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Sexuality

Female Adolescents and their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods

Citation:

Rashid, Sabina Faiz, and Stephanie Michaud. 2000. “Female Adolescents and their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods.” Disasters 24 (1): 54–70.

Authors: Sabina Faiz Rashid, Stephanie Michaud

Abstract:

This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio‐cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's families and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their ‘purity’. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their ‘space’ and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately `secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were underwater. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far‐reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, 1998 floods, adolescence, sexuality, gender, women

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Girls, Health, Mental Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Sexuality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2000

Queering Women, Peace and Security in Colombia

Citation:

Hagen, Jamie J. 2017. "Queering Women, Peace and Security in Colombia." Critical Studies on Security 5 (1): 125-29.

Author: Jamie J. Hagen

Annotation:

Summary:
"The Colombian peace accords marked the first time lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) voices were included in the official peace proceedings for responding to injustices suffered during an armed conflict. This inclusion signals new possibilities for queering Women, Peace and Security (WPS), since a precedent has now been set for the inclusion of women’s sexual orientation and gender identity within the WPS architecture. As a queer security analysis of the role of lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LBT) advocacy through- out the Colombian peace process demonstrates, future WPS initiatives should be informed by this inclusion as a concern of gender security in conflict – something that can most effectively be achieved through a concerted alliance between LBT advocacy and WPS initiatives in order to promote the security of all women, regardless of their sexual orientation and gender identity" (Hagen 2017, p. 1).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, peace and security, International Organizations, LGBTQ, Peacebuilding, Rights, Human Rights, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2017

Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank

Citation:

Bedford, Kate. 2009. Developing Partnerships: Gender, Sexuality, and the Reformed World Bank. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 

Author: Kate Bedford

Annotation:

Summary:
A critique of how the World Bank encourages gender norms, Developing Partnerships argues that financial institutions are key players in the global enforcement of gender and family expectations. By combining analysis of documents produced and sponsored by the World Bank with interviews of World Bank staffers and case studies, Kate Bedford presents a detailed examination of gender and sexuality in the policies of the world's most influential development institution (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Working women, caring men, and the family bank : ideal gender relations after the Washington consensus 
 
2. The model region remodels partnerships : the politics of gender research in Latin America and the Caribbean
 
3. Forging partnerships, sidelining child care : how Ecuadorian femocrats navigate institutional constraints in World Bank gender policy
 
4. Roses mean love : export promotion and the restructuring of intimacy in Ecuador
 
5. Cultures of saving and loving : ethnodevelopment, gender, and heteronormativity in Prodepine
 
6. Holding it together : family strengthening in Argentina.
 
 

Topics: Development, Gender, Gender Roles, Households, International Financial Institutions, Sexuality Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries, Central America, South America Countries: Argentina, Ecuador

Year: 2009

Pharmaceutically-Made Men: Masculinities in Chad’s Emergent Oil Economy

Citation:

Leonard, Lori. 2016. “Pharmaceutically-Made Men: Masculinities in Chad’s Emergent Oil Economy.” Qualitative Sociology 39 (4): 421–37. doi:10.1007/s11133-016-9343-6.

Author: Lori Leonard

Abstract:

This article explores masculinities and changes in men's lives in the rural oil fields of Chad during the period of an oil and pipeline project described by the World Bank as a "model" for oil-as-development. In many parts of Africa, private sector investment is concentrated in the extractive industries, especially oil and gas projects. Africa's emerging oil economies entail new institutional configurations, or what Michael Watts called an "oil complex," that challenge antecedent norms and forms of identity. In this article, I describe the expectations, desires, and experiences of three distinct groups of men-those who found temporary employment on the project, those who continued to make a living from farming while contending with land expropriation, and those who migrated to oil field towns in search of work-to make three general points about the oil complex and masculinities in Chad. The structure of the global oil industry meant that local men who found jobs on the project could act as breadwinners and patriarchs, but only temporarily; local workers struggled post-employment with their exclusion from the possibilities associated with the project. Men who never found jobs continued to eke out a living from the land, but state-of-the-art policies governing land expropriation led simultaneously to conflict in families and greater economic interdependence among family members. Finally, in the low-media environment of the oil field region, ideas and images about sex, sexuality, and love emanating from the transient and hyper-masculine global oil industry workforce served as models for landless young men who migrated to oil field towns and who, in the absence of work, sought to transform themselves into objects of desire through the mediation of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Chad, extractive industries, land expropriation, lay-offs, masculinity, oil, pipeline, pornography, Viagra, africa

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Chad

Year: 2016

(Im)possible Futures: Liberal Capitalism, Vietnamese Sniper Women, and Queer Asian Possibility

Citation:

Ly, Lynn. 2017. “(Im)Possible Futures: Liberal Capitalism, Vietnamese Sniper Women, and Queer Asian Possibility.” Feminist Formations 29 (1): 136–60.

Author: Lynn Ly

Abstract:

This article examines the ways Vietnamese sniper women have been narrated and imagined in North America. Part nightmare, farce, icon, historical figure, and real person, the weaponized Vietnamese woman was a troubling figure to comprehend for US soldiers and the public alike. Navigating across historical, aesthetic, and performative texts, the article thinks through the different authorized narratives about this figure, and the queer futures made unintelligible in their making. It argues that liberal capitalism plays an important role in the determination of the relationship between past to present, and what may be imagined as possible, now and in the future. Vietnamese women soldiers during the US war in Vietnam (1955-1975) both frustrate and realize a queer Asian diasporic desire for historical ground on which to challenge racialized, gendered, and sexual epistemological regimes of the war. That is, while militant Vietnamese women were used as evidence of liberal capitalist logics, they also often failed to complete its fantasies, opening up important alternative and queer pasts--ones that inevitably fail to reach dominant conceptions post-Vietnam War presents, but also, for that very reason, critically arrive at an alternative modality for living in the present as a queer Asian and Vietnamese woman.

Keywords: liberal capitalism, militarism, queer Asian women, queer of color critique, time studies, transpacific studies

Topics: Armed Conflict, Economies, Gender, Women, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Post-Conflict, Race, Sexuality, Violence Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2017

Rape as a Weapon of War(riors): The Militarisation of Sexual Violence in the United States, 1990-2000

Citation:

Cerretti, Josh. 2016. “Rape as a Weapon of War(riors): The Militarisation of Sexual Violence in the United States, 1990-2000.” Gender & History 28 (3): 794-812. 

Author: Josh Cerretti

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against men, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

Integrating Sexuality into Gender and Human Rights Frameworks: A Case Study from Turkey

Citation:

Ilkkaracan, Pinar, and Karin Ronge. 2008. “Integrating Sexuality into Gender and Human Rights Frameworks: A Case Study from Turkey.” In Development with a Body: Sexuality, Human Rights and Development, edited by Sonia Corrêa, 225–41. Zed Books.

Authors: Pinar Ilkkaracan, Karin Ronge

Abstract:

Offers insights into contemporary challenges and transformative possibilities of the struggle for sexual rights. This book combines the conceptual with the political, and offering examples of practical interventions and campaigns that emphasize the positive dimensions of sexuality (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Development with a body: making the connections between sexuality, human rights, and development / Andrea Cornwall, Sonia Corrêa and Susie Jolly --

Development's encounter with sexuality: essentialism and beyond / Sonia Corrêa and Susan Jolly --

Sexual rights/human rights ---

Sexual rights are human rights / Kate Sheill --

Sex work, trafficking and HIV: how development is compromising sex workers' human rights / Melissa Ditmore --

The language of rights / Jaya Sharma --

Children's sexual rights in an era of HIV/AIDS / Deevia Bhana --

The rights of man / Alan Greig --

Human rights interrupted: an illustration from India / Sumit Baudh --

Gender and sex orders -- Discrimination against lesbians in the workplace / Alejandra Sardá --

Ruling masculinities in post-apartheid South Africa / Kopano Ratele --

Gender, identity and travesti rights in Peru / Giuseppe Campuzano --

Small powers, little choice: reproductive and sexual rights in slums in Bangladesh / Sabina Faiz Rashid --

Social and political inclusion of sex workers as preventive measure against trafficking: Serbian experiences / Jelena Djordjevic --

Confronting our prejudices: women's movement experiences in Bangladesh / Shireen Huq --

Sexuality education as a human right: lessons from Nigeria / Adenike O. Esiet --

Terms of contact and touching change: investigating pleasure in an HIV epidemic / Jill Lewis and Gill Gordon --

A democracy of sexuality: linkages and strategies for sexual rights, participation, and development / Henry Armas --

Integrating sexuality into gender and human rights frameworks: a case study from Turkey / Pinar Ilkkarancan and Karin Ronge.

Topics: Gender, Rights, Human Rights, Sexuality Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Turkey

Year: 2008

Why is Development Work so Straight? Heteronormativity in the International Development Industry

Citation:

Jolly, Susie. 2011. “Why Is Development Work so Straight? Heteronormativity in the International Development Industry.” Development in Practice 21 (1): 18–28. doi:10.1080/09614524.2011.530233.

Author: Susie Jolly

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT

International development work has both reinforced and challenged inequalities related to sexuality and gender. The concept of heteronormativity is a promising frame for understanding these dynamics. This article starts with a description of the history of the concept and an exploration of its possible applications. It goes on to consider heteronormativity in development work, in relation to three areas in which struggles based on sex and gender orders have been most visible: in household models and family forms; HIV/AIDS; and efforts to combat violence against women.

FRENCH ABSTRACT

Le travail international de développement a à la fois renforcé et mis en cause les inégalités liées à la sexualité et au genre. Le concept d’hétéronormativité constitue un cadre prometteur pour comprendre cette dynamique. Cet article commence par une description de l’histoire du concept et une étude de ses applications possibles. Il traite ensuite de l’hétéronormativité dans le travail de développement, par rapport à trois domaines dans lesquels les luttes basées sur les ordres du sexe et du genre ont été les plus visibles: dans les modèles de ménages et les formes familiales; le VIH/le sida; et les efforts en vue de lutter contre la violence à l’encontre des femmes.

SPANISH ABSTRACT

O trabalho de desenvolvimento internacional tem ao mesmo tempo reforc¸ado e desafiado as desigualdades relativas a` sexualidade e ao geˆnero. O conceito de heteronormatividade e´ uma estrutura promissora para se compreender essas dinaˆmicas. Este artigo inicia com uma descric ¸a˜o da histo´ria do conceito e uma explorac¸a˜o de suas possı´veis aplicac¸o˜es. Em seguida ele avalia a heteronormatividade no trabalho de desenvolvimento em relac¸a˜o a treˆs a´reas nas quais as lutas baseadas nas a´reas de sexo e geˆnero teˆm sido mais visı´veis: em modelos familiares e formas de famı´lia; HIV/AIDS; e nas esforc¸os para combater a violeˆncia contra as mulheres.

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT

El trabajo en desarrollo internacional ha incrementado las inequidades relacionadas con la sexualidad y el ge´nero a la vez que las ha combatido. El concepto de heteronormatividadpuede ser u´til como marco analı´tico para comprender esta dina´mica. Este ensayo comienza describiendo la historia del concepto y analizando sus posibles aplicaciones. Tambie´n analiza la heteronormatividad en el trabajo de desarrollo en las tres a´reas donde las luchas basadas en el sexo y en las jerarquı´as de ge´nero son ma´s visibles: los modelos de hogares y las normas familiares; VIH/SIDA; y las luchas contra la violencia hacia las mujeres.

 

Keywords: aid, gender, diversity, Rights, East Asia

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, LGBTQ, Sexuality, Violence

Year: 2011

‘I Think a Woman Who Travels a Lot Is Befriending Other Men and That’s Why She Travels’: Mobility Constraints and Their Implications for Rural Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2011. “‘I Think a Woman Who Travels a Lot Is Befriending Other Men and That’s Why She Travels’: Mobility Constraints and Their Implications for Rural Women and Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Gender, Place & Culture 18 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2011.535304.

Author: GIna Porter

Abstract:

This article is concerned with the implications of practices, politics and meanings of mobility for women and girl children in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Women and girls commonly face severe mobility constraints which affect their livelihoods and their life chances. The article reflects on their experiences in rural areas where patriarchal institutions (including the gender division of labour, which places great emphasis on female labour contributions to household production and reproduction), and a patriarchal discourse concerning linkages between women's mobility, vulnerability and sexual appetite, shape everyday social practices and material inequalities. This compounds the physical constraints imposed by poor accessibility (to services and markets) associated with poor roads and inadequate transport in both direct and more complex ways. The article draws on field research conducted in diverse socio-cultural and agro-ecological contexts in western and southern Africa (principally southern Ghana, southern Malawi and northern and central Nigeria) to explore the impacts of relative immobility and poor service access on women and girls. Three (interconnected) issues are examined in some detail: access to markets, access to education and access to health services. Possible interventions to initiate positive change are considered. (Abstract from original source)

Keywords: gender, mobility, markets, education, health, promiscuity, transport

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Infrastructure, Transportation, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria

Year: 2011

Homosexuality, Sex Work, and HIV/AIDS in Displacement and Post-Conflict Settings: The Case of Refugees in Uganda

Citation:

Nyanzi, Stella. 2013. "Homosexuality, Sex Work, and HIV/AIDS in Displacement and Post-Conflict Settings: The Case of Refugees in Uganda." International Peacekeeping 20 (4): 450-68. 

 

Author: Stella Nyanzi

Abstract:

This article aims to disrupt the silence, invisibility and erasures of non-heteronormative sexual orientations or gender identities, and of sex work, in HIV/AIDS responses within displacement and post-conflict settings in Africa. Informed by Gayle Rubin's sexual hierarchy theoretical framework, it explores the role of discrimination and violation of the rights of sex workers and of gender and sexual minorities in driving the HIV/AIDS epidemic during displacement. Specific case materials focus on ethnographic research conducted in urban and rural Uganda. Recommendations for policy, practice and programmes are outlined.

Topics: Gender, Women, HIV/AIDS, LGBTQ, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Sexuality Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2013

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