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Violence

Introduction to Conflict and Violence

Citation:

Green, Caroline, and Caroline Sweetman. 2013. “Introduction to Conflict and Violence.” Gender & Development 21 (3): 423-431.

Authors: Caroline Green, Caroline Sweetman

Annotation:

"Here you will find articles from a wide range of practitioners, researchers and activists, focusing on the complicated and context-specific relationships between gender inequality, violence and conflict, and debating ways to end gender-based violence (GBV) in its many pernicious forms" (Green and Sweetman, 2013, p. 423).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Conflict, Peace and Security, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Violence

Year: 2013

What is the Sex Doing in the Genocide? A Feminist Philosophical Response

Citation:

Schott, Robin May. 2015. “What is the Sex Doing in the Genocide? A Feminist Philosophical Response.” European Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (4): 397-411.

Author: Robin May Schott

Abstract:

This article reviews the literature on Holocaust and genocide studies to consider the question, ‘what is the sex doing in the genocide?’ Of the three answers usually given: (1) sexual violence is like other forms of genocidal violence, (2) sexual violence is a coordinate in genocide and (3) sexual violence is integral to genocidal violence, the author argues for the third position, but takes issue with Catharine MacKinnon’s claim that sexual violence destroys women as a group, thereby destroying the ethnic, racial, religious, or national group to which women belong. Drawing on Hannah Arendt’s concept of natality, the author argues that sexual violence is an attack on a fundamental condition for the possibility of the existence of human groups. When political violence is used to force biological birth in the service of death, it is a form of thanatonatality.

Keywords: genocide, Holocaust, natality, sexual violence, thanatonatality

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Conflict, Genocide, Race, Religion, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence

Year: 2015

Engaging Women in Countering Violent Extremism: Avoiding Instrumentalisation and Furthering Agency

Citation:

d’Estaing, Sophie Giscard. 2017. “Engaging Women in Countering Violent Extremism: Avoiding Instrumentalisation and Furthering Agency.” Gender & Development 25 (1): 103–18. 

Author: Sophie Giscard d'Estaing

Abstract:

English Abstract:
Currently, women are on the frontlines of violent extremism, as recruiters, propagators, suicide bombers, and targets, as well as leaders working on de-radicalisation, counter-messaging, and peacebuilding. It is crucial that the international community and governments engage with women in preventing violent extremism, and focus on the gender-related reasons why women become involved as protagonists and supporters of violent extremism. This article examines the limitations of prevention and countering violent extremism programmes and policies in engaging with women, their roles, and gender-sensitivity. Recognising women’s agency, diversity in voices and experiences, and knowledge is fundamental to ensuring their rights and sustainable peace. Their full participation at all levels of decision-making in the design and implementation of preventing and countering violent extremism (PVE/CVE) contributes to the effectiveness and sustainability of these efforts.
 
French Abstract:
Actuellement, les femmes sont en première ligne de l’extrémisme violent, en tant que recruteuses, propagatrices, kamikazes et cibles, mais aussi en tant que leaders travaillant sur la déradicalisation, le contre-message et la paix. Il est essentiel que la communauté internationale et les gouvernements s’engagent avec les femmes avec pour but la prévention de l’extrémisme violent, et qu’ils se concentrent sur les raisons, liées au genre, pour lesquelles les femmes s’impliquent en tant que protagonistes et adeptes de l’extrémisme violent. Cet article étudie les limites des programmes et des politiques de prévention et de lutte contre l’extrémisme violent dans leurs efforts pour engager le dialogue avec les femmes, leurs rôles et la sensibilité au genre. La reconnaissance du pouvoir des femmes, ainsi que de la diversité de leurs voix et de leurs expériences, et de leur connaissance, est fondamentale afin d’assurer leurs droits et la paix durable. Leur participation complète à tous les niveaux de prise de décision sur la conception et l’implémentation de la prévention de l’extrémisme violent et de la lutte contre l’extrémisme violent, contribue à l’efficacité et à la durabilité de ces efforts.
 
Spanish Abstract:
Actualmente, las mujeres se encuentran en la primera línea del extremismo violento, sea como reclutadoras, difusoras, atacantes suicidas, como blancos de la violencia o bien como líderes, promoviendo la desradicalización, la divulgación de mensajes alternativos y la construcción de la paz. Por ello, resulta crucial que tanto la comunidad internacional como los gobiernos caminen en el sentido de involucrar a las mujeres en la prevención del extremismo violento, examinando al mismo tiempo aquellas razones vinculadas al género que determinan que las mujeres se vuelvan protagonistas y defensoras de dicho extremismo. El presente artículo analiza las limitaciones de los programas y políticas que actualmente se orientan a prevenir y contrarrestar el extremismo violento, centrándose en su rol y su sensibilidad de género, particularmente en términos de su trabajo con mujeres. En este sentido, resulta fundamental reconocer la autonomía de las mujeres, así como la diversidad de sus voces, vivencias y conocimientos, para asegurar sus derechos y lograr una paz duradera, partiendo de la premisa de que, a la hora de diseñar e implementar acciones encaminadas a prevenir y combatir el extremismo violento, la plena participación de las mujeres en todos los niveles de la toma de decisiones potencia su eficacia y su sostenibilidad.

Keywords: women, violent extremism, peace, prevention, agency, radicalisation, security, Rights

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Peacebuilding, Rights, Women's Rights, Violence

Year: 2017

Securitisation, Development and the Invisibility of Gender

Citation:

Lusby, Stephanie. 2017. "Securitisation, Development and the Invisibility of Gender." In Transformations of Gender in Melanesia, edited by Macintyre Martha and Spark Ceridwen, 23-44. Canberra: ANU Press. 

Author: Stephanie Lusby

Annotation:

"Discussions of violence are ubiquitous in, and with regard to, Papua New Guinea. In this chapter, I discuss how persistent broader contexts of legitimised violence shape efforts to destabilise particular patterns of violence, namely, male violence against women. Looking at the perspectives of men working in the security industry in PNG, I argue that the increased traction and centrality of discourses of securitisation in the name of national development allows violence against men accused of criminal or anti-social behaviour to persist. Critically, the silences around the gendered dimensions of violence between men excused as ‘disciplinary’ produces double standards that are unhelpful to efforts to improve gender equality. Here, I seek to illustrate that narratives of discipline and security form a continuum in discussions of violence, highlighting the need for politicised and holistic approaches to gender in violence interventions" (Lusby, 2017, p. 23).

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Security, Male Perpetrators, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2017

Disaster Resilience: Addressing Gender Disparities

Citation:

Moreno-Walton, Lisa, and Kristi Koenig. 2016. “Disaster Resilience: Addressing Gender Disparities.” World Medical & Health Policy 8 (2): 46–57.

Authors: Lisa Moreno-Walton, Kristi Koenig

Abstract:

This article explores the impact of gender on disaster resilience and survival within diverse populations. Through a review of the relevant literature, five categories of gender-related disparities are identified: biology, responsibility for dependents, development of skills, clothing, and vulnerability to assault and trafficking. Identification of gender disparities is a first step in building resilient communities, and enhancing survival across a wide range of disaster scenarios when future events occur.

Keywords: disaster, women, gender, survival disparities

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Analysis, Trafficking, Violence

Year: 2016

Re-Thinking Hegemonic Masculinities in Conflict-Affected Contexts

Citation:

Myrttinen, Henri, Lana Khattab, and Jana Naujoks. 2017. “Re-Thinking Hegemonic Masculinities in Conflict-Affected Contexts.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 103–19.

Authors: Henri Myrttinen, Lana Khattab, Jana Naujoks

Abstract:

Masculinities in conflict-affected and peacebuilding contexts have, generally speaking, been under-researched. Much of the existing research focuses relatively narrowly on men and their ‘violences’, especially that of combatants. Conceptually, much of the policy debate has revolved around either men’s ‘innate’ propensity to violence or relatively simplistic uses of frameworks such as hegemonic, military/militarized, or ‘hyper’-masculinities. These discourses have often been reinforced and reproduced without relating them to their respective local historical, political, and socio-economic contexts. In academic circles, the discussion is more advanced and progressive, but this has yet to filter through to on-the-ground work.
 
Considering the overwhelming role men play in producing and reproducing conflict-related and other forms of violence, a better understanding of the links between masculinities and violence – as well as non-violence – should be central to examining gender, conflict, and peace. Nonetheless, currently a large part of masculinities are side-lined in research, such as those of non-combatants or displaced persons, the associated challenges of ‘thwarted masculinities’, or  the positive agency of peacebuilders. Non-heterosexual masculinities also are largely invisible. Based on recent multi-country field research, we aim to highlight some of the under-researched issues revolving around conflict-affected masculinities while also discussing some conceptual challenges arising as a result. Our two key arguments are that the notion of ‘hegemonic masculinities’ in conflict affected situations needs to be re-examined and re-articulated in more nuanced ways, and that the scope of studying masculinities in these situations needs to be broadened to go beyond merely examining the violences of men.

Keywords: masculinities, conflict, peacebuilding

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, LGBTQ, Peacebuilding, Violence

Year: 2017

War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neoimperialism

Citation:

Meger, Sara. 2016. “War as Feminized Labour in the Global Political Economy of Neoimperialism.” Postcolonial Studies 19(4): 378–92. 

Author: Sara Meger

Abstract:

This article examines the structures of international relations that facilitate political violence in postcolonial states. It explores the intersections of patriarchy and imperialism in the contemporary political economy to understand how armed conflict and political violence in postcolonial states form an integral element of the global economy of accumulation in deeply gendered ways. By focusing on the structural level of analysis, this article argues that the siting of armed conflict in postcolonial contexts serves to maintain neo-colonial relations of exploitation between the West and non-West, and is made both possible and effective through the gendering of political identities and types of work performed in the global economy. I argue here that armed conflict is a form of feminized labour in the global economy. Despite the fact that performing violence is a physically masculine form of labour, the outsourcing of armed conflict as labour in the political economy is ‘feminized’ in that it represents the flexibilization of labour and informalization of market participation. So while at the same time that this work is fulfilling hegemonic ideals of militarized masculinity within the domestic context, at the international level it actually demonstrates the ‘weakness’ or ‘otherness’ of the ‘failed’/feminized state in which this violence occurs, and legitimizes and hence re-entrenches the hegemonic relations between the core and eriphery on the basis of problematizing the ‘weak’ state’s masculinity. It is through the discursive construction of the non-Western world as the site of contemporary political violence that mainstream international relations reproduces an orientalist approach to both understanding and addressing the ‘war puzzle'.

Keywords: political economy, neo-colonialism, war, gender, feminized labour, feminist international relations, postcolonial theory

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Political Economies, Violence

Year: 2016

(Im)possible Futures: Liberal Capitalism, Vietnamese Sniper Women, and Queer Asian Possibility

Citation:

Ly, Lynn. 2017. “(Im)Possible Futures: Liberal Capitalism, Vietnamese Sniper Women, and Queer Asian Possibility.” Feminist Formations 29 (1): 136–60.

Author: Lynn Ly

Abstract:

This article examines the ways Vietnamese sniper women have been narrated and imagined in North America. Part nightmare, farce, icon, historical figure, and real person, the weaponized Vietnamese woman was a troubling figure to comprehend for US soldiers and the public alike. Navigating across historical, aesthetic, and performative texts, the article thinks through the different authorized narratives about this figure, and the queer futures made unintelligible in their making. It argues that liberal capitalism plays an important role in the determination of the relationship between past to present, and what may be imagined as possible, now and in the future. Vietnamese women soldiers during the US war in Vietnam (1955-1975) both frustrate and realize a queer Asian diasporic desire for historical ground on which to challenge racialized, gendered, and sexual epistemological regimes of the war. That is, while militant Vietnamese women were used as evidence of liberal capitalist logics, they also often failed to complete its fantasies, opening up important alternative and queer pasts--ones that inevitably fail to reach dominant conceptions post-Vietnam War presents, but also, for that very reason, critically arrive at an alternative modality for living in the present as a queer Asian and Vietnamese woman.

Keywords: liberal capitalism, militarism, queer Asian women, queer of color critique, time studies, transpacific studies

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Gender, Women, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Post-Conflict, Race, Sexuality, Violence Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2017

Mobilities at Gunpoint: The Geographies of (Im)mobility of Transgender Sex Workers in Colombia

Citation:

Ritterbusch, Amy E. 2016. “Mobilities at Gunpoint: The Geographies of (Im)Mobility of Transgender Sex Workers in Colombia.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 106 (2): 1–12.

Author: Amy E. Ritterbusch

Abstract:

Drawing from geo-ethnographic data collected during a participatory action research (PAR) project funded by the National Science Foundation and subsequent research conducted in Colombia with marginalized youth populations, this article explores the sociospatial exclusion and (im)mobility of the oppressed, subjugated, and persecuted through the social cartographies, geo-narratives, and auto-photographic images of transgender sex workers that were displaced by paramilitary-led gender-based violence and forced to leave their birth cities and rural communities in Colombia at an early age. As is the case for thousands of victims of the armed conflict in Colombia, displaced transgender populations seek refuge and opportunity in the streets of Bogotá, Colombia. The (im)mobilities of transgender sex workers are explored in two stages—the forced, violent mobilities of their displacement, followed by their experiences of discrimination, sociospatial exclusion, and persecution through hate crimes and social cleansing killings on arrival in Bogotá. This article discusses how research actors constructed their own spaces of cohesion and resistance to the multifaceted discrimination and marginalization from mainstream urban society through PAR. The PAR project presented in this article continues as part of the broader struggle of transgender sex workers to challenge the exclusionary discourses and praxis that limit their mobilities and autonomy in the city. This article concludes with examples of how research actors use the action-driven elements of PAR to negotiate, analyze, and resist the relationships of power and violence embedded within their urban environment and begin to re-present and change the reality of their immobility within the city.

Keywords: Colombia, gender-based violence, gendered (im)mobilities, internally displaced persons, Participatory Action Research

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, LGBTQ, Livelihoods, Sexual livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Gays, Cross-Dressers, and Emos: Nonnormative Masculinities in Militarized Iraq

Citation:

Rohde, Achim. 2016. “Gays, Cross-Dressers, and Emos: Nonnormative Masculinities in Militarized Iraq.” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies 12 (3): 433–49.

Author: Achim Rohde

Annotation:

"Much has been written about gender-based violence against Iraqi women under the thirty-five-year dictatorship of Saddam Hussein and since the fall of the regime in 2003 (Brown and Romano 2006, 56, 60–62; Al-Jawaheri 2008, 108–17; al-Ali 2005, 742–43, 754–55; 2007, 198, 207, 226–29; 2008, 413–16; Smiles 2008, 272–76; al-Ali and Pratt 2009, 78, 80, 157–61; Campbell and Kelly 2009, 24–25; Fischer-Tahir 2010, 1391–92; Ranharter and Stansfield 2015). Although the mass recruitment of men as soldiers and fighters often temporarily expanded spaces for women’s participation in the Iraqi public sphere (Efrati 1999, 28, 30–32; Rohde 2010, 86–91), militarism and militarist discourse before and since 2003 have reinforced gender polarity and heroic forms of masculinity, marginalizing and degrading the noncombat social positionalities of the majority of men and women (Rohde 2010, 124–43; 2011, 100, 104, 109–10; Fischer-Tahir 2012, 93–94; Abdulameer 2014). Nevertheless, organized violence against queer positionalities, or men perceived to violate sexual and gender norms, occurred only after 2003. This essay explores ruptures and continuities in organized violence against sex or gender nonconformity in recent Iraqi history.
 
"For the late Baʿthist period in Iraq, I analyze scholarly and journalistic sources, including items published in Iraqi newspapers and transcripts of a conversation between Saddam Hussein and tribal leaders in 1991 or 1992. For the years after 2003, I systematically analyzed four Iraqi (Arabic) daily newspapers (Al-Zaman, Al-Sabah, Al-Mada, and Al-Manara) and a weekly journal (Al-Esbuʿiyya) from late 2008, 2009, and spring 2012. I draw on other sources as well, including news videos, human rights reports, academic work, and other journalistic sources. Given the dangers and restrictions of research in Iraq, the available sources allow some preliminary analysis that can inform future systematic studies on gender and sexual diversity in Iraqi society" (Rohde, 2016, p. 433-4)

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2016

Pages

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