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Security

Re-Politicising the Gender-Security Nexus: Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy

Citation:

Aggestam, Karin, and Annika Bergman Rosamond. 2018. "Re-Politicising the Gender-Security Nexus: Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy." European Review of International Studies 5 (3/2018): 30-48.

Authors: Karin Aggestam, Annika Bergman Rosamond

Abstract:

Sweden’s feminist foreign policy is founded on the broad idea that gender equality is central to security. This article focuses on how the politicisation of this gender-security nexus is discursively articulated and practiced in the case of feminist foreign policy. The problematic is unpacked by analysing the politicisation of the women, peace and security agenda and global gender mainstreaming. To empirically illustrate the gender-security nexus more specifically, we analyse how these politicisation processes are reflected in Sweden’s support for global peace diplomacy and gender protection. The article concludes by offering three final remarks. First, Sweden’s feminist foreign policy is an expression of several, at times competing, forms of political rationality. Second, while the fluctuation between de-politicisation and re-politicisation of security may seem productive in terms of policy outcome it can also create contradictions and ambiguities in regards to feminist foreign policy practice. One such outcome is the tendency to conflate gender and women across a number of de-politicised policy initiatives launched by the Swedish government. Third, the re-politicisation and contestation of the gender-security nexus is likely to increase in the coming decades because of shifting global power configurations in the global world order.

Keywords: feminist foreign policy, re-politicisation, de-politicisation, WPS agenda, gender mainstreaming, peace diplomacy, protection, UNSCR 1325, sweden

Topics: Feminisms, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2018

Privacy and Gender: Reviewing Women’s Attitudes Toward Privacy in the Context of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Location-Based Services

Citation:

Cottrill, Caitlin D., and Piyushimita (Vonu) Thakuriah. 2011. “Privacy and Gender: Reviewing Women’s Attitudes Toward Privacy in the Context of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Location-Based Services.” In Women’s Issues in Transportation: Summary of the 4th International Conference, Vol. 2: Technical Papers, 117-26. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.

Authors: Caitlin D. Cottrill , Piyushimita (Vonu) Thakuriah

Abstract:

Limited previous research has shown that women value online privacy more than men, potentially influencing their online behavior or willingness to reveal personal data online. New generations of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and location-based services (LBS) technologies depend on the input of personalized and localized information to give, potentially, information that may uniquely address women’s complex travel patterns, but which may raise locational privacy concerns for women and cause them to hesitate to share the needed information. This paper examines gender differences in the propensity to reveal the potentially sensitive information necessary to make ITS and LBS highly personalized to individual travelers. The authors develop privacy indicators based on refusals to answer sociodemographic and location questions in a household travel survey to evaluate whether women have a significantly different attitude toward willingness to share data related to position and personal identifiers compared with men. The results show that gender differences regarding privacy preferences are not statistically significant. However, this result is inconclusive because the survey overall achieved low response rates and participating households may already be self-selected into being open about divulging sensitive travel and locational information.

Topics: Gender, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Security

Year: 2011

Water Security Across the Gender Divide

Citation:

Fröhlich, Christiane, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, and Henri Myrttinen. 2018. Water Security Across the Gender Divide. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Authors: Christiane Fröhlich, Giovanna Gioli, Roger Cremades, Henri Myrttinen

Annotation:

Summary:
This book examines water security as a prime example of how the economic, socio-cultural and political-normative systems that regulate access to water reflect the evolving and gendered power relations between different societal groups. Access to water is characterized by inequalities: it depends not only on natural water availability, but also on the respective socio-political context. It is regulated by gender-differentiated roles and responsibilities towards the resource, which are strongly influenced by, among others, tradition, religion, customary law, geographical availability, as well as the historical and socio-political context. While gender has been recognized as a key intervening variable in achieving equitable water access, most studies fail to acknowledge the deep interrelations between social structures and patterns of water use. Proof of these shortcomings is the enduring lack of data on water accessibility, availability and utilization that sufficiently acknowledges the relational nature of gender and other categories of power and difference, like class and socioeconomic status, as well as their comprehensive analysis. This book addresses this major research gap. (Summary from Springer International Publishing)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Bridging Troubled Waters: Water Security Across the Gender Divide
Henri Myrttinen, Roger Cremades, Christiane Fröhlich and Giovanna Gioli
 
2. Gender and Water in a Changing Climate: Challenges and Opportunities
Farhana Sultana
 
3. More than Women and Men: A Framework for Gender and Intersectionality Research on Environmental Crisis and Conflict
Amber J. Fletcher
 
4. Gender and Water in the Middle East. Local and Global Realities
Mauro van Aken and Anita De Donato
 
5. Land and Water Reforms in South Africa: "Men in White Coats"
Deepa Joshi, Natasha Donn-Arnold, and Mart Kamphuis
 
6. Integrating Gender Equality in WASH Emergency Response in the Central African Republic 
Beatrice Mosello, Virginie Le Masson, Gladys Le Masson, Elena Diato, and Véronique Barbelet
 
7. Engaging with Gender in Water Governance and Practice in Kenya 
Chinwe Ifejika Speranza and Edward Bikketi
 
8. When Water Security Programmes Seek to Empower Women - A Case Study from Western Nepal 
Floriane Clement and Emma Karki 
 
9. "Just Women" is Not Enough: Toward a Gender-Relational Approach to Water and Peacebuilding 
Janpeter Schilling, Rebecca Froese, and Jana Naujoks 
 
10. Calming the Waters, Ploughing the Sea - Can Gender-Responsive Appraoches to Intra-State Water Conflicts Lead to Peacebuilding? Evidence from Lebanon and Nepal 
Henri Myrttinen
 
11. The Role of Women in Transboundary Water Dispute Resolution 
Lynette de Silva, Jennifer C. Veilleux, and Marian J. Neal

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, intersectionality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Security

Year: 2018

Food (In)Security, Human (In)Security, Women’s (In)Security: State Policies and Local Experiences in Rural Rwanda

Citation:

Nzayisenga, Marie Jeanne, Camilla Orjuela, and Isabell Schierenbeck. 2016. “Food (In)Security, Human (In)Security, Women’s (In)Security: State Policies and Local Experiences in Rural Rwanda.” African Security 9 (4): 278-98.

Authors: Marie Jeanne Nzayisenga, Camilla Orjuela, Isabell Schierenbeck

Abstract:

Despite the growing importance of the concept [of] human security, security studies in Africa remain largely focused on the threat of direct violence and the role of state actors. This article broadens the security agenda by focusing on food security and discusses how women in rural Rwanda experience and view food security. In making individual women the referent of security, the article exposes the gap between national level reforms, which aim to and have been deemed successful to combat poverty and increase food production, and the experiences of women who report a decline in food availability and increased problems in accessing food in the wake of reforms and who often struggle against hunger in a disadvantaged position within their households and local power structures. Building on 51 interviews with women in western Rwanda conducted in 2013 and 2014, the article illustrates how the human security perspective with a sensitivity to gender relations and positions is important for gaining a fuller picture of the security of individuals. 

Keywords: agricultural reforms, food security, human security, Rwanda, women's security

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Households, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2016

Larger Than Life? Decolonising Human Security Studies through Feminist Posthumanism

Citation:

Hudson, Heidi. 2018. "Larger than Life? Decolonising Human Security Studies through Feminist Posthumanism." Strategic Review for Southern Africa 40 (1): 46-64. 

Author: Heidi Hudson

Abstract:

Binary thinking is one of the features of coloniality, manifesting in a zero-sum game between 'our' and 'their' security. The development of human security as an antidote has, however, been marked by a continuation of such divisions in a much subtler way. This state of affairs is exacerbated by the fact that concepts held up as possible solutions, such as the gendering of human security or the broader tool of decolonisation, are often also trapped in unimaginative oppositional thinking which runs the risk of recolonising knowledge and harming those who are supposed to be secured. The focus in this article is therefore on the coloniality of human security scholarship and practices and how this concept can be reinvigorated through a feminist 'post'-humanist lens. I argue that a feminist posthuman security approach that decentres the human (by going beyond asking for the inclusion of women only) and underscores agentic relations between (all) humans, the natural environment, technology and objects more adequately captures the entangled nature of human security practices, especially in the postcolony. The approach draws on a blend of six conceptual pillars, namely a poststructuralist understanding of agency as the product of intra-action rather than interaction; feminist critiques of equating what is male and what is human; the emphasis on intersections between race and gender in feminist postcolonial theory; the importance of situated knowledge; the agency of matter and objects in the construction of security and/ or insecurity; and an acknowledgement of indigenous Africa-centred knowledge forms. I conclude that this kind of posthuman security frame, which merges feminist posthumanism and new materialist posthumanism, not only allows a more nuanced and inclusive understanding of the human condition but also offers a foundation for developing a decolonised human security research agenda.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Education, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Security, Human Security

Year: 2018

Intersecting Identities and Global Climate Change

Citation:

Nagel, Joane. 2012. “Intersecting Identities and Global Climate Change.” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 19 (4): 467–76.

Author: Joane Nagel

Abstract:

This article explores the place of race, class, gender, sexual and national identities and cultures in global climate change. Research on gendered vulnerabilities to disasters suggests that women are more vulnerable than men to many meteorological disasters related to climate change, specifically flooding and drought. This is because of their relative poverty, economic activities (especially subsistence agriculture) and the moral economies governing women's modesty in many cultures. Research on historical and contemporary links between masculinity and the military in environmental politics, polar research and large-scale strategies for managing risk, including from climate change, suggests that men and their perspectives have more influence over climate change policies because of their historical domination of science and government. I expect that masculinist identities, cultures and militarised institutions will tend to favour large-scale remedies, such as geoengineering, minimise mitigation strategies, such as reducing energy use, and emphasise ‘security’ problems of global climate change.

Keywords: gender, masculinity, climate change, militarism, identity

Topics: Class, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Race, Security, Sexuality

Year: 2012

Reflections on Feminism and Foreign Policy

Citation:

Rajagopalan, Swarna. 2012. “Reflections on Feminism and Foreign Policy.” India International Centre Quarterly 39 (1): 93–102.

Author: Swarna Rajagopalan

Annotation:

Summary:
"Feminists have participated in the push to expand the meaning and understanding of security to include more actors, more issues and more referents. The result is the admission of issues-from HIV/AIDs and migration to resource use-to the academic field of security studies". (Rajagopalan 2012, 93).

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Security

Year: 2012

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