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Women

Women, Peace and Security

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2018

Exploring the Continuum: Gendered Violence in Post-Conflict Landscapes

Smita Ramnarain

April 19, 2018

Campus Center, 3rd floor, Room 3540, UMass Boston

In societies impacted by war or civil conflict, women experience violence as a continuum across domestic and societal spheres. However, studies of violence treat micro and macro violence as theoretically distinct. The lecture will illustrate how the separation of violence into micro or macro violence is problematic for understanding gender-based violence in post-crisis contexts. Using examples from field research in Nepal, it is shown that this separation obscures structural forms of exclusion in post-conflict societies. The neglect of post-conflict reconstruction frameworks of the different forms of gender-based violence leads, therefore, to new and persistent forms of discrimination and marginalization.

Smita Ramnarain is an Assistant Professor of Economics at the University of Rhode Island. She obtained her doctoral degree from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Her research focuses on the political economy of development in South Asia. She is especially interested in examining development issues using the lens of gender. She has worked on post-conflict reconstruction, peacebuilding and development, feminization of poverty and female headship, microfinance, and more recently, environmental adaptation and resource conflicts. She has carried out field-based research in Nepal and India for these projects. Her work has been published in diverse and interdisciplinary fora such as Feminist Economics, Gender Place & Culture, and the Community Development Journal, and in edited volumes. Smita is also interested in mixed methods research in economics, and has recently contributed to an edited collection, the Handbook of Research Methods in Heterodox Economics.

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This event is being cosponsored by the William Joiner Institute for the Study of War and Social Consequences; the UMass Boston Global Governance and Human Security PhD Program; and the Honors College.

Securing Rights & Unleashing the Potential of African Women and Girls: Lessons from the Africa Campaign to End Child Marriage

Nyaradzayi Gumbonzvanda

March 8, 2018

Campus Center, 3rd floor, Room 3540, UMass Boston

Originally from Zimbabwe, Nyaradzayi Gumbonzvanda has, over two decades, been working on issues of women and children’s human rights, with a special focus on crisis countries. Active in the women’s movement, she has more specifically focused on issues of violence against women, peace with justice, property rights, sexual and reproductive health and rights and HIV and AIDS.

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This event is the UMass Boston Human Rights Minor Spring Keynote Address. It is cosponsored by the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights; the Graduate Consortium in Gender, Culture, Women, and Sexuality; the Department of Political Science; the Centre for Women in Politics and Public Policy, and the Department of Conflict Resolution, Human Security and Global Governance.

Women, Gender and Protest: Contesting Oil Palm Plantation Expansion in Indonesia

Citation:

Morgan, Miranda. 2017. “Women, Gender and Protest: Contesting Oil Palm Plantation Expansion in Indonesia.” The Journal of Peasant Studies.

Author: Miranda Morgan

Abstract:

This study explores the conditions that lead to the participation of rural women in protest. Drawing from a case study in Indonesia, it finds that gender relations are integral to shaping the motivations and political opportunities that lead to women’s decisions to participate in protests around land. It also argues that gender relations are not fixed. Individual actors play an influential role in opening up new political opportunities for women, who are discursively cast as apolitical. Despite dominant gender relations that tend to exclude women from politics, the presence of women in protest opens up the possibility that rural struggles around land and dispossession, though ostensibly free of explicit gender concerns, may simultaneously serve as sites of struggle over gender as well. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year:

¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador

Citation:

Deere, Carmen D, and Jennifer Twyman. “¿Quién toma las decisiones agrícolas? Mujeres propietarias en el Ecuador.” Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 11, no. 3 (2014): 425–440.

Authors: Carmen D. Deere, Jennifer Twyman

Abstract:

Este trabajo investiga si las mujeres propietarias de parcelas participan en las decisiones agrícolas sobre ellas. Con base en una muestra nacional de Ecuador, el análisis demuestra que la gran mayoría de mujeres dueñas participan activamente en la conducción de sus parcelas, sean éstas propiedades de ellas de manera individual o en conjunto con su pareja. También revela que hay diferencias en el nivel de participación de las mujeres, dependiendo de su estado civil o situación marital (si son casadas o unidas en comparación con jefas de hogar solteras, separadas, divorciadas o viudas) y de la forma de la propiedad. Además, su participación varía según la decisión agrícola bajo consideración. De todos modos, nuestro análi­sis conduce a una conclusión sobresaliente: los datos censales proporcionan una visión distorsionada de la agricultura fa­miliar porque no se toma en cuenta que las decisiones agrí­colas son tomadas frecuentemente por la pareja y conllevan a una subestimación de la participación de las mujeres casadas/unidas como agricultoras. (Abstract from original source)
 
This study investigates whether women landowners participate in the agricultural decisions about their plots. Based on a national sample from Ecuador, the analysis shows that the large majority of women owners participate actively in the conduction of their plots, whether they are their property individually or jointly with their couple. It also reveals that there are differences in the level of participation of women, depending on their marital status (whether they are married or united, in comparison to heads of households who are single, separated, divorced or widows) and the form of property. Also, their participation varies depending on the agricultural decision under consideration. In any case, our analysis leads to an outstanding conclusion: the census data provide a distorted vision of family agriculture because they do not take into account that agricultural decisions are frequently made by the couple, and they lead to an underestimation of the participation of women married/united as agricultural producers. (English provided by original source)

Topics: Class, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Enfoques de género en el papel de la mujer rural en la agricultura cubana

Citation:

Martínez Montenegro, Isnel, and Mónica Baeza Leiva. “Enfoques de género en el papel de la mujer rural en la agricultura cubana.” Revista Prolegómenos Derechos y Valores 20, no. 39 (2017): 29–38.

 

Author: Isnel Martínez Montenegro, Mónica Baeza Leiva

Abstract:

El presente artículo indaga sobre los enfoques de género en el papel que desempeña la mujer en la industria agraria, y sobre el tratamiento que se le da a este tema en la legislación vigente sobre la herencia de la tierra en Cuba. Se analizan aquí los avances y retos con respecto a las mujeres en la agricultura cubana y se expone la norma cubana y sus aspectos contradictorios, haciendo una comparación con la situación actual en Latinoamérica. La mujer ha logrado desarrollar tareas imprescindibles en la industria agraria cubana, sin embargo, no en todos los casos estos avances se corresponden con las medidas adoptadas ni están dirigidos a la consecución de la igualdad como objetivo fundamental. (Abstract from original source)
 
This article investigates the gender perspective in the role performed by women in the agricultural industry, and the treatment given to this topic in the current legislation on the inheritance of land in Cuba. Progress and challenges regarding women in Cuban agriculture are analyzed here, and it is exposed the Cuban standard and its contradictory aspects, making a comparison with the current situation in Latin America. The woman has managed to develop essential tasks in the Cuban agricultural industry; however, not in all cases these advances correspond to the measures adopted or are aimed at the achievement of equality as a fundamental objective. (English provided by original source)
 
A presente artigo indaga sobre os enfoques de gênero no papel que desempenha a mulher na indústria agrária e sobre o tratamento que é dado a este tema na legislação vigente sobre a herança da terra em Cuba. Aqui foram analisados os avanços e desafios com respeito às mulheres na agricultura cubana e foi exposta a norma cubana e seus aspectos contraditórios, fazendo uma comparação com a situação atual na América Latina. A mulher conseguiu desenvolver tarefas imprescindíveis na indústria agrária cubana, porém, nem em todos os casos estes avanços correspondem a medidas adotadas nem estão dirigidos à consecução da igualdade como objetivo fundamental. (Portuguese provided by original source)

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Cuba

Year: 2017

Interrogating Large Scale Land Acquisition and Its Implication on Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Ghana

Citation:

Darkwah, Akosua K., Peace A. Medie, and Maame Gyekye-Jandoh. 2017. “Interrogating Large Scale Land Acquisition and Its Implication on Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Ghana.” Working Paper No. 401/August 2017. The Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Boston, MA.

Authors: Akosua K. Darkwah, Peace A. Medie, Maame Gyekye-Jandoh

Abstract:

Large scale land acquisitions have become increasingly common across Africa. This paper draws on two case studies of large scale land acquisitions in Ghana to examine how the practice affects communities in general, and women in particular. It explains that while there have been some benefits of these acquisitions, the costs to communities mostly outweigh the benefits. Women are particularly impacted by this practice as their livelihoods are affected and they are excluded from the proceeds of land transactions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the actions that state agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and communities have taken to address the negative impact of large scale land acquisition on women and their communities. (Abstract from original source).

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2017

Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development

Citation:

Pandey, Shanta. 1998. “Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development.” International Social Work 41 (3): 339-55. 

Author: Shanta Pandey

Annotation:

Summary:
“In developing countries, poor populations, especially women and children, are disproportionately concentrated in ecologically degraded, fragile, and marginal lands (Durning, 1989). A wide range of development programs have been launched to promote social and economic development of rural areas. These programs are in the form of reforestation, irrigation and drinking water improvement, innovative farming techniques, primary health care facilities and health education, and training and human capital development. People’s participation, especially women’s, in these development programs is crucial for their success. Much has been written on the failure of states and development projects to engage rural people, especially rural women, in these rural development initiatives (Mayoux, 1995). This paper reviews several case studies conducted in Nepal and identifies some of the factors that contribute to the participation of rural people, especially rural women, in forest resources management programs. The paper also discusses social workers’ role in promoting participation and sustainable development” (Pandey, 1998, 339).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Energy, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 1998

Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2007. "Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa." Paper presented at Understanding and Addressing Spatial Poverty Traps: An International Workshop, Durham University, UK, March 29.

Author: Gina Porter

Abstract:

This paper reflects on the experiences of women and girl children residents in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa with poor physical accessibility (to services and markets) because of poor roads and inadequate transport (in terms of regularity, reliability and cost). Examples from field research conducted in diverse agro-ecological and cultural contexts in western and southern Africa are used to explore the impacts of relative immobility and poor access to services on women and girls. Three themes are examined in some detail: access to education, access to health services and access to markets. (Abstract from original source)

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa

Year: 2007

Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone

Citation:

White, Aimee. 2008. "Why Women’s Participation Is Essential to Sustainable Peacebuilding: Lessons from Sierra Leone." M.A., Canada: Dalhousie University (Canada).

Author: Aimee White

Annotation:

Summary:
Post-conflict countries will not achieve sustainable peace without the inclusion and participation of women in peacebuilding processes. In Sierra Leone, women were heavily involved in bringing about an end to the 1991--2002 conflict, but yet were largely excluded from political and decision-making processes in post-conflict context. The physical and structural gender-based violence women experienced throughout the conflict and the ways in which women took the lead in addressing these issues in the post-conflict context demonstrates women's essential but formally unrecognized role in peacebuilding in Sierra Leone. The post-genocide context in Rwanda provides a comparison for the ways in which women have seized the socio-political space opened up by conflict to challenge gender inequality and take an active role in the political structures of the country. There are a number of international policy frameworks to complement this process in post-conflict countries but international and national rhetoric must translate into concrete action. (Summary from original)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Rwanda, Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

Pages

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