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Rights

Women and Private Military and Security Companies

Citation:

Vrdoljack, Ana F. 2010. “Women and Private Military and Security Companies.” In War By Contract: Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law and the Regulation of Private Military and Security Companies, edited by Francesco Francioni and Natalino Ronzitti, 1-25. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Ana F. Vrdoljack

Abstract:

Lack of clarity about the application of international law norms and inadequacies of existing regulatory regimes covering private military and security companies have reinforced concerns about transparency and accountability in respect of gender-related violence, harassment and discrimination. This chapter focuses on the main issues and legal concerns raised by the impact of the privatisation of war on women, both as PMSC employees and civilians. Part I highlights how armed conflict, civil unrest, occupation and transition have a detrimental effect upon the lives of women with particular reference to safety, displacement, health and economic disadvantage. Part II provides a summary of existing international humanitarian law and human rights provisions relating to women. Part III examines recent developments within the United Nations, the work of the ICRC, and international criminal law jurisprudence shaping these legal norms. Part IV considers the key recommendations of recent international and international initiatives covering PMSCs and women.

Keywords: women, private military and security companies, gender, sexual assault, forced prostitution, human trafficking, sexual harassment, discrimination, international law, International Humanitarian Law, human rights

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law IHL, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Violence

Year: 2010

Land for Agriculture—Silent Women: Mens' Voices

Citation:

Kenneth, Roselyne. 2015. “Land for Agriculture-Silent Women: Mens' Voices.” In Bougainville before the Conflict, edited by Anthony J. Regan and Helga M. Griffin, 374-87. Canberra, Australia: ANU Press.

Author: Roselyne Kenneth

Annotation:

Summary:
“Entitlement to land constitutes an important base for a person’s status in Haku society on Buka Island. Associated with it are political consequences for the individual as well as for the society. This chapter focuses on the part played by both men and women in negotiations and decisions governing access to agricultural land in their communities, especially the part played by ‘maternal uncles’ and women’s voices in such processes. It also examines to what extent socio-political changes have affected the standing of women and their authority in contemporary society.
 
"On occasions when matters about customary land are discussed, the scene is dominated by men. A first impression is therefore that although the society is matrilineal, it is the men who dominate socio-political life. However, from the perspective of traditional Haku society, absence from public life was not the same as lacking power. The traditional position of women, although rarely exposed in public, included the power to exercise authority, especially in matters concerning land and other inherited rights. Thus, if women remain silent during public meetings, it does not mean that they lack the power to exercise authority in certain matters" (Kenneth 2015, p. 374).

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2015

Depressive Symptoms among Arab Bedouin Women Under Threat of House Demolition in Southern Israel

Citation:

Daoud, Nihaya, and Yousef Jabareen. 2014. “Depressive Symptoms among Arab Bedouin Women Under Threat of House Demolition in Southern Israel.” Health and Human Rights 16 (1): 170–91.

Authors: Nihaya Daoud , Yousef Jabareen

Abstract:

Housing is a fundamental human right and a social determinant of health. According to international law, indigenous peoples are entitled to special housing and health rights and protections. In Israel, land disputes between the government and Arab Bedouins, an indigenous minority, have resulted in ongoing demolitions of Arab Bedouin homes, with thousands more homes threatened. While demolitions could expose this population to mental health problems, research linking house demolition and health is scarce. In this paper, we draw on a human rights perspective to describe this housing instability and examine the association between the threat of house demolition and depressive symptoms (DS) among 464 Arab Bedouin women. We conclude that having their house under threat of demolition is an important determinant of poor mental health among Bedouin women. Any efforts to decrease DS among these women will have to take place alongside efforts to stop this practice.

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2014

Women’s Land Rights and Working Conditions in Large-Scale Plantations in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Fonjong, Lotsmart. 2016. “Women’s Land Rights and Working Conditions in Large-Scale Plantations in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Africa Development 41 (3): 49–69.

Author: Lotsmart Fonjong

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Women’s land rights are fundamental for women’s economic empowerment. Increasingly, the nationalization of customary land and the current growth in private land ownership and commercial farming are exerting strong pressure on land and are a threat to women’s usufruct land rights. The discourse over land reforms in most poor African countries like Cameroon is embedded in the evolutionary models where customary landholding systems are changing into state land ownership with greater market integration. These changes are taking place within limited state protection of communal and women’s land rights in the process of land registration. This article discusses the evolution, actors and activities involved in large-scale land acquisitions in the sub region within the framework and women’s rights to land and working conditions in the plantations. Through simple mapping from an in-depth desktop review and some level of field observations and conversations with some of the actors involved in affected localities in Cameroon, the article highlights women’s experiences as customary communal land is transferred into private ownership. In fact, wherever land has been taken up for plantation agriculture, women’s access to land has reduced, making them more vulnerable to hunger, poverty and poor working conditions. This is because women’s land rights have not evolved with the customary evolution into private tenures. Current processes of large-scale land acquisitions should therefore create conditions for women’s participation through a fair degree of equal opportunities, transparency, and accountability to communities, and relevant institutions.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT: 
Les droits fonciers des femmes sont fondamentaux pour leur autonomisation économique. De plus en plus, la nationalisation des terres coutumières et la croissance actuelle de la propriété foncière privée et de l’agriculture commerciale exercent une forte pression sur les terres et constituent une menace pour les droits d’usufruit fonciers des femmes. Le discours sur les réformes foncières dans la plupart des pays africains pauvres comme le Cameroun s’inscrit dans les modèles évolutifs où les systèmes fonciers coutumiers se transforment en propriété foncière étatique avec une plus grande intégration du marché. Ces changements se produisent dans le cadre d’une protection limitée de l’État sur les droits communaux et les droits fonciers des femmes dans le processus d’enregistrement foncier. Le présent article traite de l’évolution, des acteurs et des activités en matière d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle dans la sous- région ainsi que des droits fonciers des femmes et leurs conditions de travail dans les plantations. Grâce à une cartographie simple faite à partir d’une revue documentaire approfondie, d’observations sur le terrain et de conversations avec certains des acteurs impliqués dans les localités touchées au Cameroun, cet article souligne les expériences des femmes face à la transformation des terres communales coutumières en propriété privée. En fait, partout où la terre est utilisée pour l’agriculture, l’accès des femmes à celle-ci a diminué, les rendant plus vulnérables à la famine, la pauvreté et aux mauvaises conditions de travail. C’est parce que les droits fonciers des femmes n’ont pas évolué au rythme de la transformation des terres costumières en tenures privées. Les processus actuels d’acquisition de terres à grande échelle devraient donc créer des conditions propices à la participation des femmes, par l’équité des chances, la transparence et la reddition de comptes par les communautés et les institutions concernées.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Cameroon

Year: 2016

Land Reform and Welfare in Vietnam: Why Gender of the Land Rights Holder Matters

Citation:

Menon, Nidhiya, Yana Van der Meulen Rodgers, and Alexis R. Kennedy. 2017. “Land Reform and Welfare in Vietnam: Why Gender of the Land Rights Holder Matters.” Journal of International Development 29 (4): 454–72.

Authors: Nidhiya Menon, Yana Van der Meulen Rodgers, Alexis R. Kennedy

Abstract:

Vietnam’s 1993 Land Law created a land market by granting households tradable land-use rights. This study uses mixed methods to analyze whether increased land titling led to improvements in household economic security and whether land titles in women’s and men’s names had different effects. Using a matched sample of households from Vietnam’s 2004 and 2008 Household Living Standards Survey, we find that land-use rights held exclusively by women or jointly by couples result in beneficial effects that include increased household expenditures, greater women’s self-employment, and lower household vulnerability to poverty. Results from interviews conducted in Vietnam support these conclusions by indicating that women with sole or joint ownership of land enjoyed greater well-being and higher status.

Keywords: Vietnam, Property Rights, land reform, gender, economic security, land-use certificates

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Households, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Vietnam

Year: 2017

Women's Rights and Development

Citation:

Fernández, Raquel. 2018. “Women’s Rights and Development.” Journal of Economic Growth 19 (1): 37–80.

Author: Raquel Fernández

Abstract:

Why has the expansion of women's economic and political rights coincided with economic development? This paper investigates this question by focusing on a key economic right for women: property rights. The basic hypothesis is that the process of development (i.e., capital accumulation and declining fertility) exacerbated the tension in men's conflicting interests as husbands versus fathers, ultimately resolving them in favor of the latter. As husbands, men stood to gain from their privileged position in a patriarchal world whereas, as fathers, they were hurt by a system that afforded few rights to their daughters. The model predicts that declining fertility would hasten reform of women's property rights whereas legal systems that were initially more favorable to women would delay them. The theoretical relationship between capital and the relative attractiveness of reform is non-monotonic but growth inevitably leads to reform. I explore the empirical validity of the theoretical predictions by using cross-state variation in the US in the timing of married women obtaining property and earning rights between 1850 and 1920.

Keywords: women's rights, development, Property Rights, fertility, patriarchy

Topics: Development, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2018

Joint Ownership of Family Land in Uganda: Examining the Responses, Challenges and Policy Implications

Citation:

Kabumbuli, Robert. 2016. “Joint Ownership of Family Land in Uganda: Examining the Responses, Challenges and Policy Implications.” African Sociological Review 20 (1): 67–86.

Author: Robert Kabumbuli

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Many widows and orphans in get dispossessed of family land after the death of the head of household, but this could be countered by registered joint ownership of the land. Based on a study of two districts in Uganda, this paper examines the local responses, challenges and policy implications of joint ownership. Over 260 households, and a variety of key informants, were interviewed. The majority of respondents, especially women, agreed that joint ownership of family land is useful, arguing that it provides family security and enhances marital stability. Those who opposed joint ownership argued that marriage itself is unstable, and there is no trust between the spouses. In practice however, the family land is mostly male-owned. Most households do not have any ownership documents, and this is a challenge because joint ownership needs to be registered in order to be legally binding. The growing commercialization of land is also a challenge since it makes individual ownership more preferable. Joint ownership lacks strong support among both men and women, it is constrained by cultural beliefs and practices, and the institution of marriage in which it is anchored is getting weaker. Therefore in order to be effective, any policies and strategies for securing the interests of the family members in the family land must take account of these challenges.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Beaucoup de Veuves et d'ont été orphelins dépossédés des terres familiales après la mort du chef de ménage, mais cela pourrait être  contre la propriété par enregistrée conjoint de la terre. Base sur une étude de deux en Ouganda districts, cet article examine les Réponses locales, les Defis et les politiques de la implications Copropriété. Plus de 260 ménages et divers informateurs clés ont été interviewés. La majorité des répondants, en particulier les femmes ont convenu que la Copropriété familiales des terres est utile, arguant qu'elle assure la sécurité de la famille et la renforce Stabiliti conjugal. Ceux qui se sont la propriété à opposés conjoint ont soutenu que le mariage lui-même est instable et qu'il n'y a pas de confiance entre les conjoints. Dans la pratique Cependant, les terres de la famille sont pour la plupart des hommes. La plupart des ménages they disposent pas de documents de propriété, ce qui constitue un défi car la propriété conjoint doit être pour être enregistrée juridiquement contraignante. Croissant la commercialization des terres est également un défi car elle rend la propriété individuelle plus préférable. La Copropriété they bénéficie pas d'un soutien solide tant que chez les hommes chez les femmes, elle est limitée par les croyances et les pratiques culturelles, et l'institution du mariage où elle est ancrée s'affaiblit. Par conséquent, pour être efficaces, toutes les politiques et Stratégies Visant à garantir les intérêts des membres de la famille dans la terre familiale doivent tenir compte de ces Defis.

Keywords: gender, family, inheritance, joint ownership, marriage

Topics: Gender, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2016

Pastoral Women's Land Rights and Village Land Use Planning in Tanzania: Experiences from the Sustainable Rangeland Management Project

Citation:

Kisambu, Naseku, Elizabeth Daley, Fiona Flintan, and Sabins Pallas. 2017. “Pastoral Women’s Land Rights and Village Land Use Planning in Tanzania: Experiences from the Sustainable Rangeland Management Project.” Paper presented at the Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 10-14.

Authors: Naseku Kisambu, Elizabeth Daley, Fiona Flintan, Sabins Pallas

Abstract:

In pastoral societies women face many challenges. Some describe these as a ‘double burden’ – that is, as pastoralists and as women. However, pastoral women may obtain a significant degree of protection from customary law even if customary institutions are male-dominated. In periods of change (economic, social, political), this protection may be lost, and without protection from statutory laws, women are in danger of “falling between two stools” (Adoko and Levine 2009). A study carried out in four villages in Tanzania, supported by the International Land Coalition, sought to understand the challenges and opportunities facing pastoral women with respect to accessing land and resources, in the context of village land use planning. This research presents empirical data on pastoral women’s land rights, shedding light on some of the details of these and their manifestation considering the differing contexts, land use patterns, and nature of rights to land. There are some common themes – particularly around the challenges facing women in pastoral communities including lack of space to make their views heard, lack of awareness of their rights, coupled with broader governance challenges. New processes underway such as a government-led review of Tanzania’s land policy and the accompanied implementation strategy ,the new land policy provide opportunities to overcome these challenges.

Keywords: land-reform, land-use-planning, pastoralists, women, tanzania

Topics: Gender, Women, Governance, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2017

Patrimonial Violence: A Study of Women's Property Rights in Ecuador

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Jacqueline Contreras, and Jennifer Twyman. 2o14.  “Patrimonial Violence: A Study of Women’s Property Rights in Ecuador.” Latin American Perspectives 41 (1): 143–65.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Jacqueline Contreras, Jennifer Twyman

Abstract:

Patrimonial violence, defined minimally as the violation of women’s property rights, is increasingly recognized as a form of gender violence, along with physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Research in Ecuador on the extent to which women are aware of their property rights and the situations in which patrimonial violence is most likely to occur shows that, while most women seem to be aware of certain fundamentals, there are many misconceptions, particularly regarding the status of individual property. Women’s lack of legal knowledge often undermines their ability to obtain their rightful share of the division of property upon separation, divorce, or widowhood. Moreover, patrimonial violence is often aggravated by the presence of other forms of violence against women.

Keywords: gender violence, women's property rights, assets, Ecuador

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Rights, Property Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Gender and Settler Colonialism in Palestinian Agriculture: Structural Transformations

Citation:

Awwad, Nida Abu. 2016. “Gender and Settler Colonialism in Palestinian Agriculture: Structural Transformations.” Arab Studies Quarterly 38 (3): 540–61.

Author: Nida Abu Awwad

Abstract:

The gendered nature of the agricultural sector is significantly influenced by the political and socio-economic and cultural structure of any society. The division of labor between males and females within the family farm is seriously affected as a response to economic pressures along with the impact of other restrictions imposed by predetermined gender roles. In the Palestinian context, economic pressures were created mainly by the structural transformation in Palestinian agriculture following the Zionist settler colonization of Palestine, along with other minor factors related to the Palestinian neo-liberal economic policies dictated by the international financial institution and Zionist interests. This article argues that the gendered nature of the Palestinian agriculture sector has been transformed and has promoted women’s exploitation as follows: First, restructure of the agricultural employment by the decline of both women’s and men’s employment of the total Palestinian labor force within serious exploitive and fluctuating conditions; second, changes in tasks and division of labor, women’s property rights for agricultural land resources and services provided by the Palestinian Authority; and finally increasing women’s burden by increasing their time allocation for agricultural tasks. The data presented in the article are based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary information on Palestinian agriculture, and primary data collected in 2010 with the help of a few households case studies (life history) from two locations in the central region of the West Bank.

Keywords: gender, settler colonialism, structural transformation, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Zionist settlements, Palestinian agriculture, women's contribution, palestine

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender Roles, International Financial Institutions, Rights, Property Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2016

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