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SV against women

The Afghan State and the Issue of Sexual Violence Against Women

Citation:

Mann, C. 2012. “The Afghan State and the Issue of Sexual Violence Against Women.” In Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: International Law, Local Responses. Sterling: Kumarian Press. https://www.rienner.com/title/Conflict_Related_Sexual_Violence_International_Law_Local_Responses.

Author: C. Mann

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2012

Gender-Based Violence, Help-Seeking, and Criminal Justice Recourse in Haiti

Citation:

Duramy, B.F. 2012. “Gender-Based Violence, Help-Seeking, and Criminal Justice Recourse in Haiti.” In Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: International Law, Local Response. Sterling: Kumarian Press. https://www.rienner.com/title/Conflict_Related_Sexual_Violence_International_Law_Local_Responses.

Author: B.F. Duramy

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Justice, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Haiti

Year: 2012

The Securitization of Rape: Women, War and Sexual Violence

Citation:

Hirschauer, Sabine. 2014. The Securitization of Rape: Women, War and Sexual Violence. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. http://link.springer.com/10.1057/9781137410825.

Author: Sabine Hirschauer

Abstract:

This book uniquely applies securitization theory to the mass sexual violence atrocities committed during the Bosnia war and the Rwandan genocide. Examining the inherent links between rape, war and global security, Hirschauer analyses the complexities of conflict related sexual violence.
 
(Palgrave Macmillan)

Keywords: military and defence studies, human rights, terrorism and political violence, political science, sociology

Topics: Gender, Women, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Human Security, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Rwanda

Year: 2014

Need for a Gender-Sensitive Human Security Framework: Results of a Quantitative Study of Human Security and Sexual Violence in Djohong District, Cameroon

Citation:

Parmar, Parveen Kaur, Pooja Agrawal, Ravi Goyal, Jennifer Scott, and P. Gregg Greenough. 2014. “Need for a Gender-Sensitive Human Security Framework: Results of a Quantitative Study of Human Security and Sexual Violence in Djohong District, Cameroon.” Conflict and Health 8 (1): 6.

Authors: P. Gregg Greenough, Jennifer Scott, Ravi Goyal, Pooja Agrawal, Parveen Kaur Parmar

Abstract:

Background: Human security shifts traditional concepts of security from interstate conflict and the absence of war to the security of the individual. Broad definitions of human security include livelihoods and food security, health, psychosocial well-being, enjoyment of civil and political rights and freedom from oppression, and personal safety, in addition to absence of conflict. Methods: In March 2010, we undertook a population-based health and livelihood study of female refugees from conflict-affected Central African Republic living in Djohong District, Cameroon and their female counterparts within the Cameroonian host community. Embedded within the survey instrument were indicators of human security derived from the Leaning-Arie model that defined three domains of psychosocial stability suggesting individuals and communities are most stable when their core attachments to home, community and the future are intact. Results: While the female refugee human security outcomes describe a population successfully assimilated and thriving in their new environments based on these three domains, the ability of human security indicators to predict the presence or absence of lifetime and six-month sexual violence was inadequate. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the study demonstrates that common human security indicators do not uncover either lifetime or recent prevalence of sexual violence. Conclusions: These data suggest that current gender-blind approaches of describing human security are missing serious threats to the safety of one half of the population and that efforts to develop robust human security indicators should include those that specifically measure violence against women.

Keywords: sexual violence, human security, women's health, Cameroon, Central African Republic, refugee

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Health, Livelihoods, Human Rights, Security, SV against women Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic

Year: 2014

Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone’s Civil War: ‘Virgination’, Rape, and Marriage

Citation:

Marks, Zoe. 2014. “Sexual Violence in Sierra Leone’s Civil War: ‘Virgination’, Rape, and Marriage.” African Affairs 113 (450): 67–87. doi:10.1093/afraf/adt070.

 

Author: Zoe Marks

Abstract:

Rape and sexual violence loom large in the study of civil war in Africa. Sierra Leone has been one of the most prominent cases for establishing rape as a ‘weapon of war,' yet little is known about how sexual violence was understood by commanders or combatants within the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). Mainstream analyses of armed groups and civil war rarely engage with gender dynamics, despite their centrality to war making, power, and violence; and research that does focus on sexual violence tends to overlook the complex internal dynamics of the groups responsible. This article examines the internal gender dynamics of the RUF from the perspective of male and female members in seeking to understand the perpetration of sexual violence. It shows that both formal and informal laws and power structures existed to regulate gender relations and control sexual behaviour within the group. It identifies four categories of women – non-wives, unprotected wives, protected wives, and senior women – and shows that women's interests and experiences of sexual violence were not homogeneous, but were instead shaped by their status within the group. In this way, sexual violence, examined in social context, provides an entry point for understanding how power, protection, and access to resources are brokered in rebellion.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Class, Combatants, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2014

Winning the Battle but Losing the War on Violence: A Feminist Persepctive on the Declining Global Violence Thesis

Citation:

True, Jacqui. 2015. “Winning the Battle but Losing the War on Violence: A Feminist Persepctive on the Declining Global Violence Thesis.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 17 (4): 554–72. doi:10.1080/14616742.2015.1046269.

Author: Jacqui True

Abstract:

Scholars have recently claimed that global violence – defined largely as homicide and casualties from war – is in steep decline. However, research dedicated to using data to prove the decline of violence, in particular Steven Pinker's book, The Better Angels of Our Nature, almost completely neglects evidence of gendered violence within and across states. This methodological and analytical failure results from flawed theoretical assumptions about what violence is and how to count violent incidences. While prevalence surveys show that a large proportion of women and girls (not to mention men and boys) experience sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), it does not appear in declinist analyses. This is especially problematic given the burgeoning evidence of SGBV's scale and significance in current conflicts, often as a “tactic of war” targeting civilians. Analyzing global violence from a feminist perspective thus radically challenges declinist views about trends of violence. The explicitly feminist perspective on international relations in this article provides a more universal accounting of global violence, and the contemporary changes in the nature and forms of violence.

Keywords: global violence, war, gender violence, sexual violence, feminist international relations

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Sexual Violence, SV against women

Year: 2015

Female Soldiers in Sierra Leone: Sex, Security, and Post-Conflict Development

Citation:

MacKenzie, Megan H. 2012. Female Soldiers in Sierra Leone: Sex, Security, and Post-Conflict Development. New York: New York University Press. http://nyupress.org/books/9780814761373/.

Author: Megan H. MacKenzie

Abstract:

The eleven-year civil war in Sierra Leone from 1991 to 2002 was incomprehensibly brutal—it is estimated that half of all female refugees were raped and many thousands were killed. While the publicity surrounding sexual violence helped to create a general picture of women and girls as victims of the conflict, there has been little effort to understand female soldiers’ involvement in, and experience of, the conflict. Female Soldiers in Sierra Leone draws on interviews with 75 former female soldiers and over 20 local experts, providing a rare perspective on both the civil war and post-conflict development efforts in the country. Megan MacKenzie argues that post-conflict reconstruction is a highly gendered process, demonstrating that a clear recognition and understanding of the roles and experiences of female soldiers are central to both understanding the conflict and to crafting effective policy for the future.
 
(New York University Press)

Keywords: political science, gender & women's studies

Topics: Civil Wars, Female Combatants, Development, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rape, SV against women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2012

Toward a Feminist Political Economy of Wartime Sexual Violence: The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo

Citation:

Meger, Sara. 2015. “Toward a Feminist Political Economy of Wartime Sexual Violence: The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 17 (3): 416–34. doi:10.1080/14616742.2014.941253.

Author: Sara Meger

Abstract:

Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) has been a prominent feature in the conflict in the eastern regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which is a weapon of war, an instrument of terror and perpetrated opportunistically by armed men from all factions of the conflict. While most feminist analyses identify the link between gender and SGBV, they have tended to privilege individual or cultural accounts of gender construction. This article develops a feminist political economy analysis of SGBV in the ongoing conflict that looks at the relationship between gender as an international structure and the processes of the international political economy that precipitate this violence in Congo's ongoing war. This article theorizes an important and overlooked relationship between the structures of gender hierarchy and international political economy that may provide insights into the widespread use of SGBV in the conflict in eastern DRC, which this article contends constitutes part of the “global assembly line” of capitalist production.

Keywords: political economy, sexual violence, new wars, masculinity

Topics: Armed Conflict, "New Wars", Economies, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Political Economies, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2015

Sexual Violence During War and Peace: Gender, Power, and Post-Conflict Justice in Peru

Citation:

Boesten, Jelke. 2014. Sexual Violence During War and Peace: Gender, Power, and Post-Conflict Justice in Peru. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US. http://link.springer.com/10.1057/9781137383457.

Author: Jelke Boesten

Abstract:

Using the Peruvian internal armed conflict as a case study, this book examines wartime rape and how it reproduces and reinforces existing hierarchies. Jelke Boesten argues that effective responses to sexual violence in wartime are conditional upon profound changes in legal frameworks and practices, institutions, and society at large.
 
(Palgrave Macmillan)

Keywords: Latin American culture, political science, gender studies, sociology, cultural studies, public policy

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rape, SV against women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2014

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