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Religion

The Warias of Indonesia in Disaster Risk Reduction

Citation:

Balgos, Benigno, J.C. Gaillard, and Kristinne Sanz. 2012. “The Warias of Indonesia in Disaster Risk Reduction: The Case of the 2010 Mt Merapi Eruption in Indonesia.” Gender & Development 20 (2): 337–48. doi:10.1080/13552074.2012.687218.

Authors: Benigno Balgos, J.C. Gaillard, Kristinne Sanz

Abstract:

English Abstract:
This field note draws upon the concepts of vulnerability, marginalisation, and capacity of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to face natural hazards. As a case study, this paper highlights the response of warias, members of the LGBT community in Indonesia, during the 2010 Mt Merapi eruption. Through key informant interviews and observation of actual relief operations led by warias in several evacuation sites in Yogyakarta and Central Java, the paper highlights that warias contributed to disaster risk reduction (DRR) even though they are marginalised and discriminated in the country because of prevailing religious and societal attitudes. The paper argues that their needs and capacities should be acknowledged in DRR policies and practice.
 
French Abstract:
Cette note de terrain a recours aux concepts de vulnérabilité, de marginalisation et de capacité des personnes homosexuelles, bisexuelles et transsexuelles (HBT) à faire face aux aléas naturels. Comme étude de cas, cet article met en relief la réaction des warias, membres de la communauté HBT en Indonésie, durant l’éruption de 2010 du Mont Merapi. Grâce à des entretiens avec des interlocuteurs clés et l’observation d’opérations humanitaires menées par des warias dans plusieurs sites d’évaluation à Yogyakarta et au centre de Java, cet article souligne le fait que les warias ont contribué à la réduction des risques de catastrophe (RRC) en dépit du fait qu’ils sont marginalisés et victimes de discriminations dans le pays à cause des attitudes religieuses et sociétales répandues. Les auteurs de cet article soutiennent que leurs besoins et capacités devraient être reconnus dans les politiques et pratiques de RRC.
 
Spanish Abstract:
Esta nota de campo se centra en la vulnerabilidad, la marginación y la capacidad de las personas lesbianas, gays, bisexuales y transexuales (LGBT) de enfrentar los desastres naturales. A modo de estudio de caso, este ensayo destaca la respuesta de los warias, integrantes de la comunidad LGBT de Indonesia, tras la erupción de Monte Merapi en 2010. Mediante entrevistas a informantes clave y la observación de operaciones de ayuda concretas encabezadas por los warias en varias localidades evacuadas de Yogyakarta y Java Central, el ensayo subraya que los warias ayudaron a reducir los riesgos de desastres (DRR por sus siglas en inglés) a pesar de la marginación y la discriminación que sufren en el país por las actitudes religiosas y sociales. El ensayo sostiene que las necesidades y las capacidades de los warias deberán tomarse en cuenta en las políticas y prácticas de DRR.

Keywords: LGBT, waria, disaster risk reduction, humanitarian action, capacity, vulnerability, Indonesia

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, LGBTQ, Religion Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2012

Islamic Culture, Oil, and Women’s Rights Revisited

Citation:

Rørbæk, Lasse Lykke. 2016. “Islamic Culture, Oil, and Women’s Rights Revisited.” Politics and Religion 9 (1): 61–83. doi:10.1017/S1755048315000814.

Author: Lasse Lykke Rørbæk

Abstract:

According to recent research, oil abundance is the principal explanation for women’s poor human rights record in many Muslim societies. However, this study argues that resistance to gender equality in the Muslim world originates in its specific historical trajectory and that the critical juncture precedes the extraction of oil by a thousand years. The study assesses data on women’s economic, social, and political rights in 166 countries from 1999–2008 and shows that whereas the negative effect of oil is driven by the 11 members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Muslim countries consistently underperform even when oil and gas rents and other relevant factors such as income and democracy are accounted for. The study concludes that persisting orthodox tendencies in Islamic culture provide the best explanation for Muslim women’s limited empowerment.
 

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Religion, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2016

What is the Sex Doing in the Genocide? A Feminist Philosophical Response

Citation:

Schott, Robin May. 2015. “What is the Sex Doing in the Genocide? A Feminist Philosophical Response.” European Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (4): 397-411.

Author: Robin May Schott

Abstract:

This article reviews the literature on Holocaust and genocide studies to consider the question, ‘what is the sex doing in the genocide?’ Of the three answers usually given: (1) sexual violence is like other forms of genocidal violence, (2) sexual violence is a coordinate in genocide and (3) sexual violence is integral to genocidal violence, the author argues for the third position, but takes issue with Catharine MacKinnon’s claim that sexual violence destroys women as a group, thereby destroying the ethnic, racial, religious, or national group to which women belong. Drawing on Hannah Arendt’s concept of natality, the author argues that sexual violence is an attack on a fundamental condition for the possibility of the existence of human groups. When political violence is used to force biological birth in the service of death, it is a form of thanatonatality.

Keywords: genocide, Holocaust, natality, sexual violence, thanatonatality

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, Genocide, Race, Religion, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence

Year: 2015

Invisible Victims? Where are Male Victims of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in International Law and Policy?

Citation:

Gorris, Ellen Anna Philo. 2015. “Invisible Victims? Where are Male Victims of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in International Law and Policy?” European Journal of Women’s Studies 22 (4): 412-427. 

Author: Ellen Anna Philo Gorris

Abstract:

In this article the author argues that men and boys have been historically and structurally rendered an invisible group of victims in international human rights and policy responses towards conflict-related sexual violence stemming from the United Nations. The apparent female-focused approach of instruments on sexual violence is criticized followed by a discussion – through analysis and interviews with legal scholars and champions for the recognition of male survivors’ experiences – of the first ‘emergence’ of male victims in these instruments and key actors involved in this process. The existing serious dichotomy between visible and invisible victims is prominently based on their ‘gender identity’ and leads to structural discrimination of male victims of rape or other forms of sexual violence. To overcome this situation and develop more inclusive instruments, a reconceptualization is needed of the meaning and use of words like ‘gender’ and ‘gender-based violence’. Additionally, a more intersectional approach to sexual violence should be adopted, understanding that victims have a multitude of identities such as ethnicity or religious affiliation that make them particularly vulnerable to suffering.

Keywords: sexual violence, male victims, human rights, conflict, gender, intersectionality, women, women, peace, and Security

Topics: Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Men, Boys, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, intersectionality, Religion, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889, UNSCR 1960, UNSCR 2106, UNSCR 2122, Sexual Violence, SV against men

Year: 2015

Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen

Citation:

Marshall, Katherine, and Susan Hayward, eds. 2015. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Authors: Katherine Marshall, Susan Hayward

Abstract:

Many women working for peace around the world are motivated by their religious beliefs, whether they work within secular or religious organizations. These women often find themselves sidelined or excluded from mainstream peacebuilding efforts. Secular organizations can be uncomfortable working with religious groups. Meanwhile, religious institutions often dissuade or even disallow women from leadership positions. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding: Illuminating the Unseen shows how women determined to work for peace have faced these obstacles in ingenious ways—suggesting, by example, ways that religious and secular organizations might better include them in larger peacebuilding campaigns and make those campaigns more effective in ending conflict.
 
The first part of the book examines the particular dynamics of women of faith working toward peace within Catholicism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism. The second part contains case studies of women peacebuilders in Africa, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, detailing how their faiths have informed their work, what roles religious institutions have played as they have moved forward, what accomplishments have resulted from their efforts, and what challenges remain. An appendix of interviews offers further perspectives from peacebuilders, both women and men.
 
Ultimately, Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding is a call to change the paradigm of peacebuilding inside and outside of the world’s faiths, to strengthen women’s abilities to work for peace and, in turn, improve the chances that major efforts to end conflicts around the world succeed. (United States Institute of Peace)
 

Annotation:

Table of Contents:

1. Religious Women’s Invisibility: Obstacles and opportunities
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

2. Part I: Women Peacebuilders: Distinctive Approaches of Different Religious Traditions
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

3. Catholic Women Building Peace: Invisibility, Ideas and Institutions Expand Ideas
Maryann Casimano Love

4. Muslim Women’s Peacebuilding Initiatives
S. Ayse Kadayifci-Orellana

5. Creating Peaceful and Sustainable Communities through the Spiritual Empowerment of Buddhism and Hinduism
Dena Merriam

6. Jewish Women in Peacebuilding: Embracing Disagreement in the Pursuit of “Shalom”
Lucy Kurtzer-Ellenbogen

7. Part II Women and Faith in Action: Regional Case Studies
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

8. An All-Women Peacekeeping Group: Lessons From the Mindanao People’s Caucus
Margaret Jenkins

9. Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Bilkisu Yusuf and Sr. Kathleen McGarvey

10. The Politics of Resistance: Muslim Women Negotiating Peace in Aceh, Indonesia
Etin Anwar

11. Women Reborn: A Case Study of the Intersection of Women, Religion, and Peacebuilding in a Palestinian Village in Israel
Andrea K. Blanch, with coauthors Esther Hertzog and Ibtisam Mahameed

12. Women Citizens and Believers as Agents of Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Zilka Spahic Šiljak

13. Women Peacebuilders in Post-Coup Honduras: Their Spiritual Struggle to Transform Multiple Forms of Violence
Mónica A. Maher

14. Women, Religion and Trauma Healing: A Case in India
Anjana Dayal Prewitt

15. Strengthening Religious Women’s Work for Peace
Jacqueline Ogega and Katherine Marshall

16. Conclusion: Seeking Common Ground
Susan Hayward and Katherine Marshall

17. Appendix: Scholars and Practitioners Engaged with Women, Religion, and Peace

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Religion Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Central America, Asia, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Israel, Nigeria, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Philippines

Year: 2015

The Symbolic Use of Afghan Women in the War on Terror

Citation:

Berry, Kim. 2003. “The Symbolic Use of Afghan Women in the War on Terror.” Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 27 (2): 137-160. 

Author: Kim Berry

Abstract:

This article analyzes the critical omissions and misrepresentations that accompanied the Bush administration claims that the war on terror waged in Afghanistan was "also a fight for the rights and dignity of women." The article incorporates the insights of Afghan and U.S. analysts, activists, and journalists, along with feminist theorists of Islam and the politics of representation, in order to problematize this characterization of a liberatory U.S. military action. Without such critical analysis, the article argues that we run the risk of using Afghan women as symbols and pawns in a geopolitical conflict, thereby muting their diverse needs and interests and foreclosing the possibility of contributing to the realization of their self-defined priorities and aspirations.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Human Security, Terrorism Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, United States of America

Year: 2003

The Role of Religion in Women’s Campaigns for Legal Reform in Nigeria

Citation:

Adamu, Fatima L., and Oluwafunmilayo J. Para-Mallam. 2012. “The Role of Religion in Women’s Campaigns for Legal Reform in Nigeria.” Development in Practice 22 (5–6): 803–18. doi:10.1080/09614524.2012.685875.

Authors: Fatima L. Adamu, Oluwafunmilayo J. Para-Mallam

Abstract:

Legal reform is necessary but not sufficient to realise women’s rights. This paper compares two campaigns for legal reform in Nigeria: attempts to domesticate the UN Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in federal law, which resulted in defeat of the bill in 2007, and a successful campaign to introduce legislation to prevent the mistreatment of widows in Anambra State. It considers the role of religion in the campaigns, by examining how the women’s movement engaged with religious actors. The research shows that religious beliefs, discourses, and actors had a significant influence on the outcomes of the campaigns, in part because of the content of the proposed legislation, but also because of the strategies adopted by the campaigners and the interests of the religious bodies concerned. Despite the implication of religion in gender inequality, these cases show that religious teachings, leaders, and organisations can be allies rather than obstacles in achieving progressive social change. 

Keywords: Gender and Diversity, Governance and public policy, Sub-Saharan Africa

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Religion Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2012

Religious Power, the State, Women's Rights, and Family Law

Citation:

Htun, Mala, and S. Laurel Weldon. 2015. “Religious Power, the State, Women’s Rights, and Family Law.” Politics & Gender 11 (03): 451–77. doi:10.1017/S1743923X15000239.

Authors: Mala Htun, S. Laurel Weldon

Abstract:

Family law is an essential dimension of women's citizenship in the modern state. The rights established in family law shape women's agency and autonomy; they also regulate access to basic resources—such as land, income, and education—that determine a citizen's ability to earn a living independently, among other life chances (Agarwal 1994; Deere and León 2001; Kabeer 1994; Okin 1989; World Bank 2012). Yet family law is a notorious site of sex inequality, historically and in the present. Equal rights enjoyed by women in national constitutions are often contradicted by family and civil codes that subordinate women to the decisions of their husbands and fathers. In the early 21st century, family law in a significant number of countries discriminated against women, denying them the rights held by men and contributing to their disadvantaged social positions.

Topics: Citizenship, Women, Gender Equality/Inequality, Constitutions, Religion, Women's Rights

Year: 2015

Violence, Human Rights, and Piety: Cosmopolitanism Versus Virtuous Exclusion in Response to Atrocity

Citation:

Turner, Bryan S. "Violence, human rights, and piety : cosmopolitanism versus virtuous exclusion in response to atrocity." In The Religious in Responses to Mass Atrocity: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, eds Thomas Brudholm and Thomas Cushman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

Author: Bryan S. Turner

Topics: Religion, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Violence

Year: 2009

Missionary Zeal for a Secular Mission: Bringing Gender to Transitional Justice and Redemption to Feminism

Citation:

Nesiah, Vasuki. 2011. "Missionary Zeal for a Secular Mission: Bringing Gender to Transitional Justice and redemption to Feminism." In Feminist Perspectives on Contemporary International Law: Between Resistance and Compliance, ed. Sari Kouvo and Zoe Pearson, 137-159. Portland, Or: Hart. 

Author: Vasuki Nesiah

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Justice, Transitional Justice, Religion

Year: 2011

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