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Poverty

Is Adaptation to Climate Change Gender Neutral? Lessons from Communities Dependent on Livestock and Forests in Northern Mali

Citation:

Djoudi, H., and M. Brockhaus. 2011. “Is Adaptation to Climate Change Gender Neutral? Lessons from Communities Dependent on Livestock and Forests in Northern Mali.” International Forestry Review 13 (2): 123–35.

Authors: H. Djoudi, M. Brockhaus

Keywords: gender, climate change, adaptation, Faguibine, Mali

Annotation:

Summary: 
The growing risk of vulnerability to climate change is widely discussed in the scientific and political sphere. More evidence from local case studies emerges that document this risk. Vulnerability to climate change and variability appears most likely to negatively affect poor people, particularly women. Tendencies to widen existing inequalities have been observed. In the Lake Faguibine area in Northern Mali the social, political and ecological conditions have drastically changed in the last three decades. We conducted 6 single gender participatory workshops using PRA in two communities. The workshops assessed vulnerability and adaptive strategies to climate variability and change for livestock and forest based livelihoods. Our results show divergences in the adaptive strategies of men and women. Migration represented one of the most important strategies for men. Women perceived this strategy more as a cause of vulnerability than an adaptive strategy. Traditionally male activities have been added to the workload of women (e.g. small ruminant herding). The historical axes show that development projects targeting women have not integrated climate change and variability into their planning. Most activities have been built around small scale agriculture. With the drying out of Lake Faguibine, those water dependent activities are no longer relevant. Women have developed their own adaptive strategies based on newly emerged forest resources in the former lake area (e.g. charcoal production). However, women are hindered from realizing the potential of these new activities. This is due to loss of person power in the household, unclear access to natural resources, lack of knowledge and financial resources. Lack of power to influence decision at the household and community levels as well as limited market opportunities for women are additional factors. Even though women's vulnerability is increasing in the short term, over the long term the emerging changes in women's roles could lead to positive impacts. These impacts could be both societal (division of labor and power, new social spaces), and economic (market access, livestock wealth). Locally specific gender sensitive analysis of vulnerability is needed to understand dynamics and interaction of divergent adaptive strategies. Societal and political change at broader scales is needed to realize potential benefits for women in the long term. (Summary from original source) 

Topics: Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2011

Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh

Citation:

Alston, Margaret. 2015. Women and Climate Change in Bangladesh. London: Routledge.

Author: Margaret Alston

Annotation:

Summary: 
Bangladesh is by no means a high emitter of carbon, but it is nevertheless one of the countries most critically affected. There is a significant risk of damage to lives and livelihoods due to climate change in the form of cyclones, flooding and storm surges, and slow-onset impacts such as droughts, sea level rises and river basin erosion. Moreover, Bangladeshis are especially vulnerable as a high proportion of people live in extreme poverty. This book assesses the impact of climate change in Bangladesh, and presents the findings of a three-year, in-depth study undertaken at village level in different districts of the country. It examines national policies, contrasting them with what is actually happening at village level. It outlines the impact of climate change on livelihood strategies and health, and focuses particularly on the impact on gender relations, showing that although women have a significant role to play in helping communities cope with the effects of climate change, cultural customs and practices often work against this. The book argues for, and puts forward policy proposals for, recognising women’s active contribution and supporting gender equality as a critical strategy in global adaptation to climate challenges. (Summary from Taylor & Francis Group) 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2015

Environmental Social Work: Accounting for Gender in Climate Disasters

Citation:

Alston, Margaret. 2013. “Environmental Social Work: Accounting for Gender in Climate Disasters.” Australian Social Work 66 (2): 218–33.

Author: Margaret Alston

Abstract:

The person-in-the-environment concept has largely been interpreted by social workers to indicate social networks and relationships, ignoring the physical environment and its complex impact on human health and wellbeing. This article examines the environmental domain, noting the critical role social workers can have in this field as a consequence of climate events and global warming. The article notes the significance of gender as a key factor in vulnerability to disasters and outlines the need for social workers to consider gender as a critical indicator in their work in this emerging area. Embodiment, connection to place, poverty, and cultural awareness are also significant, but often overlooked, factors in a social work response to environmental disasters. Ecological and ecofeminist theories give a direction for social work theory and practice in the postdisaster space. The article challenges social workers to reconsider the person-in- the-environment as a complex and critical emerging domain of social work theories and practice, a domain where gender awareness is fundamental.

Keywords: environmental social work, accounting for gender in climate disasters

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Feminisms, Gender, Health, Mental Health

Year: 2013

'Gender and Climate Change': From Impacts to Discourses

Citation:

MacGregor, Sherilyn. 2010. “‘Gender and Climate Change’: From Impacts to Discourses.” Journal of the Indian Ocean Region 6 (2): 223–38.

Author: Sherilyn MacGregor

Abstract:

Whereas the concepts of class, poverty and race make regular appearances in social scientific analyses of global climate change, the same cannot be said for gender. A survey of the academic literature suggests that there is a lack of research into the many gender dimensions of climate change. The small amount of gender-sensitive work that exists has been carried out by gender, environment and development (GED) researchers working for the UN and non-governmental organisations who focus almost exclusively on the material impacts of climate change on vulnerable women in the Global South. In this paper I make two arguments about the current state of research on gender and climate change. First, I argue that although the GED research makes many important contributions to our understanding of the politics of climate change, it also contributes to an unnecessarily narrow understanding of gender, a fixation on ‘impacts’ that are material and measurable, and the view of women in the developing world, particularly those living in countries of the Indian Ocean Region, as victims of ecological crisis. Second, in response to these shortcomings, I argue for the development of a deeper gender analysis where materialist- informed empirical research on women is complemented by critical feminist theorising of the discursive constructions and categories that shape climate politics today.

Keywords: gender, climate change, climate politics, feminist constructivism, discourse

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, International Organizations, NGOs

Year: 2010

The Role of Self-Help Groups in Post-Tsunami Rehabilitation

Citation:

Larson, Grant, Julie Drolet, and Miriam Samuel. 2015. “The Role of Self-Help Groups in Post-Tsunami Rehabilitation.” International Social Work 58 (5): 732–42.

Authors: Grant Larson, Julie Drolet, Miriam Samuel

Abstract:

This article provides an analysis of the importance of self-help groups for women in post-tsunami rehabilitation efforts in Tamil Nadu, India. The finding is one of eight key themes identified in a larger study of the long-term social, economic and gender implications of post-tsunami rehabilitation work. While self-help groups were reported as having provided women with a measure of new social and economic opportunities, status and power, little evidence existed for a substantial reduction of poverty levels or a change in the prevailing patriarchal attitudes. The authors suggest that multiple long-term sustainable approaches to post-disaster reconstruction are needed to provide fundamental social and economic change for women.

Keywords: India, rehabilitation, self-help, tsunami, women

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2015

Female Adolescents and their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods

Citation:

Rashid, Sabina Faiz, and Stephanie Michaud. 2000. “Female Adolescents and their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods.” Disasters 24 (1): 54–70.

Authors: Sabina Faiz Rashid, Stephanie Michaud

Abstract:

This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio‐cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's families and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their ‘purity’. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their ‘space’ and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately `secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were underwater. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far‐reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, 1998 floods, adolescence, sexuality, gender, women

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Girls, Health, Mental Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Sexuality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2000

Gender and Climate Change Financing: Coming Out of the Margin

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2016. Gender and Climate Change Financing: Coming Out of the Margin. London: Routledge.

Author: Mariama Williams

Abstract:

This book discusses the state of global climate change policy and the financing of climate resilient public infrastructure. It explains the sources of tensions and conflict between developing and developed countries with regard to global climate protection policies, and highlights the biases and asymmetries that may work against gender equality, women's empowerment and poverty eradication. Gender and Climate Change Financing: Coming Out of the Margin provides an overview of the scientific, economic and political dynamics underlying global climate protection. It explores the controversial issues that have stalled global climate negotiations and offers a clear explanation of the link between adaptation and mitigation strategies and gender issue. It also maps the full range of public, private and market-based climate finance instruments and funds. This book will be a useful tool for those engaged with climate change, poverty eradication, gender equality and women's empowerment. (WorldCat)

Annotation:

Table of Contents: 
1. The global climate change policy environment 
 
2. The ethical, equity and social development dimensions of global climate change policy 
 
3. Climate change, gender equality and women's empowerment issues
 
4. The global climate change finance architecture
 
5. The state of play of bilateral and multilateral and market-based climate finance 
 
6. Gender and the state of play in adaptation finance 
 
7. Gender and the state of play in mitigation financing 
 
8. Gender biases and asymmetries in global and climate change finance 
 
9. Private sector climate finance and gender equality
 
10. Towards an equitable and gender-sensitive post-2015 climate change financing regime
 
11. Summary and recommendations 
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure

Year: 2016

Gender and Food Security in Bangladesh: The Impact of Climate Change

Citation:

Alston, Margaret, and Badi Akhter. 2016. “Gender and Food Security in Bangladesh: The Impact of Climate Change.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 23 (10): 1450–64.

Authors: Margaret Alston, Badi Akhter

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Food security remains a critical global issue, made more difficult because of the rising world population, climate challenges affecting food production and a focus on market-based solutions that undermine subsistence production in vulnerable rural areas. Particularly affected are countries across Asia where poverty, hunger and malnourishment affect a significant proportion of the population. Drawing on Sen’s entitlement theory, we argue that a shift in focus from national food production to intra-household food access enables a critical reflection on consumption smoothing strategies adopted at this level. In particular, we draw attention to the tendency for women and girls to eat less as an intra-household adaptation strategy. We present findings from our research in rural areas of Bangladesh and note that adaptation strategies adopted by households in response to food insecurity. We note that strategies designed to address food insecurity must include gender mainstreaming to ensure that women and girls are not taking a disproportionate responsibility for intra-household food security. 
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT: 
La seguridad alimentaria sigue siendo un tema global crítico, dificultado más aún por la creciente población mundial, los desafíos climáticos que afectan a la producción de alimentos y una búsqueda de soluciones centrada en los mercados que socava la producción de subsistencia en las áreas rurales vulnerables. Los países asiáticos donde la pobreza, el hambre y la desnutrición afectan a una proporción significativa de la población son particularmente perjudicados. Basándonos en la teoría de derechos de Sen, argumentamos que un cambio de orientación de una producción de alimentos nacional al acceso de alimentos dentro de los hogares permite hacer una reflexión crítica sobre las estrategias de emparejamiento del consumo adoptadas a este nivel. En particular, llamamos la atención sobre la tendencia de las mujeres y las niñas a consumir menos alimentos como una estrategia de adaptación intra hogar. Presentamos los resultados de nuestra investigación en las áreas rurales de Bangladesh y notamos las estrategias de adaptación adoptadas por los hogares en respuesta a la inseguridad alimentaria. Destacamos que las estrategias diseñadas para abordar la inseguridad alimentaria deben incluir la incorporación de la perspectiva de género para asegurarse de que las mujeres y niñas no estén asumiendo demasiada responsabilidad por la seguridad alimentaria intra hogareña.
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT:
粮食安全仍然是关键性的全球议题,并且因为世界人口增长、影响粮食 生产的气候挑战,以及聚焦以市场为基础的解决方案以至损害脆弱农村 地区的生计生产,而使之愈发困难。特别受到影响的,则是很大比率的 人口饱受贫穷、飢饿与营养不良之苦的亚洲国家。我们运用森(Sen)的 权益理论,主张将焦点从全国粮食生产转移至家户内部的粮食获取,将 能够对此一层级所採用的缓解消费策略进行批判性的反思。我们特别关 注女性和女童以减少食量作为家户内部调适策略的倾向。我们呈现孟加 拉农村地区的研究发现,以及家户为了回应粮食不安全所採取的调适策 略之记录。我们表明,设计用来应对粮食不安全的策略,必须包含性别 主流化,以确保女性和女童不会在家户内部的粮食安全中担负不成比例 的责任。

Keywords: gender, food security, climate change, adaptation, food production, gênero, seguridad alimentaria, cambio climático, adaptación, producción de alimentos, 性别, 粮食安全, 气候变迁, 调适, 粮食生产

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2016

Holding African States to Task on Gender and Violence: Domesticating UNSCR 1325 in the Sierra Leone National Action Plan

Citation:

Beoku-Betts, Josephine. 2016. “Holding African States to Task on Gender and Violence: Domesticating UNSCR 1325 in the Sierra Leone National Action Plan.” Current Sociology Monograph 64 (4): 654–70.

Author: Josephine Beoku-Betts

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article assesses efforts to combat sexual violence in Sierra Leone through its National Action Plan (SILNAP) passed in 2010 to implement UN Resolution 1325. The article examines specifically pillars two and three, which address protection of women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence and prevention of violence against women through strengthening women’s legal rights and supporting women’s local peace initiatives. In spite of legislative measures and sustained activism by women’s NGOs, efforts to promote gender equality and reduce institutionalized violence affecting women’s daily lives are limited. Failure to account for structural inequalities such as poverty, illiteracy, income disparities, violence against women in private and public spheres, and limited budget allocation to implement the plan are contributing factors. The article is informed by feminist scholarship on sexual violence and implementation of UNSCR 1325 in national action plans. Implementation mechanisms, monitoring, evaluation, and enforcement measures, and accomplishments and shortfalls are discussed.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article examine les efforts déployés par la Sierra Léone pour lutter contre les violences sexuelles dans le cadre de son plan d’action national (SILNAP), instauré en 2010 et visant à mettre en œuvre la résolution 1325 de l’ONU. Il examine deux éléments du triptyque portant sur la protection des femmes et des petites filles contre les violences sexuelles et sexistes et la prévention de la violence sexuelle par le renforcement des droits juridiques des femmes et le soutien aux initiatives de paix prises par des groupes locaux de femmes. En dépit des mesures législatives et de l’action militante des organisations non gouvernementales féminines, les efforts visant à promouvoir l’égalité des sexes et à réduire les violences institutionnalisées affectant les femmes dans leur vie quotidienne restent limités. Les principaux facteurs expliquant cette situation sont la non-prise en compte des inégalités structurelles, telles que la pauvreté, l’analphabétisme, les disparités de revenus, la violence contre les femmes dans la sphère privée et publique, et le budget limité alloué à la mise en œuvre du plan. Cet article s’appuie sur des études féministes portant sur la violence sexuelle et la mise en œuvre de la résolution 1325 dans les plans d’action nationaux. Il examine les mécanismes d’application, de suivi, d’évaluation et de contrôle des mesures, ainsi que leurs réussites et leurs échecs.
 
SPANISH (CASTILIAN) ABSTRACT:
Este trabajo evalúa los esfuerzos para combatir la violencia sexual en Sierra Leona a través de su Plan de Acción Nacional (SILNAP) aprobado en 2010 para implementar la Resolución 1325 de la ONU. Examino los fundamentos dos y tres que se ocupan de la protección de las mujeres y niñas de la violencia sexual y de género y la prevención de la violencia contra las mujeres mediante el fortalecimiento de los derechos legales de las mujeres y el apoyo a las iniciativas de paz locales de las mujeres. A pesar de las medidas legislativas y el activismo sostenido por organizaciones no gubernamentales de mujeres, los esfuerzos para promover la igualdad de género y reducir la violencia institucionalizada afectando la vida cotidiana de las mujeres son limitadas. No tomar en cuenta las desigualdades estructurales, como la pobreza, el analfabetismo, las desigualdades de ingresos, la violencia contra las mujeres en los ámbitos público y privado, y la limitada asignación de presupuesto para implementar el plan son factores que contribuyen. El estudio es informado por estudios feministas sobre la violencia sexual y la aplicación de la Resolución 1325 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas en planes de acción nacionales. Discuto mecanismos de implementación, monitoreo, evaluación y medidas de ejecución, así como los logros y deficiencias.

Keywords: peace-building, sexual violence, Sierra Leone, UNSCR 1325, women's political activism, Militantisme politique féminin, promotion de la paix, RCSNU 1325, violence sexuelle, Activismo político de mujeres, consolidación de la paz, Resolución 1325 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, violencia sexual

Topics: Domestic Violence, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2016

Gender Dimension in Disaster Situations: A Case Study of Flood Prone Women in Malabon City, Metro Manila

Citation:

Reyes, Daniella Dominique, and Jinky Leilanie Lu. 2016. “Gender Dimension in Disaster Situations: A Case Study of Flood Prone Women in Malabon City, Metro Manila.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 15: 162–68.

Authors: Daniella Dominique Reyes, Jinky Leilanie Lu

Abstract:

This study looked into the gendered experiences of women in a disaster-prone area in Metro Manila, and at the relations of both the cultural, and socio-economic factors on women's vulnerability to disasters. The research strategy was sequential where understanding of the target area was done through situational analysis and interviews, and then quantitative data were gathered through a survey of 68 women. In this study, the women said that their responsibilities during disasters exceeded those of their partners. These were looking and providing food for the family (77.9%), keeping up hope for the family midst the disaster situation (70.6%), taking care of the sick or injured members of the family (55.9%), among others. Majority of the women belonged to the lower income group, and a considerable number were single parents. Being tied to the home while their male counterparts were away for work is detrimental to the women because they immediately encountered the brunt of the effects of the disaster. While men were recognized as the household heads and leaders, it is evident from the data gathered that women took more roles and responsibilities before, during, and after disasters. Both the poverty of the women, and their traditional roles at home put them in a vulnerable position. Hence, there is a need not only to include gender in disaster planning, but also to reconceptualize what gender means and how it should be applied in disaster reduction planning in particular, and in the development process in general.

Keywords: disaster, Women in disasters, Gender dimension in disaster

Topics: Class, Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Households Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2016

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