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Transportation

Building Inclusive Cities

Citation:

Whitzman, Carolyn, Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, Kalpana Viswanath eds. 2013. Building Inclusive Cities. New York: Routledge. 

Authors: Carolyn Whitzman, Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, Kalpana Viswanath

Annotation:

Summary:
“Building on a growing movement within developing countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia–Pacific, as well as Europe and North America, this book documents cutting-edge practice and builds theory around a rights-based approach to women’s safety in the context of poverty reduction and social inclusion. Drawing upon two decades of research and grass-roots action on safer cities for women and everyone, this book is about the right to an inclusive city. The first part of the book describes the challenges that women face regarding access to essential services, housing security, liveability and mobility. The second part of the book critically examines programmes, projects and ideas that are working to make cities safer. Building Inclusive Cities takes a cross-cultural learning perspective from action research occurring throughout the world and translates this research into theoretical conceptualizations to inform the literature on planning and urban management in both developing and developed countries. This book is intended to inspire both thought and action” (Whitzman 2013, i).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation

Year: 2013

Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development

Citation:

Pandey, Shanta. 1998. “Women, Environment, and Sustainable Development.” International Social Work 41 (3): 339-55. 

Author: Shanta Pandey

Annotation:

Summary:
“In developing countries, poor populations, especially women and children, are disproportionately concentrated in ecologically degraded, fragile, and marginal lands (Durning, 1989). A wide range of development programs have been launched to promote social and economic development of rural areas. These programs are in the form of reforestation, irrigation and drinking water improvement, innovative farming techniques, primary health care facilities and health education, and training and human capital development. People’s participation, especially women’s, in these development programs is crucial for their success. Much has been written on the failure of states and development projects to engage rural people, especially rural women, in these rural development initiatives (Mayoux, 1995). This paper reviews several case studies conducted in Nepal and identifies some of the factors that contribute to the participation of rural people, especially rural women, in forest resources management programs. The paper also discusses social workers’ role in promoting participation and sustainable development” (Pandey, 1998, 339).

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Humanitarian Assistance, Infrastructure, Energy, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 1998

Infrastructure and Poverty: A Gender Analysis

Citation:

Masika, Rachel, and Sally Baden. 2001. Infrastructure and Poverty: A Gender Analysis. 51. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.

Authors: Rachel Masika, Sally Baden

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Infrastructure, Transportation

Year: 2001

Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2007. "Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa." Paper presented at Understanding and Addressing Spatial Poverty Traps: An International Workshop, Durham University, UK, March 29.

Author: Gina Porter

Abstract:

This paper reflects on the experiences of women and girl children residents in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa with poor physical accessibility (to services and markets) because of poor roads and inadequate transport (in terms of regularity, reliability and cost). Examples from field research conducted in diverse agro-ecological and cultural contexts in western and southern Africa are used to explore the impacts of relative immobility and poor access to services on women and girls. Three themes are examined in some detail: access to education, access to health services and access to markets. (Abstract from original source)

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa

Year: 2007

Gender and Transport in Less Developed Countries: A Background Paper in Preparation for CSD-9

Citation:

Peters, Dieke. 2001. "Gender and Transport in Less Developed Countries: A Background Paper in Preparation for CSD-9." Paper presented at Gender Perspectives for Earth Summit 2002: Energy, Transport, Information for Decision-Making, Berlin, Germany, January 10-12.

Author: Deike Peters

Abstract:

Few developing country research and development projects have adequately accounted for the intersection of gender, transport, and mobility. This paper brings together recent evidence from rural and urban transport case studies in less developed countries. Women's disadvantaged position in transport systems is apparent throughout. However, rather than simply use the studies to confirm general trends, this paper highlights both similarities and differences in women's experiences in order to stress the need for locally-adapted gender-sensitive transport strategies. Once this local dimension is brought back in, "giving voice" to women in transport planning and practice does not have to remain a lofty theoretical principle. Crucial, practical advances can be made by improving the quality of household and user surveys and by collecting all data in a sex-disaggregated manner. These efforts should be complemented by comprehensive, locally-targeted gender analyses and action plans. Depending on local context, the provision of special transit services to women may be an appropriate intervention, but should not be seen as a permanent solution. (Abstract from original source
 

Topics: Development, Gender, Households, Infrastructure, Energy, Transportation

Year: 2001

Labour Migration and Gendered Agricultural Relations: The Feminization of Agriculture in the Ejidal Sector of Calakmul, Mexico

Citation:

Radel, Claudia, Birgit Schmook, Jamie Mcevoy, Crisol Mendez, and Peggy Petrezelka. 2012. “Labour Migration and Gendered Agricultural Relations: The Feminization of Agriculture in the Ejidal Sector of Calakmul, Mexico.” Journal of Agrarian Change 12 (1): 98–119. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0366.2011.00336.x.

Authors: Claudia Radel, Birgit Schmook, Jamie Mcevoy, Crisol Mendez, Peggy Petrezelka

Abstract:

We examine the nature of the ‘feminization of agriculture’ in the semi-subsistence, peasant production sector of southeastern Mexico, as associated with male labour out-migration. Presenting findings from empirical work with smallholder producers, we discuss the impact of men's migration to the United States on women's participation in agriculture and gendered relations of agricultural production. In 2007, we conducted a survey of 155 semi-subsistence, smallholder households in six ejidos. This survey was supplemented by ethnographic research in a single ejido. Our findings demonstrate the need to distinguish between farm labour and management in this sector, and the potentially significant (but focused) changes in the local relations of agricultural production wrought by gendered patterns of labour migration – specifically in tenure, land-use decision-making and the management of hired labour.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Mexico

Year: 2012

How Does Fear of Sexual Harassment on Transit Affect Women’s Use of Transit?

Citation:

Hsu, Hsin-Ping. 2009. “How Does Fear of Sexual Harassment on Transit Affect Women’s Use of Transit?” In Women’s Issues in Transportation - Summary of the 4th International Conference. Vol. 2. Irvine, California: Transportation Research Board.

Author: Hsin-Ping Hsu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to understand how women’s fear of sexual harassment on transit changes their transit use and travel behavior. The study, which employed a qualitative research approach, found that cultural differences are important to women’s perceptions of sexual harassment and women’s attitudes about adequate policy responses. Yet cultural differences are not as important as the availability of a car in influencing how women modify their use of transit in response to sexual harassment. Thus, a feasible and effective policy addressing this issue should take the cultural context into consideration.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Infrastructure, Transportation, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, SV against women

Year: 2009

Women’s Safety and Security Issues with Bicycling and Walking - Examination of Potential Planning, Design, and Technology Solutions

Citation:

Vaughn, Stephen T. 2009. “Women’s Safety and Security Issues with Bicycling and Walking - Examination of Potential Planning, Design, and Technology Solutions.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation - Summary of the 4th International Conference. Vol. 2. Irvine, California: Transportation Research Board.

Author: Stephen T. Vaughn

Abstract:

In the non-motorized transportation field, gender differences in bicycling and walking are well documented, and personal safety has been identified as a deterrent to their increased usage. This concern for safety is not limited to the physical environment of the roadways, but includes the individual’s perception of safety in the surrounding neighborhoods as well as the environment of multi-use paths and lanes. This paper uses data from the National Crime victimization Survey and the FBI’s National Incident-Based Reporting System to examine gender issues and to identify major safety and security concerns for users. The study incorporates focus group recommendations to offer planning and policy recommendations to increase the number of women who choose non-motorized transportation.

Topics: Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Transportation, Security, Human Security Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2009

Youth Transport, Mobility, and Security in Sub-Saharan Africa - The Gendered Journey to School

Citation:

Porter, Gina, Kate Hampshire, Albert Abane, Alister Munthali, Elsbeth Robson, Mac Mashiri, and Augustine Tanle. 2009. “Youth Transport, Mobility, and Security in Sub-Saharan Africa - The Gendered Journey to School.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation - Summary of the 4th International Conference. Vol. 2. Irvine, California: Transportation Research Board.

Authors: Gina Porter, Kate Hampshire, Albert Abane, Alister Munthali, Elsbeth Robson, Mac Mashiri, Augustine Tanle

Abstract:

This paper draws on empirical data from a three-country (Ghana, Malawi, and South Africa) study of young people’s mobility to explore the gendered nature of children’s journeys to school in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender differences in school enrollment and attendance in Africa are well established: education statistics in many countries indicate that girls’ participation in formal education is often substantially lower than boys’, especially at the secondary school level. Transport and mobility issues commonly form an important component of this story, though the precise patterning of the transportation and mobility constraints experienced by girls and the ways in which transport factors interact with other constraints vary from region to region. In some contexts, the journey to school represents a particularly hazardous enterprise for girls because they face a serious threat of rape. In other cases, girls’ journeys to school and school attendance are hampered by Africa’s transport gap and by cultural conventions that require females to be responsible for pedestrian head loading (transporting loads such as food crops or fuel on the head) and other work before leaving for, or instead of attending, school. evidence comes from a diverse range of sources, but the data used here are principally drawn from a survey questionnaire conducted with approximately 1,000 children ages 7 to 18 years across eight sites in each country. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the diversity of gendered travel experiences across geographical locations (paying attention to associated patterns of transport provision); to explore the implications of these findings for access to education; and to suggest areas in which policy intervention could be beneficial.

Topics: Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Roles, Infrastructure, Transportation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Malawi, South Africa

Year: 2009

Reducing Harm Associated with Women in Using Commercial Motorcycle Transportation in a Developing Country

Citation:

Ojugbana, D., A. Okonkwo, and K. Olebunne. 2010. “Reducing Harm Associated with Women in Using Commercial Motorcycle Transportation in a Developing Country.” Injury Prevention 16 (1): 121. doi:10.1136/ip.2010.029215.435.

Authors: D. Ojugbana, A. Okonkwo, K. Olebunne

Abstract:

Statement of Purpose: In Nigeria, dangers posed by commercial motorcyclists at nights are very disturbing. Past studies have shown that a high number of harm incidents involved women, who were robbed, brutalised, raped and killed. The situation is similar for most countries in sub Saharan Africa. The study seeks to address the issue of women vulnerability in commercial motorcycle transportation. Summary of Results: Results showed that 75% of respondents agreed that motorcycle transportation at nights is unsafe. 68% affirmed that women are targets. Incidents of rape and abuse were noted. 72% of women respondents have stopped night movements. Police officials confirmed harassment and attack. 90% of victims were unable to give description of attackers. Unorganised system of transportation, poor monitoring and inability of the victims to identify attackers hinder progress. The study concludes that actions of unchecked commercial motorcyclists at nights often result in severe consequences for women. The use of motorcycles for commercial transportation between the hours of 19:00 and 06:00 requires additional measures such as data base with verifiable personal information of cyclists. (Abstract from original source
 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Infrastructure, Transportation, Sexual Violence

Year: 2010

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