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Violence

Power, Borders, Security, Wealth: Lessons of Violence and Desire from September 11

Citation:

Agathangelou, Anna M., and L. H. M. Ling. 2004. “Power, Borders, Security, Wealth: Lessons of Violence and Desire from September 11.” International Studies Quarterly 48 (3): 517–38.

Authors: Anna M. Agathangelou, L. H. M. Ling

Abstract:

America's “war on terror” and Al Qaeda's “jihad” reflect mirror strategies of imperial politics. Each camp transnationalizes violence and insecurity in the name of national or communal security. Neoliberal globalization underpins this militarization of daily life. Its desire industries motivate and legitimate elite arguments (whether from “infidels” or “terrorists”) that society must sacrifice for its hypermasculine leaders. Such violence and desire draw on colonial identities of Self vs. Other, patriotism vs. treason, hunter vs. prey, and masculinity vs. femininity that are played out on the bodies of ordinary men and women. We conclude with suggestions of a human security to displace the elite privilege that currently besets world politics.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Security, Human Security, Violence

Year: 2004

Raising Children in a Violent Context: An Intersectionality Approach to Understanding Parents’ Experiences in Ciudad Juárez

Citation:

Grineski, Sara E., Alma A. Hernández, and Vicky Ramos. 2013. “Raising Children in a Violent Context: An Intersectionality Approach to Understanding Parents’ Experiences in Ciudad Juárez.” Women’s Studies International Forum 40 (September): 10–22. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2013.04.001.

Authors: Sara E. Grineski, Alma A. Hernández, Vicky Ramos

Abstract:

Children's and parents' daily lives are rarely highlighted in coverage of drug wars. Using 16 interviews with parents in the Mexican border city of Juárez in 2010, we examine how drug violence impacts families with a focus on intersections of gender and social class. Related to mobility (the first emergent theme), fathers had increased mobility as compared to mothers, which caused different stresses. Material hardships heightened mothers' isolation within the home, and mothers more often had to enforce children's mobility restrictions, which children resisted. Related to employment (the second emergent theme), fathers took on dangerous jobs to provide for the family while mothers had fewer options for informal employment due to violence. In sum, men and women faced different challenges, which were intensified due to class-based material disadvantages. Conformity with traditional gender expectations for behavior was common for men and women, illustrating the normalization of gender inequality within this context.

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2013

Telling Stories—Rethreading Lives: Community Education, Women’s Development and Social Change Among the Maya Ixil

Citation:

Lykes, M. Brinton, Ana Caba Mateo, Jacinta Chávez Anay, Ana Laynez Caba, Ubaldo Ruiz, and Joan W. Williams. 1999. “Telling Stories—Rethreading Lives: Community Education, Women’s Development and Social Change Among the Maya Ixil.” International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice 2 (3): 207–27.

Authors: M. Brinton Lykes, Ana Caba Mateo, Jacinta Chávez Anay, Ana Laynez Caba, Ubaldo Ruiz, Joan W. Williams

Abstract:

Peace negotiations culminating in accords signed between the Guatemalan government and guerrilla forces (URNG) on 29 December 1996 have ‘ended’ nearly 36 years of war in Guatemala and afforded new spaces in which survivors testify to horrific violence including massacres, military occupation, internal displacement, extreme poverty and exile. In this paper we describe the development of a women's organization in rural Guatemala that was created to respond to some of the psychological, economic and educational consequences of this war. The Association's genesis and current work reflect collaborative processes of interethnic and transnational non-formal education, community organizing and leadership development. While responding directly to social injustices—including centuries of discrimination and marginalization of indigenous peoples—and the multiple effects of war, the Association provides a context wherein rural Maya women are enhancing self- and community-confidence to act on their own behalf in the development of action plans for change within their local community. In this paper we discuss some of our experiences as insiders in a rural area deeply impacted by war, state violence and poverty, and as outsiders who seek to accompany them in constructing peace with justice at a local level. We document some of the challenges experienced in collaborations across multiple differences as well as their contributions to women's development and to their creation of more just and equitable educational programmes for themselves and children in their communities.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Development, Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 1999

Análisis de la Problemática del Feminicidio en un Posible Escenario de Posconflicto

Citation:

Huertas-Díaz, Omar, María Cristina Patiño-González, and Angie Lorena Lorena Ruíz-Herrera. 2016. “Análisis de la Problemática del Feminicidio en un Posible Escenario de Posconflicto.” Principia Iuris 12 (23): 186–215.

Authors: Omar Huertas-Díaz, María Cristina Patiño-González, Angie Lorena Lorena Ruíz-Herrera

Abstract:

Este trabajo destaca la interdependencia existente entre los contextos públicos y privados de relacionamiento, lo cual se evidencia en la normalización de la violencia como forma de resolución de los conflictos. Esta normalización es el resultado de una historia caracterizada por las confrontaciones armadas, especialmente desde el establecimiento de organizaciones guerrilleras y paramilitares en el país. En paralelo a esta normalización, se encuentra la consolidación de imaginarios de género que relegan a la mujer a una posición de víctima u objeto sexual que se refleja en las acciones de los combatientes tanto en las acciones emprendidas bajo el contexto de la confrontación, como en las que se desarrollan luego de la dejación de las armas. Ante este panorama, el trabajo plantea la necesidad de considerar tales imaginarios de género, especialmente sobre aquellos individuos cuyas nociones de pensamiento se vieron moldeadas por su pertenencia a una organización militar, teniendo en cuenta el posible escenario de posconflicto y en consecuencia la salida de la guerra de cientos de hombres y mujeres combatientes; esto en miras de la prevención de actos de violencia contra la mujer, específicamente de actos de feminicidio. En este sentido, la formulación de estrategias dirigidas a la prevención y erradicación de la violencia contra la mujer deben considerar no sólo medidas de carácter punitivo ejemplificado con la reciente Ley 1761, sino también la reconstrucción de las estructuras de pensamiento que sustentan tales violencias.

Keywords: Violencia contra la mujer, femenicidio, violencia sexual, imaginarios de género, desmovilizados, proceso de paz, posconflicto, Ley 1761

Topics: Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

The Retelling of Tales: Disentangling the Feminist Evolutionary Analytic Approach, Legal Pluralism, and Gender Justice

Citation:

Solanki, Gopika. 2013. “The Retelling of Tales: Disentangling the Feminist Evolutionary Analytic Approach, Legal Pluralism, and Gender Justice.” Politics & Gender 9 (01): 105–10. doi:10.1017/S1743923X1200075X.

Author: Gopika Solanki

Abstract:

Globally, women's movements share the twin concerns of equality within the family and freedom from domestic violence. The following questions conjoin and animate these debates: Given that violence against women is a global phenomenon, why are some states more effective at controlling domestic violence than others? What is the correlation between inequality encoded in family laws and the rate of violence against women in society? Are legally plural states more likely to demonstrate a higher degree of institutionalized inequality and gender-based violence within the family? The analytical peg for Hudson, Bowen, and Nielsen (2012) is the feminist evolutionary analytic approach (FEAA) that explains the almost universal prevalence of male dominance among humans during the course of formation of societies. It suggests that violence against women is greater in legal systems that design family law to maximize men's rights.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Violence

Year: 2013

Violence, Human Rights, and Piety: Cosmopolitanism Versus Virtuous Exclusion in Response to Atrocity

Citation:

Turner, Bryan S. "Violence, human rights, and piety : cosmopolitanism versus virtuous exclusion in response to atrocity." In The Religious in Responses to Mass Atrocity: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, eds Thomas Brudholm and Thomas Cushman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

Author: Bryan S. Turner

Topics: Religion, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Violence

Year: 2009

The Quiet Revolutionaries: Seeking Justice in Guatemala

Citation:

Afflitto, Frank M, and Paul Jesilow. 2007. The Quiet Revolutionaries: Seeking Justice in Guatemala. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Authors: Frank M. Afflitto, Paul Jesilow

Abstract:

The last three decades of the twentieth century brought relentless waves of death squads, political kidnappings, and other traumas to the people of Guatemala. Many people fled the country to escape the violence. Yet, at the same moment, a popular movement for justice brought together unlikely bands of behind-the-scenes heroes, blurring ethnic, geographic, and even class lines. The Quiet Revolutionaries is drawn from interviews conducted by Frank Afflitto in the early 1990s with more than eighty survivors of the state-sanctioned violence. Gathered under frequently life-threatening circumstances, the observations and recollections of these inspiring men and women form a unique perspective on collective efforts to produce change in politics, law, and public consciousness. Examined from a variety of perspectives, from sociological to historical, their stories form a rich ethnography. While it is still too soon to tell whether stable, long-term democracy will prevail in Guatemala, the successes of these fascinating individuals provide a unique understanding of revolutionary resistance. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

Acknowledgments ix

Introduction 1

Chapter one: Some Background 11

Chapter two: Access Was Not Easy 31

Chapter three: Chronic Ambiguity 54

Chapter four: Seeking Justice 76

Chapter five: The Social Movement to End Impunity 100

Chapter six: The Movement Is Fragmented by the Peace Accords 129

Chapter seven: Identity, Rule of Law, and Democracy 149

Appendix 159

Notes 167

References 181

Index 203

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2007

Legal Violence Against Syrian Female Refugees in Turkey

Citation:

Kivilcim, Zeynep. 2016. “Legal Violence Against Syrian Female Refugees in Turkey.” Feminist Legal Studies 24 (2): 193–214. doi:10.1007/s10691-016-9323-y.

Author: Zeynep Kivilcim

Abstract:

Turkey hosts the world’s largest community of Syrians displaced by the ongoing armed conflict. The object of this article is to explore the damaging effects of a hostile legal context on female Syrian refugees in Turkey. I base my analysis on scholarship that theorises immigration legislation as a system of legal violence and I argue that the Temporary Protection Regulation and the Law on Foreigners and International Protection that govern the legal status of refugees in Turkey inflict legal violence on Syrian female refugees. This legislation keeps them in the regime of temporary protection and prevents their access to international protection. The temporary protection regime serves furthermore as the main determinant for other forms of legal violence inflicted by various actors. I explore the effects of the Turkish government’s inaction in terms of preventing and sanctioning the abuse of Syrian female refugees as unpaid sex and household workers. I show that the extended legal limbo on the conditions of employment of Syrian refugees secures female Syrians as the most precarious workforce for Turkey’s various sectors. Finally I claim that the forced confinement of Syrian beggars in refugee camps is instrumentalised for their disciplinary regulation.

Keywords: Legal violence, Syrian refugees, Temporary protection, Turkey

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, International Law, Sexual Violence, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Syria, Turkey

Year: 2016

Fair labelling and the dilemma of prosecuting gender-based crimes at the international criminal tribunals

Citation:

Zawātī, Ḥilmī. 2014. Fair Labelling and the Dilemma of Prosecuting Gender-Based Crimes at the International Criminal Tribunals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Author: Ḥilmī Zawātī

Annotation:

This scholarly legal work focuses on the dilemma of prosecuting gender-based crimes under the statutes of the international criminal tribunals with reference to the principle of fair labelling. This inquiry deals with gender-based crimes as a case study, within the legal principle and theoretical framework of fair labelling. (WorldCat)

Table of Contents

Introduction

I. Fair labelling as a common legal principle in criminal law

II. Fair labelling and other criminal law principles and concepts

III. Fair labelling and the codification of gender-based crimes in the statutory laws of the international criminal tribunals

IV. Prosecution of gender-based crimes and feminist legal literature

V. The dilemma of prosecuting gender-based crimes at the international criminal tribunals

Conclusion : looking to the future.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, International Criminal Law, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Violence

Year: 2014

Gendered Violence and International Human Rights: Thinking Non-discrimination Beyond the Sex Binary

Citation:

McNeilly, Kathryn. 2014. “Gendered Violence and International Human Rights: Thinking Non-Discrimination Beyond the Sex Binary.” Feminist Legal Studies 22 (3): 263–83. doi:10.1007/s10691-014-9268-y.

Author: Kathryn McNeilly

Abstract:

The concept of non-discrimination has been central in the feminist challenge to gendered violence within international human rights law. This article critically explores non-discrimination and the challenge it seeks to pose to gendered violence through the work of Judith Butler. Drawing upon Butler’s critique of heteronormative sex/gender, the article utilises an understanding of gendered violence as effected by the restrictive scripts of sex/gender within heteronormativity to illustrate how the development of non-discrimination within international human rights law renders it ineffective to challenge gendered violence due to its own commitments to binarised and asymmetrical sex/gender. However, the article also seeks to encourage a reworking of non-discrimination beyond the heteronormative sex binary through employing Butler’s concept of cultural translation. Analysis via the lens of cultural translation reveals the fluidity of non-discrimination as a universal concept and offers new possibilities for feminist engagement with universal human rights.

Keywords: gendered violence, Non-discrimination, Sex/gender, Judith Butler, heteronormativity

Topics: Gender Analysis, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Law, International Human Rights, LGBTQ, Women's Rights, Violence

Year: 2014

Pages

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