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UNSCR 1889

Advancing Women's Empowerment or Rolling Back the Gains? Peace Building in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

Citation:

Abdullah, Hussaina J. 2014. “Advancing Women’s Empowerment or Rolling Back the Gains? Peace Building in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone.” In Feminisms, Empowerment and Development: Changing Women’s Lives, edited by Andrea Cornwall and Jenny Edwards. London: Zed Books.

Author: Hussaina J. Abdullah

Annotation:

Summary: 
“Sierra Leone’s reconstruction and peace consolidation policies and programmes are pursued within the post-conflict peace-building framework (UN 1992). Within this framework, women and gender issues have been articulated through a series of UN Security Council resolutions, such as 1325 (in 2000), 1820 (in 2008), 1888 and 1889 (in 2009), 1960 (in 2010) and 2106 and 2122 (in 2013). These resolutions specifically address women’s rights in post-conflict societies, their participation in reconstruction processes, their protection from violence, and the strengthening of justice systems. For instance, resolution 1325, the premier declaration on Women, Peace and Security, clearly links sexual violence as a weapon of war with the pursuit of peace and security, and outlines a legal structure for addressing these concerns at various levels” (Abdullah 2014, 67-68).
 
“To further consolidate the Women, Peace and Security agenda, the UN released two reports – ‘Report of the Secretary- General on Women, Peace and Security’ and ‘Report of the Secretary-General on Women’s Participation in Peacebuilding’ – on the tenth anniversary of the adoption of resolution 1325. The outstanding element in the latter report, which looked at women’s needs and participation in post-conflict reconstruction and transformation and peace-building processes, was the stipulation that 15 per cent of all UN-managed post-conflict financing funds should support projects that ‘address women’s specific needs, advance gender equality or empower women’ (UN 2010). While this framework has a transformatory edge, it does not go far enough to ensure women’s empowerment. Its application in post-conflict Sierra Leone is disjointed and full of loopholes that can be used to roll back whatever gains women have achieved. This chapter explores and reflects on this outcome” (68-69).

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, Justice, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122, Sexual Violence Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2014

Women in Peace and Security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: Literature Review, Content Analysis of National Action Plans, and Implementation

Citation:

Miller, Barbara, Milad Pournik and Aisling Swaine. 2014. "Women in Peace and Security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: Literature Review, Content Analysis of National Action Plans, and Implementation." IGIS Working Paper 13,  Elliot School of International Affairs, Institute for Global and International Studies, George Washington University, Washington, D.C..

Authors: Barbara Miller, Milad Pournik, Aisling Swaine

Abstract:

The complex challenges and opportunities of the Women, Peace and Security Agenda, as enunciated in United National Security Council Resolution 1325 of 2000, and several subsequent resolutions, lend themselves to both a “cup half full” and a “cup half empty” interpretation. The very phrase, the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda (WPS, for short), is itself a sign of progress among professionals working on global gender policy and programs around the world, as it is increasingly accepted as an important mandate across a wide variety of institutions, both public and private. On the downside, the WPS agenda is clearly not a household term (widely known outside activist and policy circles), nor is its foundational policy, United Nations Security Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325).

This Working Paper looks at the Women, Peace and Security agenda as laid out in UNSCR 1325 and in six following Security Council Resolutions - UNSCR 1820, 1888, 1889, 1960, 2106 and 2122 (see Boxes 1 and 2) - to assess progress in the past decade and a half since the adoption of UNSCR 1325 in 2000. We conducted an extensive desk study of the existing literature on UNSCR 1325, performed a detailed content analysis of 40 of the 42 existing 1325 NAPs, and offer an update on implementation of Women, Peace, and Security goals more broadly. The Working Paper is addresses three main questions:

  • What does the social science and related literature say about UNSCR 1325 since its adoption in 2000?
  • What does content analysis of National Action Plans (NAPs) in support of UNSCR 1325 reveal about the effectiveness of such plans?
  • What are examples of implementation of 1325 principles with and beyond 1325 NAPs?

Topics: Gender, Women, peace and security, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122

Year: 2014

Invisible Victims? Where are Male Victims of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in International Law and Policy?

Citation:

Gorris, Ellen Anna Philo. 2015. “Invisible Victims? Where are Male Victims of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in International Law and Policy?” European Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (4): 412-427. 

Author: Ellen Anna Philo Gorris

Abstract:

In this article the author argues that men and boys have been historically and structurally rendered an invisible group of victims in international human rights and policy responses towards conflict-related sexual violence stemming from the United Nations. The apparent female-focused approach of instruments on sexual violence is criticized followed by a discussion – through analysis and interviews with legal scholars and champions for the recognition of male survivors’ experiences – of the first ‘emergence’ of male victims in these instruments and key actors involved in this process. The existing serious dichotomy between visible and invisible victims is prominently based on their ‘gender identity’ and leads to structural discrimination of male victims of rape or other forms of sexual violence. To overcome this situation and develop more inclusive instruments, a reconceptualization is needed of the meaning and use of words like ‘gender’ and ‘gender-based violence’. Additionally, a more intersectional approach to sexual violence should be adopted, understanding that victims have a multitude of identities such as ethnicity or religious affiliation that make them particularly vulnerable to suffering.

Keywords: sexual violence, male victims, human rights, conflict, gender, intersectionality, women, women, peace, and Security

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Men, Boys, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, intersectionality, Religion, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122, Sexual Violence, SV against men

Year: 2015

Sex, Security and Superhero(in)Es: From 1325 to 1820 and Beyond

Citation:

Shepherd, Laura J. 2011. “Sex, Security and Superhero(in)Es: From 1325 to 1820 and Beyond.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 13 (4): 504–21.

Author: Laura Shepherd

Abstract:

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 was adopted in October 2000 with a view to ensuring that all aspects of conflict management, post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding be undertaken with a sensitivity towards gender as an axis of exclusion. In this paper, I do not dwell on the successes and shortcomings of UNSCR 1325 for long, instead using a discussion of the Resolution as a platform for analysis of sub- sequent Resolutions, including UNSCRs 1820 (2008), 1882 (2009), 1888 (2009) and 1889 (2009). This last relates specifically to the participation of women in peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction and is the most recent pronouncement of the Security Council on the issue of ‘women and peace and security’. Through this analysis, I draw attention to the expectations of and pressures on (some) women in the arena of peace and security, which can only be alleviated through discursive and material change in attitudes towards equality and empowerment. I argue that the Council is beginning to recognize – and simultaneously to constitute – (some/most) women as agential subjects and suggest that the fragmented and mutable representations of women in Council resolutions offer a unique opportunity for critical engagement with what ‘women’ might be, do or want in the field of gender and security.

Keywords: Resolution 1325, peacebuilding, participation, gender, security

Topics: Armed Conflict, Conflict Prevention, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, Security Sector Reform

Year: 2011

A Feminist Analysis of UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace, and Security

Citation:

von Braunmühl, Claudia. 2013. “A Feminist Analysis of UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace, and Security.” In Feminist Strategies in International Governance. London: Routledge.

Author: Claudia von Braunmühl

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, International Law, International Organizations, Justice, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Human Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960

Year: 2013

The Role of Women in Global Security

Citation:

Norville, Valerie. 2011. The Role of Women in Global Security. 246. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.

Author: Valerie Norville

Abstract:

This report examines women’s roles in peacebuilding, postconflict reconstruction, and economic development. It draws on discussions at the conference on The Role of Women in Global Security, held in Copenhagen on October 29–30, 2010, and co-hosted by the U.S. Embassy in Denmark and the Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in partnership with the U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP). Ambassador Laurie S. Fulton, U.S. ambassador to Denmark and former member of USIP’s board, brought together participants from the United States, Nordic-Baltic countries, Afghanistan, Liberia, and Uganda to focus on the roles that women can play as leaders in areas of active conflict and postconflict. Participants from the public and private sector, including the military, civilian, NGO, academic, and corporate worlds, joined to share experiences and best-practice recommendations on how to increase women’s participation in their communities to effect positive change: resolving active conflicts, assisting in postconflict reintegration, and furthering economic development. Ambassador Fulton noted that men and women with first-person practical experience were able to share their recommendations with those “who represent political leadership from host countries and international organizations who can encourage implementation of those recommendations.”

 

Annotation:

• Building lasting peace and security requires women’s participation. Half of the world’s population cannot make a whole peace.

• Ten years after the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1325 on increasing women’s participation in matters of global security, the numbers of women participating in peace settlements remain marginal.

• While improvements have been made, women remain underrepresented in public office, at the negotiating table, and in peacekeeping missions.

• The needs and perspectives of women are often overlooked in postconflict disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR), as well as in security sector reform, rehabilitation of justice, and the rule of law.

• Many conflicts have been marked by widespread sexual and gender-based violence, which often continues in the aftermath of war and is typically accompanied by impunity for the perpetrators.

• A continuing lack of physical security and the existence of significant legal constraints in postconflict societies hamper women’s integration into economic life and leadership.

• Best practices for increasing women’s participation include deployment of gender-balanced peacekeeping units, a whole-of-government approach to security sector and judicial reform, and more intentional solicitation of the input of women at the community level on priorities for national budgets and international programs. 

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889

Year: 2011

Women, Peace, Security, and the National Action Plans

Citation:

Fritz, Jan Marie, Sharon Doering, and F. Belgin Gumru. 2011. “‘Women, Peace, Security, and the National Action Plans.” Journal of Applied Social Science 5 (1): 1-23.

Authors: Jan Marie Fritz, Sharon Doering, F. Belgin Gumru

Abstract:

Twenty criteria are used to analyze sixteen national action plans that focus on women, peace, and security. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, a base for the national plans, highlights the terrible consequences of violent conflict on women and girls as well as the important role of women in all peacebuilding processes. Suggestions are made for those developing or revising plans and include addressing the relevant points from four UN Security Council resolutions (1325, 1820, 1888, and 1889); specifying all processes and timelines; and including civil society participation in all phases of a plan's development; implementation, and assessment.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889 Regions: Africa, West Africa, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Denmark, Finland, Liberia, United Kingdom

Year: 2011

Assessing the Potential of National Action Plans to Advance Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325

Citation:

Swaine, Aisling. 2009. “Assessing the Potential of National Action Plans to Advance Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.” Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 12: 403–33. doi:10.1017/S1389135909000142.

Author: Aisling Swaine

Abstract:

‘Women, peace, security’ has now firmly emerged as a distinct category for attention by international law, international policy and programming approaches for governments and activists alike. UN Security Council Resolution 1325 is the pillar of this agenda and there is questionable evidence of whether the kind of reforms envisioned through SCR 1325 have truly taken place and whether progress, if any, has been made towards its implementation. High expectations are pinned to the more recent and related resolutions SCR1820 (2008), SCR1888 (2009) and SCR1889 (2009) recently adopted by the Security Council. Increasingly, the focus has been on the potential offered through the development of ‘action plans’ as possible ‘solutions’ to the current deficit. In this article action plans are examined and a snap-shot of the ways in which ‘National Action Plans for the implementation of SCR 1325’ are being developed and the increasing role they are playing in international debate on the theme of ‘women, peace and security’ is presented. The article argues that implementation of these resolutions requires reformist and radical interventions that create fundamental change. Factors affecting the potential of these plans to encompass this kind of approach are outlined, focusing on the process and content aspects of developing action plans. The article highlights that while action plans are generating positive incentives to compel states to act, caution is required before proclaiming them to be the ‘antidote’ to the existing gulf between the principles of the Resolution and effective policy response and implementation. Commentary on emerging trends and some suggestions on possible avenues for moving forward conclude the article.

Keywords: UNSCR 1325, National Action Plans, peace, security, women, gender equality

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889

Year: 2009

Sexual Violence Beyond Reasonable Doubt: Using Pattern Evidence and Analysis for International Cases

Citation:

Aranburu, Xabier Agirre. 2010. "Sexual Violence Beyond Reasonable Doubt: Using Pattern Evidence and Analysis for International Cases." Law Social Inquiry 35 (4): 855-79.

Author: Xabier Agirre Aranburu

Abstract:

Establishing the pattern of crime is fundamental for the successful investigation of international crimes (genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity). A pattern of crime is the aggregate of multiple incidents that share common features related to the victims, the perpetrators, and the modus operandi. Pattern evidence and analysis have been used successfully, mainly in the investigation of large-scale killings, destruction, and displacement; the use for sexual violence charges has been remarkably more limited. There is a need to overcome this gap by setting proper methods of data collection and analysis. At the level of evidence collection, under-reporting should be addressed through victimization surveys or secondary analysis of data available from different sources. At the level of analysis, the available evidence needs to be subject to impartial examination beyond the pre-conceptions of the conflict parties and advocacy groups, in compliance with scientific standards for quantitative, qualitative, and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) methods. Reviewing the different investigative experiences and jurisprudence will help to set the right methodology and contribute most efficiently to putting an end to the impunity regarding sexual crimes.

Keywords: sexual violence, criminal investigations, law

Annotation:

Quotes:

"The investigation of international crimes often requires means of evidence and analysis able to show the series of incidents as a whole and to determine whether they have enough in common to be considered a relevant pattern of crime. Such pattern evidence and analysis, from expert testimony to statistics and crime mapping, have been used successfully mainly for killings and mass destruction and displacement, but their use for sexual violence charges has been remarkably more limited. As Susana SaCouto and Katherine Cleary (2009) have observed, 'Unfortunately, while the ad hoc tribunals have used circumstantial or pattern evidence to establish that an accused ordered certain crimes, a review of sexual violence and gender-based cases before these tribunals indicates that they appear more reluctant to do so in these types of cases' (353)." (2)

 "The record of the ICTR has been assessed as 'shameful' because 'crimes of sexual violence have never been fully and consistently incorporated into the investigations and strategy of the Prosecutor's Office' (Nowrojee 2007, 370). n4 Concerning both the ICTR and ICTY, according to expert assessment, there has been a 'tendency to require that the prosecution meet a higher evidentiary standard in cases of sexual violence and gender based crimes' (SaCouto and Cleary 2009, 356). As an experienced practitioner, I have seen professionals refuse to deal with allegations of sexual violence, neglect the relevant evidence, or set higher standards for evidence on a number of occasions." (3)

"The reluctance to investigate sexual violence appears to result from two main factors: lack of awareness and sensitivity among teams usually led by senior male officers and a certain taboo or embarrassment when dealing with intimate aspects of our bodies and minds. Researchers from the field of cognitive psychology and the psychology of law could probably assist in analyzing such prejudices and suggest corrective measures (the most obvious being evaluation at the recruitment stage, training, clear policies and standards, appointment of designated specialized staff, and gender balance in teams)." (3)

"There are at least four notions in the advocacy literature that criminal investigations need to considercritically: sexual violence is not prevalent in every conflict, it is not necessarily a strategic choice as a 'weapon of war,' underreporting is not an axiomatic universal fact, and women are not the only victims." (4)

"The problem of underreporting seems to be particularly acute among male victims since, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2008), 'there is an extremely limited awareness of, and knowledge about, sexual violence against men and boys in conflict among the humanitarian and sexual violence research community' (2). In spite of all the available information, male victims are entirely ignored in the key resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council in relation to sexual violence in armed conflicts (Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888, and 1889, adopted between 2000 and 2009)." (6)

"Factual typologies, while necessarily situation specific, may be assisted by consideration of the following very frequent types:   1. Opportunistic: As discussed above, a type of sexual looting decided by the direct perpetrator, who aims primarily at his own sexual satisfaction while taking the opportunity offered by the defenselessness of the victim and possibly other factors.  2. Strategic: when used as a means to terrorize, expel, or subjugate the victim, and possibly her or his community. This may become apparent with conducts that may not give sexual satisfaction to the perpetrator (e.g., [*870] sterilization, mutilation, or penetration with objects) or when the aggression is publicized with an intent to offend the wider population.  3. Captivity: Scenarios of sexual violence in conditions of captivity combine opportunistic and strategic aspects, since the aggression may be decided by the direct perpetrator for his own satisfaction, while the opportunity to abuse is systemically constructed by those who established the captivity regime. This type of crime may include scenarios of abduction, sexual slavery, abuse within detention facilities, forced 'marriage,' or sexual abuse of child soldiers." (9-10)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Men, Justice, Crimes against Humanity, Impunity, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, Sexual Violence, SV against men, SV against women

Year: 2010

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