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Rights

Gender Justice, Development, and Rights

Citation:

Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi

Annotation:

Summary:
Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
 
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
 
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
 
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
 
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
 
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
 
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
 
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
 
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
 
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
 
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
 
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
 
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

Citation:

Gladwin, Christina H, University of Florida, and Center for African Studies. 1991. Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers. Gainesville: University of Florida Press : Center for African Studies, University of Florida : Orders, University Presses of Florida.

Authors: Christina H. Gladwin, University of Florida, Center for African Studies

Annotation:

Summary: 
Focuses on the debates surrounding structural lending programmes and the effect they have on women in Africa. It questions the conventional dependency model and provides some counter-evidence that the economic position of women in societies with freer market policies has improved (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Structural adjustment and structural transformation in sub-Saharan Africa
Stephen O'Brien
 
2. Women, structural adjustment, and transformation: some lessons and questions from the African experience
Uma Lele
 
3. Getting priorities right: structural transformation and strategic notions
Bruce F. Johnston
 
4. Policies to overcome the negative effects of structural adjustment programs on African female-headed households
Jean M. Due
 
5. Impact of structural adjustment programs on Women and their households in Bendel and Ogun States, Nigeria
Patience Elabor-Idemudia
 
6. Women and structural adjustment in Zaire
Brooke Schoef et al.
 
7. Impact of structural adjustment programs on rural women in Tanzania
Ruth Meena
 
8. Fertilizer subsidy removal programs and their potential impacts on women farmers in Malawi and Cameroon
Christina H. Gladwin
 
9. Women traders in Ghana and the structural adjustment program
Gracia Clark and Takyiwaa Manuh
 
10. Ideology and political economy of gender: women and land in Nso, Cameroon
Miriam Goheen
 
11. Women's agricultural work in a multimodal rural economy: Ibarapa District, Oyo State, Nigeria
Jane I. Guyer with Olukemi Idowu
 
12. Structural transformation and its consequences for Orma women pastoralists
Jean Ensminger
 
13. New women's organizations in Nigeria: one response to structural adjustment
Lillian Trager and Clara Osinulu
 
14. Role of home economics agents in rural development programs in northern Nigeria: impacts of structural adjustment
Comfort B. Olayiwole
 
15. Curriculum planning for women and agricultural households: the case of Cameroon
Suzanna Smith, Barbara Taylor
 
16. Women farmers, structural adjustment, and FAO's plan of action for integration of women in development
Anita Spring and Vicki Wilde.
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Households, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Cameroon, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania

Year: 1991

Impact of the World Bank and IMF Policies on Rural Women's Human Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Ibnouf, Fatma Osman. 2008. "Impact of the World Bank and IMF Policies on Rural Women's Human Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa." Agenda 22 (78): 28-41.

Author: Fatma Osman Ibnouf

Abstract:

Over the past decades, national governments across sub-Saharan Africa have implemented World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) policies. The liberalisation of the market and reduced expenditure on public services under these policies may have effects on rural women who, as a result, might have to pay more for agricultural inputs, have access to fewer public services, and may lose the opportunity to participate in the formal labour force. This article aims to study the impact of World Bank and IMF policies on rural women's human rights and first reviews the literature on the World Bank and IMF policies and their gendered impacts, then focuses on the impact of these policies on rural women's human rights in sub-Saharan Africa in the areas of education, labour force and food security. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank and IMF policies, rural women's human rights, food security

Topics: Development, International Financial Institutions, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa

Year: 2008

The Effect of IMF Programs on Women’s Economic and Political Rights

Citation:

Detraz, Nicole, and Dursun Peksen. 2015. "The Effect of IMF Programs on Women’s Economic and Political Rights." International Interactions 42 (1): 81-105.

Authors: Nicole Detraz, Dursun Peksen

Abstract:

Though much research has been devoted to the socioeconomic and political consequences of International Monetary Fund (IMF) programs for recipient countries, little is known about the impacts of these programs on the level of respect for women’s rights. We postulate that IMF-induced policy reforms of privatization and public spending cuts, and the growing political repression and instability following the implementation of IMF programs, undermine the government’s ability and willingness to protect women’s economic and political rights. To substantiate the theoretical claims, we combine data on women’s political and economic rights with data on IMF programs for the years 1981–2004. Our findings suggest that IMF involvement is likely to deteriorate the level of respect for women’s economic rights while having no discernible effect on women’s political rights. The results further indicate that the effect of these programs is not conditioned by political regime type and economic wealth of recipient countries. One major policy implication of our findings is that the IMF should start to recognize that the conditions attached to lending programs might be implemented at the expense of women’s economic rights and that more explicit protections of women’s rights need to be included in program negotiations. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: gender equality, IMF programs, international financial institutions, neoliberalism, women's rights

Topics: Development, International Financial Institutions, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2015

International Organizations and Gender: New Paradigms and Old Habits

Citation:

Bessis, Sophie. 2004. "International Organizations and Gender: New Paradigms and Old Habits." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 29 (2): 633-647.

Author: Sophie Bessis

Annotation:

Summary:
“The principal arguments that the bank presents to justify its 1987 conversion to a gender approach are of a purely economic and strategic nature. Women should be assisted not because their rights are scandalously abused but because the abuse of their rights is an obstacle to the reproduction of dominant economic models in the countries of the South. The fact that women, even in the most difficult circumstances, are able to capture the dynamism of the market sphere is, in the eyes of World Bank experts, a significant step toward the much-desired generalization of market forces. The question of women’s rights is thus secondary for an institution that sees women first and foremost as a new type of economic actor, a possible guarantor of social stability in an era when that stability is increasingly difficult to achieve. The World Bank has thus instrumentalized women in the sense that their promotion is not an end in itself but rather a means of implementing the bank’s policies for economic growth and eradication of poverty” (Bessis 2004, 641).

Topics: Gender Mainstreaming, International Financial Institutions, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2004

Sex and World Peace

Citation:

Hudson, Valerie M., Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, and Chad F. Emmett. 2012. Sex and World Peace. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Valerie M. Hudson, Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, Chad F. Emmett

Annotation:

Sex and World Peace unsettles a variety of assumptions in political and security discourse, demonstrating that the security of women is a vital factor in the security of the state and its incidence of conflict and war. The authors compare micro-level gender violence and macro-level state peacefulness in global settings, supporting their findings with detailed analyses and color maps. Harnessing an immense amount of data, they call attention to discrepancies between national laws protecting women and the enforcement of those laws, and they note the adverse effects on state security of abnormal sex ratios favoring males, the practice of polygamy, and inequitable realities in family law, among other gendered aggressions. The authors find that the treatment of women informs human interaction at all levels of society. Their research challenges conventional definitions of security and democracy and shows that the treatment of gender, played out on the world stage, informs the true clash of civilizations. In terms of resolving these injustices, the authors examine top-down and bottom-up approaches to healing wounds of violence against women, as well as ways to rectify inequalities in family law and the lack of parity in decision-making councils. Emphasizing the importance of an R2PW, or state responsibility to protect women, they mount a solid campaign against women's systemic insecurity, which effectively unravels the security of all. (Summary from Columbia University Press).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Conflict Prevention, Domestic Violence, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gender Balance, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Political Participation, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Violence, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2012

Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts

Citation:

Archambault, Caroline, and Annelies Zoomers, eds. 2015. Global Trends in Land Tenure Reform: Gender Impacts. London and New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315765822.

Authors: Caroline Archambault, Annelies Zoomers

Annotation:

This book explores the gendered dimensions of recent land governance transformations across the globe in the wake of unprecedented pressures on land and natural resources. These complex contemporary forces are reconfiguring livelihoods and impacting women’s positions, their tenure security and well-being, and that of their families.

Bringing together fourteen empirical community case studies from around the world, the book examines governance transformations of land and land-based resources resulting from four major processes of tenure change: commercial land based investments, the formalization of customary tenure, the privatization of communal lands, and post-conflict resettlement and redistribution reforms. Each contribution carefully analyses the gendered dimensions of these transformations, exploring both the gender impact of the land tenure reforms and the social and political economy within which these reforms materialize. The cases provide important insights for decision makers to better promote and design an effective gender lens into land tenure reforms and natural resource management policies. (Summary from Taylor & Francis eBooks)

Table of Contents:
Introduction 
 
Part 1: From Farm to Firm: A Bad Deal for Women? 
 
1. Gender, Land and Agricultural Investments in Lao PDR  
 
2. Women and Benefit Sharing in Large Scale Land Deals: A Mining Case Study from Papua New Guinea  
 
3. A Women's World or the Return of Men? The Gendered Impacts of Residential Tourism in Costa Rica  
 
Part 2: From de Facto to de Jure: Formalizing Patriarchy in the Codification of Customary Tenure?  
 
4. Cameroon's Community Forests Program and Women's Income Generation from Non-Timber Forest Products: Negative impacts and potential solutions  
 
5. Gendered Mobilization: Women and the Politics of Indigenous Land Claims in Argentina  
 
6. Joint Land Titles in Madagascar: The gendered outcome of a "gender neutral" land tenure reform  
 
7. Land Titling and Women's Decision-Making in West Bengal  
 
Part 3: From Common Property to Private Holdings: A Tragedy for the Commoners?  
 
8. "One Doesn't Sell One's Parents:" Gendered Experiences of Shifting Tenure Regimes in the Agricultural Plain of the Sais in Morocco  
 
9. Aging Ejidos in the Wake of Neo-Liberal Reform: Livelihood Predicaments of Mexican Ejidatarias  
 
10. Women's Forestland Rights in the Collective Forestland Reforms in China: Fieldword Findings and Policy Recommendations  
 
11. Gendered Perspectives on Rangeland Privatization among the Maasai of Southern Kenya  
 
Part 4: From Conflict to Peace: An Opportunity for Gender Reconstruction?  
 
12. Reproducing Patriarchy on Resettled Lands: A lost opportunity in reconstituting women's land rights in the fast track land reform program in Zimbabwe  
 
13. Resigning Their Rights? Impediments to women's property ownership in Kosovo  
 
14. Strengthening Women's Land Rights while Recognizing Customary Tenure in Northern Uganda 

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Governance, Land grabbing, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Privatization, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, MENA, Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe, Oceania Countries: Argentina, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, India, Kenya, Kosovo, Laos, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

Gendered Rights in the Post-2015 Development and Disasters Agendas

Citation:

Bradshaw, Sarah. 2015. “Gendered Rights in the Post-2015 Development and Disasters Agendas.” IDS Bulletin 46 (4): 59–65. doi:10.1111/1759-5436.12158.

Author: Sarah Bradshaw

Abstract:

This article explores how, 20 years after the Beijing conference, women's rights are being discussed within processes to develop a post-2015 sustainable development agenda and the parallel international disaster risk reduction framework. It is based on analysis of documents produced to date from the various processes, and also personal experience of seeking to influence both the post-2015 development and disaster agendas. It highlights how attempts to marry the environmental and development agendas reveal a continued problematic conceptualisation of sexual and reproductive rights. It suggests that in gender terms, while the post-2015 development agenda and the related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are over-ambitious to the point of being mere rhetoric, gender rhetoric is yet to enter the international disaster risk reduction discourse. This, the article argues, coupled with the continued conceptualisation of disasters as outside mainstream development, has further negative implications for the recognition and fulfilment of women's rights.

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2015

When Extractives Come Home: An Action Research on the Impact of the Extractives Sector on Women in Selected Mining Communities in Zimbabwe

Citation:

Chatiza, Kudzai, Davison Muchadenyka, Dorcas Makaza, Fanny Nyaunga, Ronnie James K. Murungu, and Lillian Matsika. 2015. “When Extractives Come Home: An Action Research on the Impact of the Extractives Sector on Women in Selected Mining Communities in Zimbabwe.” OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development 8 (12): 45-72.

Authors: Kudzai Chatiza, Davison Muchadenyka, Dorcas Makaza, Fanny Nyaunga, Ronnie James K. Murungu, Lillian Matsika

Abstract:

The fact that mining constitute a major contributor to Zimbabwean economy cannot be overemphasized with the sector contributing more than 60% of the country's export earnings. However, its contributory role to the economy has been overshadowing its impact on communities, especially women. This paper, thus, is a result of an action research on the impact of mining and the extractive industry in general on women in selected mining communities in Zimbabwe. The study was commissioned by Actionaid International Zimbabwe and conducted by the Development Governance Institute between March and May 2015. The principal focus of the study was to provide a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between women and the extractive industry. In doing so, the research contributes to the design of context specific and appropriate strategies as well as actions to protect and uphold women's rights in mining communities. Further, the investigation identified the strategies adopted by women to safeguard their rights. This put into perspectives of women engaged in mining activities whether small scale or large scale; positive and negative externalities in relation to water, land, environment, violence, pollution and social capital emerging from mining;  and the role of women in collective action organisations advocating for mutually beneficial and sustainable mining activities. The study also analysed the legal, policy, institutional and community mechanisms that exist with a view to explaining why some of the negative impacts of mining on women persist. This is because governance is vital to promoting positive relationships between the extractive industry and the community in particular, women. In this regard, the research investigated mining governance arrangements (law, policy, institutions) and ascertained how these are reinforcing negative impacts on women. Further, the research assessed the effectiveness of mining governance arrangements in advancing women's rights and proposes changes to safeguard women's rights in the mining sector.

The third focus of the study was on citizens' agency in affected communities, women in particular in bringing mining companies to account for reinforcing women's rights. Suggestions on how to strengthen women's agency in claiming their rights in the mining sector are made on the back of analysis of field data. The research focused on the feasibility of women movements being at the centre of advocating for desired change. Most importantly, focus was placed on how women and civil society coalitions can change the relationship between women and mining companies; and an institutional mapping of key authorities and stakeholders to which lobbying, advocacy and action can be directed.

Keywords: extractives, governance, mining, women, Rights

Topics: Civil Society, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Governance, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

Women’s Rights in Climate Change: Using Video as a Tool for Empowerment in Nepal

Citation:

Khamis, Marion, Tamara Plush, and Carmen Sepúlveda Zelaya. 2009. “Women’s Rights in Climate Change: Using Video as a Tool for Empowerment in Nepal.” Gender and Development 17 (1): 125–35.

Authors: Marion Khamis, Tamara Plush, Carmen Sepúlveda Zelaya

Abstract:

An innovative Action Aid-supplied project in Nepal has seen women's empowerment make rapid progress through the use of video discussions about climate change. In this exploration of the project, we ask what we can learn from the use of such technology, and consider the implications for international development agencies and their efforts to support women's rights.

Keywords: women's rights, gender, climate change, power, women and environment, Nepal, adaptation, video

Topics: Development, Environment, Climate Change, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2009

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