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Violence

Double Disaster: Disaster through a Gender Lens

Citation:

Bradshaw, Sarah, and Maureen Fordham. 2015. “Double Disaster: Disaster through a Gender Lens.” In Hazards, Risks and Disasters in Society, edited by John F. Shroder, Andrew E. Collins, Samantha Jones, Bernard Manyena, and Janaka Jayawickrama, 233-51. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 

Authors: Sarah Bradshaw, Maureen Fordham

Abstract:

This chapter explores the impact of disasters on women and girls, with particular reference to the context of the developing world. It critically explores the conceptual and theoretical basis for assuming that a differential impact exists. It highlights that disasters are gendered events and women and girls experience them differently from men, suffering longer term and more intangible impacts such as a rise in violence or greater insecurity in employment. Given women and girls are impacted more and differently than men and boys, it might be expected gender issues would be a key policy concern, yet the chapter highlights that gender is still excluded from much policy on disaster risk reduction. Drawing on the lessons learned from processes to “engender development,” it suggests that, although exclusion remains an issue, how women are included in disaster risk reduction and response can also raise concerns. It concludes by highlighting that tackling gendered risk demands both a reconceptualization of “disaster” and for disasters to become a development issue. (Abstract from Elsevier) 

Keywords: disaster risk reduction, engendering, gender, women, Adolescent girls

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Livelihoods, Violence

Year: 2015

The Unrealised Potential for Transformative Reparations for Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Sierra Leone

Citation:

Williams, Sarah, and Jasmine Opdam. 2017. “The Unrealised Potential for Transformative Reparations for Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Sierra Leone.” The International Journal of Human Rights 21 (9): 1281–301.

Authors: Sarah Williams, Jasmine Opdam

Abstract:

The conflict in Sierra Leone was known for the scope and severity of atrocities targeted at civilians, including sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) mainly perpetrated against women and girls. Post-conflict initiatives included the establishment of a hybrid criminal tribunal, the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL), and a truth and reconciliation commission (TRC). However, neither possessed a mandate for reparations to victims, yet both have made some contribution to tranformation. The judgments and processes of the SCSL have provided a measure of recognition to victims of SGBV. The TRC was required to to pay special attention to the experiences of women and girls in respect of sexual violence and structural inequality. It also interpreted its mandate broadly, in particular to making general recommendations as to the position of women and girls, as well as more specific recommendations as to reparations projects. These recommendations addressed three aspects of gender justice based on Fraser (recognition, representation and redistribution) and offered considerable scope for transformative reparations for victims of SGBV, including through structural, legal and social changes intended to guarantee the non-repetition of sexual violence. However, this article argues that although several of the TRC’s recommendations had transformative potential, much of this potential has not been realised due to the failure of the government to implement those recommendations.

Keywords: Sierra Leone, reparations, truth commission, sexual and gender-based violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Reparations, TRCs, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2017

Gender Inequality and Internal Conflict

Citation:

Forsberg, Erika, and Louise Olsson. 2016. “Gender Inequality and Internal Conflict.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228637.013.34.

Authors: Erika Forsberg, Louise Olsson

Keywords: gender, gender inequality, civil war, intrastate armed conflict, gender norms, positivism, masculinity, femininity, empirical international relations theory

Annotation:

Summary: 
Prior research has found robust support for a relationship between gender inequality and civil war. These results all point in the same direction; countries that display lower levels of gender equality are more likely to become involved in civil conflict, and violence is likely to be even more severe, than in countries where women have a higher status. But what does gender inequality mean in this area of research? And how does research explain why we see this effect on civil war? To explore this, we start with reviewing existing definitions and measurements of gender inequality, noting that the concept has several dimensions. We then proceed to outline several clusters of explanations of how gender inequality could be related to civil war while more equal societies are better able to prevent violent conflict, as described in previous research. It is clear that existing misconceptions that gender inequality primarily involves the role of women are clouding the fact that it clearly speaks to much broader societal developments which play central roles in civil war. We conclude by identifying some remaining lacunas and directions for future research.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Violence

Year: 2016

Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala

Citation:

Crystal, Valerie, Shin Imai, and Bernadette Maheandiran. 2014. “Access to Justice and Corporate Accountability: A Legal Case Study of HudBay in Guatemala.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies / Revue Canadienne D’Études Du Développement 35 (2): 285–303.

Authors: Shin Imai, Bernadette Maheandiran, Valerie Crystal

Abstract:

This case study looks at the avenues open for addressing serious allegations of murder, rape and assault brought by indigenous Guatemalans against a Canadian mining company, HudBay Minerals. While first-generation legal and development policy reforms have facilitated foreign mining in Guatemala, second-generation reforms have failed to address effectively conflicts arising from the development projects. The judicial mechanisms available in Guatemala are difficult to access and suffer from problems of corruption and intimidation. Relevant corporate social responsibility policies and mechanisms lack the necessary enforcement powers. Canadian courts have been reluctant to permit lawsuits against Canadian parent companies; however, in Choc v. HudBay and Yaiguaje v. Chevron Corporation, Ontario judges have allowed cases to proceed on the merits of the case, providing an important, if limited, avenue toward corporate accountability.

Keywords: mining, Latin America, Chevron, HudBay, corporate social responsibility

Topics: Corruption, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, Justice, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America, North America Countries: Canada, Guatemala

Year: 2014

Climate Disaster, Gender, and Violence: Men's Infliction of Harm Upon Women in the Philippines and Vietnam

Citation:

Nguyen, Huong T., and Helle Rydstrom. 2018. “Climate Disaster, Gender, and Violence: Men’s Infliction of Harm Upon Women in the Philippines and Vietnam.” Women’s Studies International Forum 71: 56–62.

Authors: Huong T. Nguyen, Helle Rydstrom

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Drawing on ethnographic material which we have collected in the Philippines and Vietnam in the aftermath of the 2013 typhoons Haiyan (Yolanda) and Nari, we focus on men's violence against women in the domestic sphere prior to and in the wake of a climate disaster. We do so by unfolding women's experiences of being subjected to their male partner's abuse and by examining how gender-based violence is conditioned or fought by agencies and organizations in the two studied settings. We engage with feminist research on climate disaster, gender, and violence to develop an analytical framework to dismantle how indirect systemic harm, or ‘structural violence’, shaped by androcentrism, interacts with direct physical violence through processes of‘rebounding’ (Bloch, 1992; Fraser, 1996; Galtung, 1969). In doing so, we argue for a holistic approach to the study of violence before, during, and after a cataclysmic event. The framework, we suggest, provides a tool to unravel how gender precariousness is fueled and maybe even augmented by a crisis of emergency" (Nguyen and Rydstrom 2018, 56). 

Topics: Domestic Violence, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, NGOs, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines, Vietnam

Year: 2018

Invisible Bodies: Gender, Conflict and Peace in Mindanao

Citation:

Hilsdon, Anne-Marie. 2009. “Invisible Bodies: Gender, Conflict and Peace in Mindanao.” Asian Studies Review 33 (3): 349–65.

Author: Anne-Marie Hilsdon

Annotation:

Summary:
"Against a backdrop of “conflict” and “violence”, this article explores several community spaces where Maranao women become “invisible”. It argues that through attempts to explain how and why such exclusions and omissions occur, Maranao women's negotiated embodied existence can be understood. I focus on a number of aspects of women's invisibility. First, although women are active in community peacemaking, this activity remains invisible and generally unacknowledged in both Muslim and Christian communities. Second, the intra-community conflict of rido remains unacknowledged in both “war” and peacemaking as the government focuses almost solely on the resolution of national political conflict. In addition, Muslim women's peacemaking abilities remain unacknowledged in national peace forums. Third, although religious tolerance underpins and often propels peacemaking processes, social justice for women is lacking" (Hilsdon 2009, 350).

 

Topics: Gender, Women, conflict, Justice, Peace Processes, Religion, Violence Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2019

Women Confronting Natural Disaster: From Vulnerability to Resilience

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine. 2006. Women Confronting Natural Disaster: From Vulnerability to Resilience. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Author: Elaine Enarson

Annotation:

Summary: 
Natural disasters push ordinary gender disparities to the extreme—leaving women not only to deal with a catastrophe's aftermath, but also at risk for greater levels of domestic violence, displacement, and other threats to their security and well-being. Elaine Enarson presents a comprehensive assessment, encompassing both theory and practice, of how gender shapes disaster vulnerability and resilience. (Summary from Lynne Rienner Publishers)
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Women and Disasters in the United States
 
2. Representations of Women in Disasters
 
3. How Gender Changes Disaster Studies
 
4. Measuring Vulnerability and Capacity 
 
5. Health and Well-Being 
 
6. Violence Against Women 
 
7. Intimacy and Family Life
 
8. Houses and Homes 
 
9. Work and Workplaces 
 
10. Grassroots Groups and Recovery 
 
11. Building Disaster Resilience 
 
12. Fighting for the Future

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Domestic Violence, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Households, Livelihoods, Security, Violence

Year: 2006

Gendered Violence in Natural Disasters: Learning from New Orleans, Haiti and Christchurch

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2013. “Gendered Violence in Natural Disasters: Learning from New Orleans, Haiti and Christchurch.” Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work 25 (2): 78–89.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Why are women so vulnerable to violence and death as a result of disaster compared with men? This article investigates how global environmental forces in the form of natural disasters from floods, droughts and famines to earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes affect women and men differently. Disasters are known to have direct and indirect impacts on gender-based violence particularly against women and girls, revealing a pattern of heightened violence and vulnerability in their aftermath. These gendered impacts are directly relevant to social work theory, practice and advocacy, which seek to promote social well being and to prevent violence in homes and communities during and in the aftermath of disasters. The article argues that women’s unequal economic and social status relative to men before a disaster strikes determines the extent of their vulnerability to violence during and after a crisis. If gender-based violence and women’s particular needs are not addressed in disaster preparedness, disaster recovery plans and humanitarian assistance, then women and girls’ vulnerability will increase. The article offers some lessons based on primary research of responses to the 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes against the backdrop of what we know about the responses to an earthquake of similar magnitude in Haiti in 2009. It draws implications from this research for social work theory, practice and advocacy, highlighting the importance of ensuring that future disaster planning and decision making is gender-sensitive.

Keywords: canterbury earthquakes, christchurch earthquakes, disaster, women, gender, haiti earthquake, violence, disaster planning

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Humanitarian Assistance, Violence Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, Oceania Countries: Haiti, New Zealand, United States of America

Year: 2013

Gender Essentialism in Canadian Foreign Aid Commitments to Women, Peace, and Security

Citation:

Tiessen, Rebecca. 2015. “Gender Essentialism in Canadian Foreign Aid Commitments to Women, Peace, and Security.” International Journal 70 (1): 84-100.

Author: Rebecca Tiessen

Abstract:

Canada has made a wide range of commitments to the promotion of gender equality in development assistance programming. However, in its fragile states programs, these commitments have in fact promoted gender essentialism, treating women as victims of violence rather than as active agents of peace and development. Drawing on a comparative analysis of the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security arising from the passing of Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) and on interviews conducted with a small sample of current and former Canadian government officials, this article documents and analyzes Canada’s comparatively weak and limited efforts to promote gender equality abroad under the Harper Conservatives, particularly for fragile and conflict-affected states. The research presented here is situated within broader feminist critiques of international relations and Canadian foreign policy, which document the centrality of gender equality to security and the role that international and national policies play in shaping gendered security dynamics.

Keywords: gender, security, Canadian foreign policy, gender essentialism, Harper government

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, International Organizations, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2015

Gender, Peacebuilding, and Reconstruction

Citation:

Sweetman, Caroline, ed. 2005. Gender, Peacebuilding, and Reconstruction. Oxfam Focus on Gender. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

Author: Caroline Sweetman

Abstract:

This collection of articles examines the impact of armed conflict on women, men, and gender relations. Gender stereotypes of conflict depict women and children as powerless victims, while men are presented either as saviours of the weak and powerless, or as agents of violence and destruction. Reality is more complex. Women, girls, and boys also wage war as soldiers, often against their will. Atrocities committed against them give rise to desperate physical, mental, and material need, which reconstruction and peace initiatives must recognise and address. In addition, women need to be involved as decision makers in peace and reconstruction processes. These must founded on a vision of equality in governance and everyday social interactions, if a sustainable peace is to come about. Case studies included here come from India, Kosovo, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone, and Uganda.

Keywords: conflict, Disasters, protection, reconstruction

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Editorial
Caroline Sweetman
 
2. Counter-revolutionary women: gender and reconciliation in post-war Nicaragua
Julie Cupples
 
3. Reconstructing fragile lives: girls’ social reintegration in northern Uganda and Sierra Leone
Susan McKay
 
4. Post-conflict programmes for women: lessons from the Kosovo Women’s Initiative
Agnes Kalungu-Banda
 
5. Mainstreaming gender in conflict reduction: from challenge to opportunity
Jasmine Whitbread
 
6. Promoting a gender-just peace: the roles of women teachers in peacebuilding and reconstruction
Jackie Kirk
 
7. Gender, participation, and post-conflict planning in northern Sri Lanka
Simon Harris
 
8. The gender dimensions of post-conflict reconstruction: an analytical framework for policymakers
Elaine Zuckerman and Marcia Greenberg
 
9. Building capacity to resolve conflict in communities: Oxfam experience in Rwanda
Rosemarie McNairn
 
10. Sustaining peace, re-building livelihoods: the Gujarat Harmony Project
Sara Ahmed

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: India, Kosovo, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Uganda

Year: 2005

Pages

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