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Women

Land Reform: Still a Goal Worth Pursuing for Rural Women?

Citation:

Jacobs, Susie. 2002. “Land Reform: Still a Goal Worth Pursuing for Rural Women?” Journal of International Development 14 (6): 887-98. 

Author: Susie Jacobs

Abstract:

Land reform has recently become a topic of interest to the media. Given historical experience and current changes, are land reform policies still worthwhile objects of struggle for rural women? The article discusses arguments ‘against’: for instance, women have been excluded from most past land reforms, and many rural people have had to diversify their livelihood bases, so that agriculture has diminished in importance. Despite these and other points, the article argues that land reform which includes women would be of great benefit: it would increase food security, would allow wives to keep better control over their own incomes, and would increase women's status more generally.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Households, Livelihoods

Year: 2002

Women, Climate Change and Liberation in Africa

Citation:

Steady, Filomina Chioma. 2014. “Women, Climate Change and Liberation in Africa.” Race, Gender & Class 21 (1/2): 312–33.

Author: Filomina Chioma Steady

Abstract:

Women in Africa have been among the first to notice the impact of climate change and its effects on the agricultural cycle, human and animal life; food production and food security. As major custodians and consumers of natural resources, the lives of women in rural areas are profoundly affected by seasonal changes, making them among the most vulnerable to climate change. Their pivotal role in any measure aimed at mitigation and adaptation is indisputable. Despite Africa's minimal emission of green house gases, it is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change and climate variability and is prone to ecosystem degradation and complex natural disasters. (United Nations Environment Programme, 2006). This article examines women and climate change in Africa as an aspect of Africa's environmental problems. It is argued that the ideologies that drive the exploitation of the earth's resources are linked to the legacy of colonialism and its aftermath of economic globalization. Both have important implications for continuing oppression of the environment and people, with important implications for race, gender and class. Particular attention is given to women in rural areas in Africa, who are the main custodians of environmental conservation and sustainability and who are highly threatened by environmental degradation and climate change. Yet, they are often marginalized from the decision-making processes related to solving problems of Climate Change. The paper combines theoretical insights with empirical data to argue for more attention to women's important ecological and economic roles and comments on the policy implications for Climate Change. It calls for liberation that would bring an end to economic and ecological oppression through climate justice and gender justice.

Keywords: Africa's Vulnerability, women, natural resources, colonial legacies, hazardous waste dumping, land grabs, biofuels, mining, deforestation, liberation, gender justice, climate justice

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Globalization, Justice, Land grabbing, Race Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

Women and Water Management in Times of Climate Change: Participatory and Inclusive Processes

Citation:

Figueiredo, Patricia, and Patricia E. Perkins. 2013. “Women and Water Management in Times of Climate Change: Participatory and Inclusive Processes.” Journal of Cleaner Production 60: 188–94.

Authors: Patricia Figueiredo, Patricia E. Perkins

Abstract:

This paper focuses on community engagement, and particularly the inclusion of women, in water management as a response to climate change. Addressing water-related problems is central to climate change adaptation, and civil society, marginalized populations and women, in particular, must be involved. This is for both moral and pragmatic reasons: not only are the marginalized the first and worst affected by extreme weather events, but they also possess local ecological, social and political knowledge which can inform and contribute significantly to climate change adaptation strategies. Because of their social roles and position worldwide, women are greatly affected by water scarcity and flooding, and tend to be gravely impacted by poor water management, yet they face great difficulties in participating effectively in governance bodies. Sustainable long-term management of water resources in the face of climate change requires the participation of women, who possess knowledge of effective social technologies for coping with and adapting to climate change. Community-based environmental education is therefore required in order to expand the equitable involvement of women in water-related climate change adaptation activities and policy development. Environmental non-governmental organizations worldwide, working on shoestring budgets at the local level, are developing a range of methods to organize, raise consciousness and confidence, and help local activists create successful climate defense programs. This paper discusses South-North initiatives and models for community-based environmental and climate change education which are using the democratic opening provided by watershed-based governance structures to broaden grassroots participation, especially of women, in political processes. We outline the activities and results of two international projects: the Sister Watersheds project, with Brazilian and Canadian partners (2002-2008); and a Climate Change Adaptation in Africa project with partners in Canada, Kenya, Mozambique, and South Africa (2010-2012).

Keywords: climate justice, gender, watershed management, climate change, equity, public participation, civil society, women, community-based environmental education, civil society engagement, Resilience, bottom-up climate change adaptation

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, NGOs, Political Participation

Year: 2013

Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh

Citation:

Alston, Margaret. 2015. Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh. London: Routledge.

Author: Margaret Alston

Annotation:

Summary: 
Bangladesh is by no means a high emitter of carbon, but it is nevertheless one of the countries most critically affected. There is a significant risk of damage to lives and livelihoods due to climate change in the form of cyclones, flooding and storm surges, and slow-onset impacts such as droughts, sea level rises and river basin erosion. Moreover, Bangladeshis are especially vulnerable as a high proportion of people live in extreme poverty. This book assesses the impact of climate change in Bangladesh, and presents the findings of a three-year, in-depth study undertaken at village level in different districts of the country. It examines national policies, contrasting them with what is actually happening at village level. It outlines the impact of climate change on livelihood strategies and health, and focuses particularly on the impact on gender relations, showing that although women have a significant role to play in helping communities cope with the effects of climate change, cultural customs and practices often work against this. The book argues for, and puts forward policy proposals for, recognising women’s active contribution and supporting gender equality as a critical strategy in global adaptation to climate challenges. (Summary from Taylor & Francis Group) 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2015

Women Confronting Natural Disaster: From Vulnerability to Resilience

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine. 2006. Women Confronting Natural Disaster: From Vulnerability to Resilience. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Author: Elaine Enarson

Annotation:

Summary: 
Natural disasters push ordinary gender disparities to the extreme—leaving women not only to deal with a catastrophe's aftermath, but also at risk for greater levels of domestic violence, displacement, and other threats to their security and well-being. Elaine Enarson presents a comprehensive assessment, encompassing both theory and practice, of how gender shapes disaster vulnerability and resilience. (Summary from Lynne Rienner Publishers)
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Women and Disasters in the United States
 
2. Representations of Women in Disasters
 
3. How Gender Changes Disaster Studies
 
4. Measuring Vulnerability and Capacity 
 
5. Health and Well-Being 
 
6. Violence Against Women 
 
7. Intimacy and Family Life
 
8. Houses and Homes 
 
9. Work and Workplaces 
 
10. Grassroots Groups and Recovery 
 
11. Building Disaster Resilience 
 
12. Fighting for the Future

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Violence

Year: 2006

Gender and Land Tenure in the Context of Disaster in Asia

Citation:

Kusakabe, Kyoko, Rajendra Shrestha, and Veena N., eds. 2015. Gender and Land Tenure in the Context of Disaster in Asia. Vol. 21. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace. Heidelberg: Springer.
 

Authors: Kyoko Kusakabe, Rajendra Shrestha, Veena N.

Keywords: Asia, disaster, gender, land tenure, Post-disaster Policies, gender roles, land rights, vulnerability

Annotation:

Summary: 
This book explores an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of gender and development studies, disaster and land tenure policy. It is well known that women generally have weaker claims to land. But how does that translate to increased vulnerability during disaster? Using case studies from Asia, this book argues that land tenure is a key factor in mitigating the impact of disasters on women. The scale and frequency of disasters have been increasing in recent decades due to human impact on the landscape and climate. Unsustainable farming and land management systems have increased environmental risks and social vulnerabilities. However, around the world the costs of disasters are disproportionately borne by women, due largely to their reduced mobility and lack of control over assets. In post-disaster settings, women’s vulnerabilities increase due to gendered rescue and rehabilitation practices. As such, a gendered approach to land rights is critical to disaster preparedness and recovery. (From Springer)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Gender and Land Tenure in the Context of Disaster
Veena N. and Kyoto Kusakabe
 
2. Gender Impact of Large-Scale Deforestation and Oil Palm Plantations Among Indigenous Groups in Sarawak, Malaysia. 
Carol Yong and Wee Aik Pang
 
3. Displacing Women, Resettling Families: Impact of Landslides on Women's Land Tenure Rights in Sri Lanka 
Subhangi M.K. Herath
 
4. Impact of Flash Floods on a Matrilineal Society in West Sumatra, Indonesia 
Yonariza and Mahdi
 
5. Urbanization and Disaster: Loss of Women's Property Ownership in Leh, Ladakh
Bhuvaneswari Raman
 
6. A Coir Mill of Their Own: Women's Agency in Post-tsunami Sri Lanka 
Ramanie Jayatilaka
 
7. Gender, Land Tenure, and Disasters in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia
Carol Yong, Frans R. Siahaan and Andreas Burghofer

 

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Asia

Year: 2015

Gender, Disaster and Development: The Necessity for Integration

Citation:

Fordham, Maureen. 2003. “Gender, Disaster and Development: The Necessity for Integration.” In Natural Disaster and Development in a Globalizing World, edited by Mark Pelling. London: Routledge.

Author: Maureen Fordham

Abstract:

Gender, disaster and development have traditionally been treated as separate categories within academic disciplines and in terms of professional practice. Workers and researchers only rarely transfer knowledge between them and yet each group could contribute much to the others. However, it is increasingly being recognized that these elements must be brought together to improve understanding and practical action. When disasters occur, they bring with them a convergence of external help focused on providing immediate relief and quickly returning the community to ‘normality’. In doing so, they can overturn long-term development programmes; the ‘tyranny of the urgent’ (BRIDGE 1996) can drive out gender and other fundamental social issues, or relegate them to a lower priority. Similarly, many development programmes are planned and undertaken without ensuring they do not exacerbate hazardous conditions or make people (and particularly women) more vulnerable to disasters. (Taylor & Francis)

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance

Year: 2003

Flood Early Warning Systems in Nepal: A Gendered Perspective

Citation:

Shrestha, Mandira Singh, Shesh Kanta Kafle, Min Bahdur Gurung, Hari Krishna Nibanupudi, Vijay Ratan Khadgi, and Gautam Rajkarnikar. 2014. “Flood Early Warning Systems in Nepal: A Gendered Perspective.” ICIMOD Working Paper 2014/4, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Authors: Mandira Singh Shrestha, Shesh Kanta Kafle, Min Bahdur Gurung, Hari Krishna Nibanupudi, Vijay Ratan Khadgi, Gautam Rajkarnikar

Keywords: early warning, gender, flood, Nepal

Annotation:

Summary: 
This publication captures the findings of a study on flood early warning systems in Nepal that assessed the institutional arrangements, key stakeholders, legal provisions, coordination and linkage mechanisms, and four key elements of early warning systems from a gender perspective. It also gathered experience from two villages with functioning community-based flood early warning systems.
 
This report aims to improve understanding of the existing flood early warning systems in Nepal, and suggests ways to make early warning systems more effective and responsive to the needs of vulnerable groups, and women in particular. By promoting the integration of the gender perspective into disaster risk management efforts, this study contributes to the Hyogo Framework for Action. The report can be a valuable tool for use by key national stakeholders, policy makers, planners, and community members who are risk from flood hazards in Nepal. (Summary from Prevention Web)

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2014

The Influence of Caste, Class and Gender in Surviving Multiple Disasters: A Case Study from Orissa, India

Citation:

Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S. 2009. “The Influence of Caste, Class and Gender in Surviving Multiple Disasters: A Case Study from Orissa, India.” Environmental Hazards 8 (1): 5–22.

Author: Nibedita S. Ray-Benett

Abstract:

Sociological and anthropological studies in India reveal that caste, class and gender in everyday life are both rigid and dynamic, but little is known about how they influence the survival mechanisms of women during ‘multiple disasters’, nor about how women negotiate with these structural mores to meet their cultural and biological needs. This is explored through the experiences of 12 women-headed households from different social castes in Orissa, India. Multiple disasters or disasters that occur in ‘one specific place’ (such as floods, cyclone and drought) are regular events in coastal parts of the state of Orissa. The super-cyclone of 1999, two floods of 2001 and 2003 and drought of 2000 and 2002 form the case study. Participant observation, in-depth interviews and documentary evidence complement the fieldwork. The findings suggest a complex interplay of caste, class and gender in surviving the multiple disasters including structural mutability under the purview of social organization. In doing so, women demonstrated their individual and collective agencies in order to meet their cultural and biological needs under severe crisis. This research stresses that gender and disaster studies must include a consideration of caste and class for effective disaster management and social vulnerability reduction.

Keywords: gender, multiple disasters, Orissa, women-headed households, class, caste

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2009

Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine, and P.G. Dhar Chakrabarti, eds. 2009. Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications India.

Authors: Elaine Enarson, P.G. Dhar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives examines gender within the context of disaster risk management. It argues for gender mainstreaming as an effective strategy towards achieving disaster risk reduction and mitigating post-disaster gender disparity. Highlighting that gender inequalities pervade all aspects of life, it analyses the failure to implement inclusive and gender-sensitive approaches to relief and rehabilitation work. While examining positive strategies for change, the collection focuses on women’s knowledge, capabilities, leadership and experience in community resource management. The authors emphasize that these strengths in women, which are required for building resilience to hazards and disasters, are frequently overlooked. This timely book will be extremely useful to policy makers and professionals active in the field of disaster management and to academics and students. (Sage Publications India)

Annotation:

Table of Contents
Part One: Understanding Gender Relations in Disaster
 
1. Sex, Gender and Gender Relations in Disasters
Madhavi Malalgoda Ariyabandu
 
2. A Gender Perspective on Disaster Risk Reduction
Helena Molin Valdés
 
3. Let’s Share the Stage: Involving Men in Gender Equality and Disaster Risk Reduction
Prafulla Mishra
 
4. Organising for Risk Reduction: The Honolulu Call to Action
Cheryl L. Anderson
 
Part Two: Gendered Challenges and Responses in Disasters
 
5. Reducing Disaster Risk through Community Resilience in the Himalayas
Manjari Mehta
 
6. Gender Perspectives on Disaster Reconstruction in Nicaragua: Reconstructing Roles and Relations?
Sarah Bradshaw and Brian Linneker
 
7. Environmental Management and Disaster Mitigation: Middle Eastern Gender Perspective
Samia Galal Saad
 
8. ‘Everything Became a Struggle, Absolute Struggle’: Post-Flood Increases in Domestic Violence in New Zealand
Rosalind Houghton
 
9. Parenting in the Wake of Disaster: Mothers and Fathers Respond to Hurricane Katrina
Lori Peek and Alice Fothergill
 
10. Women in the Great Hanshin Earthquake
Reiko Masai, Lisa Kuzunishi and Tamiyo Kondo
 
11. Victims of Earthquake and Patriarchy: The 2005 Pakistan Earthquake
Azra Talat Sayeed
 
12. ‘A Part of Me Had Left’: Learning from Women Farmers in Canada about Disaster Stress
Simone Reinsch
 
13. Supporting Women and Men on the Front Lines of Biological Disaster
Tracey L. O'Sullivan and Carol A. Amaratunga
 
Part Three: Women’s Organised Initiatives
 
14. ‘We Can Make Things Better for Each other’: Women and Girls Organise to Reduce Disasters in Central America
Maureen Fordham
 
15. Women’s Participation in Disaster Relief and Recovery
Ayse Yonder with Sengül Akçar and Prema Gopalan
 
16. Work-Focused Responses to Disasters: India’s Self Employed Women’s Association
Francie Lund and Tony Vaux
 
17. A Climate for Change: Humanitarian Disaster and the Movement for the Commons in Kenya
Leigh Brownhill
 
18. Sri Lankan Women’s Organisations Responding to Post-Tsunami Violence
Sarah Fisher
 
19. ‘A We Run Tings’: Women Rebuilding Montserrat
Judith Soares and Audrey Y. Mullings
 
20. Women Responding to Drought in Brazil
Adélia de Melo Branco
 
Part Four: Gender-Sensitive Disaster Risk Reduction
 
21. Balancing Gender Vulnerabilities and Capacities in the Framework of Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management: The Case of Mexico
Cecilia Castro García and Luisa Emilia Reyes Zúñiga
 
22. Towards Gender Equality in Climate Change Policy: Challenges and Perspectives for the Future
Ulrike Röhr, Minu Hemmati and Yianna Lambrou
 
23. Engendering Tsunami Recovery in Sri Lanka: The Role of UNIFEM and its Partners
Chandni Joshi and Mihir R. Bhatt
 
24. Gendering Disaster Risk Reduction: 57 Steps from Words to Action
Elaine Enarson
 
25. Toolkit for Mainstreaming Gender in Emergency Response
P. G. Dhar Chakrabarti and Ajinder Walia

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2009

Pages

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