Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Security Sector Reform

Security Sector Reform: Re-imagining Its Transformative Potential

Citation:

Ero, Comfort. 2011. “Security Sector Reform: Re-imagining Its Transformative Potential.” In Women and Security Governance in Africa, edited by 'Funmi Olonisakin and Awino Okech, 31–48. Nairobi: Pambazuka Press.

Author: Comfort Ero

Topics: Gender, Governance, Justice, Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Security Sector Reform Regions: Africa

Year: 2011

Criminalizing Male Violence in Brazil's Women's Police Stations: From Flawed Essentialism to Imagined Communities

Citation:

Hautzinger, Sarah. 2002. "Criminalising Male Violence in Brazil's Women's Police Stations: From Flawed Essentialism to Imagined Communities." Journal of Gender Studies 11 (3): 243-51. 

Author: Sarah Hautzinger

Abstract:

In Brazil, the creation of all-female police stations to encourage the denunciation and prosecution of violent crimes against women represents one of several examples of state-institutionalised feminism. This paper recounts the history of the implementation of these innovative institutions, and examines difficulties encountered in this experience, with particular focus on the differences between the predominantly white, middle-class feminists that originated the idea and the predominantly black, working-class policewomen charged with carrying it out. Anti-essentialist theory is useful for understanding the flawed logic that produced inappropriate expectations of policewomen. However, the paper concludes that this perspective offers little direction for furthering the nascent reform of law enforcement, and offers a feminist version of an imagined communities model in its place.

Topics: Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Security, Security Sector Reform Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2002

Young Women's Experiences with Reporting Sexual Assault to Police

Citation:

Vopni, Vicki. 2006. “Young Women’s Experiences with Reporting Sexual Assault to Police.” Canadian Woman Studies 25 (1/2): 107–15.

Author: Vicki Vopni

Abstract:

The literature has well documented women's largely negative experiences of reporting to the police. The prosecution of rapists has been termed "the second rape" because the victim is "twice traumatized"-once by the offender, and then again by the authorities. Research in the area substantiates that as "gatekeepers" to the criminal legal process, police officers play a vital role. The police evaluate sexual assault cases using the same societal standards that have established the "real rape" as genuine and true. Changing the nature of cases brought to the criminal justice system would encourage a re-definition of policing away from the traditional crime-fighting model that many feminists (and others) find problematic (Gartner and Macmillan 423). The larger issue is that the entrenched patriarchal values in our society tolerate and accept some degree of male violence against women. Holding only a handful of perpetrators accountable for their actions does little to curb the widespread incidence of woman abuse. As a result, many young women struggle with naming their experience as a sexual assault when they apply the narrow societal standards of the "real rape." The high incidence of sexual assault among women, especially young adolescents, coupled with the fact that it is severely underreported is a cause for serious concern.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Justice, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women

Year: 2006

Front and Center: Sexual Violence in U.S. Military Law

Citation:

Hillman, Elizabeth L. 2009. “Front and Center: Sexual Violence in U.S. Military Law.” Politics & Society 37 (1): 101–29. doi:10.1177/0032329208329753.

Author: Elizabeth L. Hillman

Abstract:

Military-on-military sexual violence—the type of sexual violence that most directly disrupts operations, harms personnel, and undermines recruiting—occurs with astonishing frequency. The U.S. military has responded with a campaign to prevent and punish military-on-military sex crimes. This campaign, however, has made little progress, partly because of U.S. military law, a special realm of criminal justice dominated by legal precedents involving sexual violence and racialized images. By promulgating images and narratives of sexual exploitation, violent sexuality, and female subordination, the military justice system has helped to sustain a legal culture that reifies the connection between sexual violence and authentic soldiering.

Keywords: sexual violence, military justice, legal culture, reform

Topics: Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2009

Police Reform and the Peace Process in Guatemala: The Fifth Promotion of the National Civilian Police

Citation:

Glebbeek, Marie-Louise. 2001. “Police Reform and the Peace Process in Guatemala: The Fifth Promotion of the National Civilian Police.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 20 (4): 431-53.

Author: Marie-Louise Glebbeek

Abstract:

After 36 years of mostly authoritarian rule and often bitter civil conflict in Guatemala, the December 1996 Peace Accords prepared the ground for a new phase of reconstruction, democratisation and social and institutional reform. Prior to the Peace Accords, policing in Guatemala had been often violent, repressive and subordinated to the counterinsurgency logic of the military. Security sector reform intentions included the abolition of existing police forces and the creation of a new National Civil Police (PNC). The PNC was meant to give substance to a new way of policing in tune with the building of democratic governance and effective law enforcement. This paper examines the general background of the reforms, discusses the limitations of the results so far, and takes a particular and critical look at one of the key components of the police reform: the recruitment and training of PNC aspirants, using the case of the 1999 Fifth Promotion that entered the Academy of the PNC.

Keywords: police, security sector reform, peace and reconstruction, Guatemala

Topics: Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, Security Sector Reform Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2001

Violence in the City of Women: Police and Batterers in Bahia, Brazil

Citation:

Hautzinger, Sarah. 2007. Violence in the City of Women: Police and Batterers in Bahia, Brazil. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Author: Sarah Hautzinger

Abstract:

Brazil's innovative all-female police stations, installed as part of the return to civilian rule in the 1980s, mark the country's first effort to police domestic violence against women. Sarah J. Hautzinger's vividly detailed, accessibly written study explores this phenomenon as a window onto the shifting relationship between violence and gendered power struggles in the city of Salvador da Bahia. Hautzinger brings together distinct voices—unexpectedly macho policewomen, the battered women they are charged with defending, indomitable Bahian women who disdain female victims, and men who grapple with changing pressures related to masculinity and honor. What emerges is a view of Brazil's policing experiment as a pioneering, and potentially radical, response to demands of the women's movement to build feminism into the state in a society fundamentally shaped by gender.

Topics: Domestic Violence, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Security, Security Sector Reform Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2007

Constructing and Negotiating Gender in Women’s Police Stations in Brazil

Citation:

Nelson, Sara. 1996. “Constructing and Negotiating Gender in Women’s Police Stations in Brazil.” Latin American Perspectives 23 (1): 131–48.

Author: Sara Nelson

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Security, Security Sector Reform, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 1996

En-Gendering the Police: Women’s Police Stations and Feminism in São Paulo

Citation:

Santos, Cecília MacDowell. 2004. “En-Gendering the Police: Women’s Police Stations and Feminism in São Paulo.” Latin American Research Review 39 (3): 29–55. 

Author: Cecília Macdowell Santos

Abstract:

This article contributes to feminist state theory and studies of women's police stations in Latin America by examining the processes shaping the multiple and changing positions of explicit alliance, opposition, and ambiguous alliance assumed by policewomen regarding feminists since the creation of the world's first women's police station in 1985 in São Paulo. While studies of women's police stations tend to overlook the political conjuncture, much of the literature on the state and gender explains the relationship between the state and women's movements as a function of the political regime. I argue for a more grounded feminist state theory, taking into account interactive macro and micro, local and international forces. As this case study demonstrates, policewoman-feminist relations evolve due to interactions between the political conjuncture, the hegemonic masculinist police culture, developments in the feminist discourse on violence against women, and the impact of the contact policewomen sustain with women clients.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Security, Security Sector Reform Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

Security Sector Reform in Africa: A Lost Opportunity to Deconstruct Militarised Masculinities?

Citation:

Clarke, Yaliwe. 2008. “Security Sector Reform in Africa: A Lost Opportunity to Deconstruct Militarised Masculinities?” Feminist Africa 10: 49-66.

Author: Yaliwe Clarke

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Security Sector Reform Regions: Africa

Year: 2008

Pages

© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Security Sector Reform