation:

Leguizamón, Amalia. 2019. "The Gendered Dimensions of Resource Extractivism in Argentina's Soy Boom." Latin American Perspectives 46 (2): 199-216.

Author: Amalia Leguizamón

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Analyzing resource extractivism as a gendered structure is important for understanding the complex social processes that create and perpetuate environmental injustice—both social inequality and environmental degradation—and for visualizing gendered resistances and opportunities for transformation. Applying Risman’s approach to Argentina’s soy model, six causal mechanisms at the institutional, individual, and interactional levels can be identified that serve either to maintain or to challenge the status quo: (1) resource distribution, (2) ideology, (3) identity work, (4) cognitive bias, (5) status expectations, and (6) state paternalism.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
Analizar el extractivismo de los recursos como una estructura de género es importante para comprender los complejos procesos sociales que crean y perpetúan la injusticia ambiental—tanto la desigualdad social como la degradación ambiental—y para visualizar las resistencias de género y las oportunidades de transformación. Aplicando el enfoque de Risman al modelo de soja en la Argentina, se pueden identificar seis mecanismos causales a nivel institucional, individual y de interacción que sirven para mantener o desafiar el status quo: (1) distribución de recursos, (2) ideología, (3) trabajo de identidad, (4) per- juicio cognitivo, (5) expectativas de posición social, y (6) paternalismo estatal.

Keywords: Argentina, environmental justice, gender, extractivism, soybeans

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Gender, Justice Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina

Year: 2019

The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economics Marginalities

Citation:

Kingsolver, Ann, and Nandini Gunewardena, eds. 2008. The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economics Marginalities. Oxford: School for Advanced Research Press.

Authors: Ann Kingsolver, Nandini Gunewardena

Annotation:

Summary:
As "globalization" moves rapidly from buzzword to cliche, evaluating the claims of neoliberal capitalism to empower and enrich remains urgently important. The authors in this volume employ feminist, ethnographic methods to examine what free trade and export processing zones, economic liberalization, and currency reform mean to women in Argentina, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Ghana, the United States, India, Jamaica, and many other places (Summary from Jacket).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Feminist methodology as a tool for ethnographic inquiry on globalization
Faye V. Harrison
 
2. Disrupting subordination and negotiating belonging : women workers in the transnational production sites of Sri Lanka
Nandini Gunewardena
 
3. Making hay while the sun shines : Ghanaian female traders and their insertion into the global economy
Akosua K. Darkwah
 
4. Clothing difference : commodities and consumption in Southeastern Liberia
Mary H. Moran
 
5. Progressive women, traditional men : globalization, migration, and equality in the northern periphery of the European Union
Ulrika Dahl
 
6. Neoliberal policy as structural violence : its links to domestic violence in black communities in the United States
William L. Conwill
 
7. Gendered bodily scars of neoliberal globalization in Argentina
Barbara Sutton
 
8. Geographies of race and class : the place and placelessness of migrant Filipina domestic workers
Rhacel Salazar Parreñas
 
9. Sticking to the union : anthropologists and "union maids" in San Francisco
Sandy Smith-Nonini
 
10. "The Caribbean is on sale" : globalization and women tourist workers in Jamaica
A. Lynn Bolles
 
11. In the fields of free trade : gender and plurinational en/countering of neoliberal agricultural policies
Ann Kingsolver
 
12. Globalization, "swadeshi", and women's movements in Orissa, India
Annapurna Pandey
 
13. Complex negotiations : gender, capitalism, and relations of power
Mary Anglin and Louise Lamphere
 
14. Navigating paradoxical globalizations
Ann Kingsolver
 
15. Reconstituting marginality : gendered repression and women's resistance
Nandini Gunewardena.
 

Topics: Economies, Globalization, Multi-national Corporations, Privatization Regions: Africa, North Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Argentina, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Liberia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, United States of America

Year: 2008

Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank

Citation:

Bedford, Kate. 2009. Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

Author: Kate Bedford

Annotation:

Summary:
A critique of how the World Bank encourages gender norms, Developing Partnerships argues that financial institutions are key players in the global enforcement of gender and family expectations. By combining analysis of documents produced and sponsored by the World Bank with interviews of World Bank staffers and case studies, Kate Bedford presents a detailed examination of gender and sexuality in the policies of the world's most influential development institution (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Working women, caring men, and the family bank : ideal gender relations after the Washington consensus 
 
2. The model region remodels partnerships : the politics of gender research in Latin America and the Caribbean
 
3. Forging partnerships, sidelining child care : how Ecuadorian femocrats navigate institutional constraints in World Bank gender policy
 
4. Roses mean love : export promotion and the restructuring of intimacy in Ecuador
 
5. Cultures of saving and loving : ethnodevelopment, gender, and heteronormativity in Prodepine
 
6. Holding it together : family strengthening in Argentina.
 
 

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, International Financial Institutions, Sexuality Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America Countries: Argentina, Ecuador

Year: 2009

Development Alternatives

Citation:

Radcliffe, Sarah A. 2015. “Development Alternatives.” Development and Change 46 (4): 855–74. doi:10.1111/dech.12179.

Author: Sarah A. Radcliffe

Abstract:

Development alternatives arguably emerge out of practices, negotiations and critiques of dominant development narratives and paradigms. Critical Development Studies’ (CDS) practices of insightful critique and a willingness to challenge hegemonic paradigms are alive and well. Yet this article argues that CDS could fruitfully pay attention to emergent issues that have yet to receive sustained analysis and critique. The article focuses on three very different registers of development futures: evolutionary and resilience-base thinking; post-neoliberal experiments in Latin America; and the challenge of social heterogeneity. After summarizing the issues involved with respect to each topic, the article suggests some aspects that require further research and debate.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Feminisms, Gender Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, Venezuela

Year: 2015

"We Are Not Victims, We Are Protagonists of This History": Latin American Gender Violence and the Limits of Women’s Rights as Human Rights

Citation:

MacManus, Viviana Beatriz. 2015. “‘We Are Not Victims, We Are Protagonists of This History’: Latin American Gender Violence and the Limits of Women’s Rights as Human Rights.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 17 (1): 40–57. doi:10.1080/14616742.2013.817847.

Author: Viviana Beatriz MacManus

Abstract:

This article centers on the Mexican and Argentinean ‘Dirty Wars’, examining the limitations inherent in human rights and women's human rights responses to these epochs of violence. I situate Argentina's report on the dictatorship, Nunca más (1984), in conversation with Elena Poniatowska's text on the 1968 Mexico City massacre, La noche de Tlatelolco (1971), to trace the rise of a global human rights discourse that has become the dominant manner of conceptualizing human rights violations and gender violence in the latter half of the twentieth century. While feminist critiques of human rights have centered on the lack of gender-specific focus of violence committed against women, this article questions whether the women's human rights discourse disengages the historical, economic and geopolitical realities from which these violations were committed and instead focuses on women's sexual violations to garner international condemnation of gender violence. By turning to these texts, this article centers on the possibilities and limitations of women's human rights discourse and the impact this has on the shaping of women's political agency. This article calls for a critical feminist approach to women's human rights in order to document narratives of women survivors of human rights abuses without obfuscating their political subjectivities.

Keywords: Latin American 'Dirty Wars', Argentina, mexico, women's and human rights, gender and state violence, literary criticism, Nunca más, La noche de Tlatelolco

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, North America, South America Countries: Argentina, Mexico

Year: 2015

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