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Segregation, Exclusion and LGBT People in Disaster Impacted Areas: Experiences from the Higashinihon Dai - Shinsai (Great East-Japan Disaster)

Citation:

Yamashita, Azusa, Christopher Gomez, and Kelly Dombroski. 2017. “Segregation, Exclusion and LGBT People in Disaster Impacted Areas: Experiences from the Higashinihon Dai - Shinsai (Great East-Japan Disaster).” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 24 (1): 64–71.

Authors: Azusa Yamashita, Christopher Gomez, Kelly Dombroski

Abstract:

English Abstract:
The Great East-Japan Disaster, which began with the earthquake and tsunami of March 2011, prompted discussions throughout the Japanese lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community on the vulnerabilities that LGBT people face during disaster because of sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression. This short essay shares some of the post-disaster experiences, challenges and discussions of the LGBT community in Japan. Reports coming out of the LGBT community have stressed that pre-disaster discrimination and fears of discrimination and repression among LGBT people have hampered their recovery. There is a real fear of being discriminated against and having their family and friends discriminated against. This situation has led to the isolation and vulnerability of LGBT individuals. Despite the majority being reluctant to come out publically, the disaster forced numerous individuals to reveal their gender identity, particularly when confronted with life in shelters, the lack of supply of medication and so on. In turn, this has resulted in instances of discrimination and bullying. These accounts reveal that the main aims of disaster policies and disaster ethics – based on addressing the greatest good of the majority – largely fail to cater for LGBT people, who are not only victims of the disaster but can also be valuable contributors in the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) process.

Spanish Abstract:
El Gran Desastre del Este de Japón, que comenzó con el terremoto y tsunami de marzo de 2011, desató discusiones en toda la comunidad lesbiana, gay, bisexual y transgénero (LGBT) sobre las vulnerabilidades que las personas LGBT enfrentan durante un desastre debido a su orientación sexual, identidad de género y expresión de género. Este breve ensayo comparte algunas de las experiencias, desafíos y discusiones post-desastre de la comunidad LGBT en Japón. Informes que surgen de la comunidad LGBT han enfatizado que la discriminación pre-desastre y los miedos a ésta y de la represión entre las personas LGBT han obstaculizado su recuperación. Hay un miedo real a ser discriminadxs, ellxs o sus familias y amigxs. Esta situación ha llevado a individuos LGBT al aislamiento y la vulnerabilidad. A pesar de que la mayoría son reacios a salir públicamente, el desastre forzó a numerosos individuos a revelar su identidad de género, particularmente cuando enfrentan la vida en los refugios, la falta de medicamentos y así sucesivamente. A su vez, esto resultó en instancias de discriminación y bullying. Estos relatos revelan que los objetivos principales de las políticas y éticas de desastre – basados en abordar el mayor beneficio de la mayoría – no tienen en cuenta a las personas LGBT, quienes no sólo son víctimas del desastre sino que pueden también ser valiosas contribuyentes en el proceso de Reducción del Riesgo de Desastre (RRD).

Chinese Abstract:
2011年三月,随着地震与海啸而来的东日本大灾难,刺激了全日本的男女同性恋、双性恋与跨性别(LGBT)社群对于LGBT人们因为性向、性别身份认同与性别表现,在灾难中所经历的脆弱性之探讨。此一简要文章,分享日本有关LGBT社群的若干灾后经验,挑战与探讨。来自LGBT社群的研究报告,强调灾害前对LGBT人们的歧视,以及LGBT人们对歧视与压迫的恐惧,伤害了他们的復原。对于自身受到歧视,及其亲友遭受歧视,存在着真实的恐惧。此一境况导致LGBT个人的孤立和脆弱性。尽管大多数人不情愿公开出柜,但灾难却迫使无数的个人揭露自身的性别身份认同,特别是当经历生活在避难所以及缺乏医药供给等,而此般境况回头导致了歧视和霸凌事件。这些说法揭露了灾难政策和灾难伦理的主要目标 – – 以应对大多数人的最大利益为根据 – – 多半无法照料LGBT人们,而他们不仅是灾难的受害者,亦可能同时是灾难风险降低(DRR)过程中宝贵的贡献者

Keywords: vulnerability, Inequalities, disaster management, LGBT, Great East Japan Disaster, social exclusion

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, LGBTQ, Security Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2017

Reframing Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: Bringing Gender Analysis Back In

Citation:

Davies, Sara E. and Jacqui True. 2015. “Reframing Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: Bringing Gender Analysis Back In.” Security Dialogue 46 (6): 495-512.

Authors: Sara E. Davies, Jacqui True

Abstract:

Over the past decade, significant global attention has been paid to the issue of ‘widespread and systematic’ sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). To contribute to the prevention of SGBV, researchers have examined the relationship between the presence of armed conflict and the causes of SGBV. Much of this causal literature has focused on the individual and group perpetrator dynamics that fuel SGBV. However, we argue that research needs to lay bare the roots of SGBV in normalized and systemic gender discrimination. This article brings back structural gender inequality as a causal explanation for SGBV. In order to better understand and prevent SGBV, we propose a critical knowledge base that identifies causal patterns of gendered violence by building on existing indicators of gender discrimination.

Keywords: gender, international security, peace and security, political violence, women

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, peace and security, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1820, Sexual Violence

Year: 2015

Engaging UNSCR 1325 through Australia’s National Action Plan

Citation:

Lee-Koo, Katrina. 2016. “Engaging UNSCR 1325 through Australia’s National Action Plan.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 336-49.

Author: Katrina Lee-Koo

Abstract:

This article examines Australia’s National Action Plan (NAP) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) within the context of global debates on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and its associated resolutions. It demonstrates that Australia has made a strong rhetorical commitment to the United Nations WPS agenda that aligns itself with global feminist goals to enhance the protection and political participation of women in conflict-affected regions. Rhetorically, Australia also supports a broad conceptualisation of global security that challenges the gender relations that create women’s insecurity. However, these words fail the test of practice. The 2012 Australian NAP lacks the architecture to ensure strong, consistent, and comprehensive action on the WPS agenda. This article explores the sites of these failures and argues that addressing these issues is the first necessary step towards reconnecting government rhetoric with WPS outcomes.

Keywords: Australia, National Action Plan, UNSCR 1325, global security

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, peace and security, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2016

Institutionalising Women, Peace and Security in the Pacific Islands: Gendering the ‘architecture of entitlements’?

Citation:

George, Nicole. 2016. “Institutionalising Women, Peace and Security in the Pacific Islands: Gendering the ‘Architecture of Entitlements’?” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 375-89. 

Author: Nicole George

Abstract:

Efforts to adopt provisions of the United Nations Women, Peace and Security agenda in local policy contexts are often hailed enthusiastically by gender advocates as a transformative development. But closer scrutiny of these localisation efforts may reveal something different. This article draws on theories of feminist institutionalism to examine the formal and informal institutional interplays which have shaped the Regional Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security that was formalised by the Pacific Islands Forum in 2012. My analysis shows that although the Regional Action Plan is a significant development in rhetorical terms for the Pacific region, and may lay the foundation for future policy progress on gender and security, its focus is also constrained. This becomes particularly evident when the Regional Action Plan’s emphasis on women’s peacebuilding is compared with the plan’s relative silence on the growing regional challenge of gender and environmental insecurity. To explain these developments I show how the plan sits in interesting, and unresolved, tension with existing institutional norms and practices which gender the ‘architecture of entitlements’ governing how Pacific Island women can legitimately enter debate on regional security.
 

Keywords: women, peace and security, gender politics, Pacific Islands, peacebuilding, environmental security

Topics: Environment, Gender, Women, peace and security, Peacebuilding, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, Security Sector Reform Regions: Oceania

Year: 2016

Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security

Citation:

 
Chisholm, Amanda, and Saskia Stachowitsch. 2016. “Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security.” Globalizations 13 (6): 815-29. 

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Saskia Stachowitsch

Abstract:

In a case study of Nepalese Gurkhas working for Western private military and security companies (PMSCs), this article develops feminist global political economy understandings of global labour chains by exploring how the ‘global market’ and the ‘everyday’ interact in establishing private security as a gendered and racialised project. Current understandings of PMSCs, and global markets at large, tend to depoliticise these global and everyday interactions by conceptualising the ‘everyday’ as common, mundane, and subsequently banal. Such understandings, we argue, not only conceal the everyday within private security, but also reinforce a conceptual dualism that enables the security industry to function as a gendered and racialised project. To overcome this dualism, this article offers a theoretically informed notion of the everyday that dissolves the hegemonic separation into ‘everyday’ and ‘global’ levels of analysis. Drawing upon ethnography, semi- structured interviews, and discourse analysis of PMSCs’ websites, the analysis demonstrates how race, gender, and colonial histories constitute global supply chains for the security industry, rest upon and reinforce racialised and gendered migration patterns, and depend upon, as well as shape, the everyday lives and living of Gurkha men and women.

Keywords: Gurkhas, private security, feminist security studies, feminist global political economy, masculinity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Political Economies, Race, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2016

Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan

Citation:

Stork, Adrienne, Cassidy Travis, and Silja Halle. 2015. “Gender-Sensitivity in Natural Resource Management in Côte d’Ivoire and Sudan.” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27 (2): 147–55. doi:10.1080/10402659.2015.1037617.

Authors: Adrienne Stork, Cassidy Travis, Silja Halle

Annotation:

"This essay builds on the 2013 report and investigates how the key issues of gender and natural resources play out in two different conflict-affected settings. Based on UNEP’s field experiences in Côte d’Ivoire and Darfur, the first section discusses the findings of a gender analysis conducted as part of a Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment of Côte d’Ivoire in 2013, and identifies concrete entry points for addressing the identified risks and opportunities. The second part examines how gender considerations have been incorporated into UNEP’s activities in the Wadi El Ku region of Darfur in Sudan, providing tangible examples of how these issues can be taken into account in ground-level programming" (Stork et al., 2015, p. 148-49). 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Peacebuilding, Post-Conflict, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa Countries: Côte D'Ivoire, Sudan

Year: 2015

Moving to the Mines: Motivations of Men and Women for Migration to Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sites in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

Citation:

Maclin, Beth J., Jocelyn T.D. Kelly, Rachel Perks, Patrick Vinck, and Phuong Pham. 2017. “Moving to the Mines: Motivations of Men and Women for Migration to Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Sites in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.” Resources Policy: The International Journal of Minerals Policy and Economics 51: 115–22. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2016.12.003.

Authors: Beth J. Maclin, Jocelyn T.D. Kelly, Rachel Perks, Patrick Vinck, Phuong Pham

Abstract:

Artisanal and small scale mining (ASM) sites in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) present livelihoods opportunities within an evolving security situation, thus offering the potential for economic and physical security. This paper presents survey data detailing reasons why men and women in eastern DRC migrate to ASM sites, with a specific focus on the extent to which insecurity wrought by the DRC's decades long conflict influences individuals’ migration decisions. It draws from research performed under a World Bank- Harvard Humanitarian Initiative research project. Following the literature review on decision-making related to ASM and migration and its applicability to the research context of eastern DRC, the article first presents basic demographics of the 998 men and women surveyed. It then details participants’ specific motivations for migration and groups them as push or pull factors. Finally, the article looks at the relationship between migration and the relevant migration and security variables separately before creating a multiple regression model to see how these variables inform migration decisions collectively. Participants largely migrated to ASM sites for the purpose of seeking money and/or employment. Security – specifically the presence of an armed group at one's reception site – also informed migration decision making, yet it did not negate the role of economic factors. This is the first paper the authors know of that examines gender-specific motivations for migration to ASM sites as well as how insecurity influences decisions to migrate to ASM sites.

Keywords: mining, migration, DRC, conflict, insecurity

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Security Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2017

The Socio-Cultural, Institutional, and Gender Aspects of the Water Transfer-Agribusiness Model for Food and Water Security: Lessons Learned from Peru

Citation:

Delgado, Juana Vera. 2015. “The Socio-Cultural, Institutional, and Gender Aspects of the Water Transfer-Agribusiness Model for Food and Water Security: Lessons Learned from Peru.” Food Security 7 (6): 1187–97.

Author: Juana Vera Delgado

Abstract:

This paper critically analyses the potentials and frontiers of an agribusiness model developed along the arid coastal area of Peru. To make this model work, water from Andean rivers and lakes have been dammed and transferred to the coastal area through sophisticated and highly expensive hydraulic infrastructures. Although this ‘water transfer-agribusiness’ (WATA) model has attained its objectives to let the desert bloom and increase agro-exports from Peru, it does so at the cost of local environmental degradation, social unrest and gender disparities. These unintended consequences arose, in part, because the WATA model is anchored in ideologies of domination of nature and colonization of empty territories. The construction of water infrastructure, namely ‘Large Scale Irrigation’ (LSI) left aside the sociocultural, gender, and environmental aspects that these kinds of interventions should include. Based on studies of water transfer from the Colca River to the ‘Pampas de Majes’ in the Arequipa region in the south-west of Peru, this paper analyses, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the consequences of such interventions on the food/water security and environmental health of the affected population (Abstract from original source​).

Keywords: water transfer, agribusiness, large-scale irrigation, gender, ethnicity, water insecurity, food insecurity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Environment, Gender, Gender Analysis, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Multi-national Corporations, Rights, Land Rights, Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Peru

Year: 2015

Securitisation, Development and the Invisibility of Gender

Citation:

Lusby, Stephanie. 2017. "Securitisation, Development and the Invisibility of Gender." In Transformations of Gender in Melanesia, edited by Macintyre Martha and Spark Ceridwen, 23-44. Canberra: ANU Press. 

Author: Stephanie Lusby

Annotation:

"Discussions of violence are ubiquitous in, and with regard to, Papua New Guinea. In this chapter, I discuss how persistent broader contexts of legitimised violence shape efforts to destabilise particular patterns of violence, namely, male violence against women. Looking at the perspectives of men working in the security industry in PNG, I argue that the increased traction and centrality of discourses of securitisation in the name of national development allows violence against men accused of criminal or anti-social behaviour to persist. Critically, the silences around the gendered dimensions of violence between men excused as ‘disciplinary’ produces double standards that are unhelpful to efforts to improve gender equality. Here, I seek to illustrate that narratives of discipline and security form a continuum in discussions of violence, highlighting the need for politicised and holistic approaches to gender in violence interventions" (Lusby, 2017, p. 23).

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Security, Male Perpetrators, Violence Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2017

Mujeres entre mafiosos y señores de la guerra: Impacto del proceso de desarme, desmovilización y reintegración en la vida y seguridad de las mujeres en comunidades en pugna. Caso Villavicencio

Citation:

Barraza, Cecilia, y Luz Piedad Caicedo. 2007. Mujeres entre mafiosos y señores de la guerra: Impacto del proceso de desarme, desmovilización y reintegración en la vida y seguridad de las mujeres en comunidades en pugna. Caso Villavicencio. Bogotá, Colombia: Centro Regional de Derechos Humanos y Justicia de Género.

Authors: Cecilia Barraza, Luz Piedad Caicedo

Annotation:

Spanish Summary:

"Este estudio ofrece una mirada integral a la situación de las mujeres en los contextos locales de desarme, desmovilización y reintegración, con miras a avanzar en la promoción de la seguridad humana de las mujeres. La investigación tuvo por objeto conocer el impacto de dichos procesos, desde la percepción de las y los funcionarios públicos del municipio, de las mujeres y de actores sociales claves de la región. De tal forma, se plantean una serie de lineamientos para el análisis que permiten evidenciar de forma específica los efectos sobre la vida de las mujeres de la ciudad de Villavicencio a nivel político-organizativo, socio-económico, de derechos sexuales y reproductivos, de seguridad humana y violencia contra las mujeres y niñas" (Barraza & Caicedo, 2007, Presentación).

English Summary:

Women Among Mafia and Warlords: The Impact of the DDR Process on the Lives and Security of Women in Conflict-Affected Communities. The Case of Villavicencio. 

This study provides a comprehensive overview of the situation of women in local DDR contexts, with the aim to make progress in promoting women’s security. The aim of the research was to understand the impact of said processes, from the point of view of the municipality’s public officials, women, and the region’s key social actors.  This gives rise to a series of guidelines for the analysis which highlights the effects on the lives of the women of Villavicencio at the politico-organizational and socio-economic level, as well as at the level of sexual and reproductive rights, human security and violence against girls and women (VAGW).

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Security, Human Security Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2007

Pages

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