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Political Participation

Gender Justice, Development, and Rights

Citation:

Molyneux, Maxine, and Shahra Razavi, eds. 2002. Gender Justice, Development, and Rights. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Authors: Maxine Molyneux, Shahra Razavi

Annotation:

Summary:
Gender Justice, Development, and Rights reflects on the significance accorded in international development policy to rights and democracy in the post-Cold War era. Key items on the contemporary policy agenda - neo-liberal economic and social policies, democracy, and multi-culturalism - are addressed here by leading scholars and regional specialists through theoretical reflections and detailed case studies. Together they constitute a collection which casts contemporary liberalism in a distinctive light by applying a gender perspective to the analysis of political and policy processes. Case studies from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, East-Central Europe, South and South-East Asia contribute a cross-cultural dimension to the analysis of contemporary liberalism - the dominant value system in the modern world - by examining how it both exists in and is resisted in developing and post-transition societies. (Summary from WorldCat)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Maxine Molyneux and Shahra Razavi
 
Part I: Re-Thinking Liberal Rights And Universalism 
 
2. Women's Capabilities And Social Justice
Martha Nussbaum
 
3. Gender Justice, Human Rights And Neo-Liberal Economic Policies
Diane Elson
 
4. Multiculturalism, Universalism And The Claims Of Democracy
Anne Phillips
 
Part II: Social Sector Restructuring And Social Rights 
 
5. Political And Social Citizenship: An Examination Of The Case Of Poland
Jacqueline Heinen and Stephane Portet
 
6. Engendering The New Social Citizenship In Chile: Ngos And Social Provisioning Under Neo-Liberalism
Veronica Schild
 
7. Engendering Education: Prospects For A Rights-Based Approach To Female Education Deprivation In India
Ramya Subrahmanian
 
Part III: Democratisation And The Politics Of Gender 
 
8. Feminism And Political Reform In The Islamic Republic Of Iran
Parvin Paidar
 
9. The 'Devil's Deal': Women's Political Participation And Authoritarianism In Peru
Cecilia Blondet M.
 
10. In And Against The Party: Women's Representation And Constituency-Building In Uganda And South Africa
Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim
 
PART IV: Multiculturalisms In Practice 
 
11. The Politics Of Gender, Ethnicity And Democratization In Malaysia: Shifting Interests And Identities
Maznah Mohamad
 
12. National Law And Indigenous Customary Law: The Struggle For Justice Of Indigenous Women In Chiapas, Mexico Aida
Hernandez Castillo
 
13. The Politics Of Women's Rights And Cultural Diversity In Uganda
Aili Mari Tripp
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Governance, Political Participation, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, Americas, Central America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Chile, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Poland, South Africa, Uganda

Year: 2002

Agency and Accountability: Promoting Women's Participation in Peacebuilding

Citation:

Goetz, Anne Marie, and Rob Jenkins. 2016. "Agency and Accountability: Promoting Women's Participation in Peacebuilding." Feminist Economics 22 (1): 211-236.

Abstract:

This contribution reviews international policy and practices to engage women in formal peace talks, post-conflict elections, and economic recovery, and finds a combination of factors contributing to poor performance in promoting women's agency. The fact that the privileged category for post-conflict decisions are those groups capable of acting as “spoilers” has tended to exclude women's groups from the categories considered most important to involve in decision making. Exacerbating this exclusion is the reluctance of international decision makers to encourage affirmative action measures in these contexts. This carries through to the minimal-state approach to economic recovery efforts. Provisions are needed to foster and invite women's voice in decision making, and build more active-state approaches to women's livelihood recovery. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: affirmative action, agency, community, development, discrimination, interdisciplinary

Topics: Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Privatization

Year: 2016

Sex and World Peace

Citation:

Hudson, Valerie M., Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, and Chad F. Emmett. 2012. Sex and World Peace. New York: Columbia University Press.

Authors: Valerie M. Hudson, Bonnie Ballif-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, Chad F. Emmett

Annotation:

Sex and World Peace unsettles a variety of assumptions in political and security discourse, demonstrating that the security of women is a vital factor in the security of the state and its incidence of conflict and war. The authors compare micro-level gender violence and macro-level state peacefulness in global settings, supporting their findings with detailed analyses and color maps. Harnessing an immense amount of data, they call attention to discrepancies between national laws protecting women and the enforcement of those laws, and they note the adverse effects on state security of abnormal sex ratios favoring males, the practice of polygamy, and inequitable realities in family law, among other gendered aggressions. The authors find that the treatment of women informs human interaction at all levels of society. Their research challenges conventional definitions of security and democracy and shows that the treatment of gender, played out on the world stage, informs the true clash of civilizations. In terms of resolving these injustices, the authors examine top-down and bottom-up approaches to healing wounds of violence against women, as well as ways to rectify inequalities in family law and the lack of parity in decision-making councils. Emphasizing the importance of an R2PW, or state responsibility to protect women, they mount a solid campaign against women's systemic insecurity, which effectively unravels the security of all. (Summary from Columbia University Press).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Conflict Prevention, Domestic Violence, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gender Balance, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Political Participation, Rights, Reproductive Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Violence, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2012

Gendered Responses to Drought in Yunnan Province, China

Citation:

Yufang Su, Suman Bisht, Andreas Wilkes, Neera Shrestha Pradhan, Yahui Zou, Song Liu, and Kevin Hyde. 2017. “Gendered Responses to Drought in Yunnan Province, China.” Mountain Research and Development 37 (1): 24–34.

Authors: Yufang Su, Suman Bisht, Andreas Wilkes, Neera Shrestha Pradhan, Yahui Zou, Song Liu, Kevin Hyde

Abstract:

Vulnerability to and perceptions of climate change may be significantly affected by gender. However, in China, gender is rarely addressed in climate adaption or resource management strategies. This paper demonstrates the relevance of gender in responses to climate change in the mountainous province of Yunnan in southwest China. Based on surveys undertaken during a record-breaking drought, the paper explores how women and men in a village in Baoshan Prefecture differ in their perceptions of and responses to drought, and how the changing roles of women and men in the home and the community are influencing water management at the village level. Our results show that despite the increasingly active role of women in managing water during the drought, they are excluded from community-level decision-making about water. The paper argues that given the importance of gender differences in perceptions of and responses to drought, the lack of a gender perspective in Chinese policy may undermine efforts to support local resource management and climate adaptation.

Keywords: drought, gender analysis, climate change, responses

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Political Participation Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2016

Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change

Citation:

Badayos-Jover, Mary Barby P. 2012. “Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change.” PhD diss., College of Agricultural Sciences and College of the Liberal Arts, The Pennsylvania State University.

Author: Mary Barby P. Badayos-Jover

Abstract:

Global climate change has become a pressing environmental, social, political and economic problem in highly vulnerable developing countries like the Philippines. A number of socio-political institutions are thus now involved in climate change initiatives in Philippine locales. While these efforts are underway, there is also a parallel growing concern that institutional responses to climate change will reinforce gender inequalities or undermine the gains made towards gender equality. This apprehension is significant in the Philippines since it has long officially subscribed to gender mainstreaming and is ranked high in gender equity indices.

The study focused on analyzing the extent to which Philippine institutional climate change efforts integrate gender concerns. Data collection made use of feminist approaches and institutional ethnography to reveal the complex ruling relations that influence practices on the ground. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with representatives from international institutions working in the Philippines, national government agencies, local government units, civil society groups and grassroots communities.

Study results highlighted that institutional and community representatives acknowledge gender as a cross cutting issue yet associate it mainly with "women's participation". Gender mainstreaming has largely remained rhetoric in the face of organizational masculinism. Hence, there is minimal integration of gender concerns in Philippine institutional climate change initiatives, despite specific policy pronouncements and years of bureaucratic gender mainstreaming. These results have implications on gender equity within climate change institutional structures and processes. However, the results also provide entry points for developing gender-sensitive, equitable, efficient and effective on-the-ground climate change initiatives in vulnerable Philippine locales.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, NGOs, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2012

How Women’s Concerns Are Shaped in Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in Bangladesh

Citation:

Ikeda, Keiko. 2009. “How Women’s Concerns Are Shaped in Community-Based Disaster Risk Management in Bangladesh.” Contemporary South Asia 17 (1): 65–78. doi:10.1080/09584930802624679.

Author: Keiko Ikeda

Abstract:

This article elaborates on how concerns regarding gender in community-based disaster risk management are shaped through interaction between local agents of development and communities in Bangladesh. As women and men have different experiences in disaster, gender concerns should be fully addressed by the community and integrated in the action they take up to reduce disaster risks. The term 'local agents of development' refers to individuals engaged in implementation of development policy in their own community. Recent trends in community-based disaster risk management policy seek what is called a 'whole community approach' engaging various stakeholders such as traditional village elite, 'local civil society' and leaders of community-based organizations - mostly poor villagers supported by non-governmental organizations. Within the context of the historical evolution of community development approaches in Bangladesh, this is quite new in terms of bringing together traditional leaders and poor target groups including women's groups. By drawing from the experience of women and focusing on the functioning of local agents of development during the flood of 2004, the author aims to assess the gaps between the primary concerns of women and those taken up in the risk-reduction action, to see whether, why, and when they have widened or been bridged.

Keywords: disaster management, gender, participation, local elite, Bangladesh

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Humanitarian Assistance, NGOs, Political Participation Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2009

Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana

Citation:

Glazebrook, Trish. 2011. “Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana.” Hypatia 26 (4): 762–82.

Author: Trish Glazebrook

Abstract:

This paper argues that there is ethical and practical necessity for including women's needs, perspectives, and expertise in international climate change negotiations. I show that climate change contributes to women's hardships because of the conjunction of the feminization of poverty and environmental degradation caused by climate change. I then provide data I collected in Ghana to demonstrate effects of extreme weather events on women subsistence farmers and argue that women have knowledge to contribute to adaptation efforts. The final section surveys the international climate debate, assesses explanations for its gender blindness, and summarizes the progress on gender that was made at Copenhagen and Cancun in order to document and provoke movement toward climate justice for women.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Justice, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2011

Petztorme Women: Responding to Change in Lihir, Papua New Guinea

Citation:

Macintyre, Martha. 2003. “Petztorme Women: Responding to Change in Lihir, Papua New Guinea.” Oceania 74 (1–2): 120–34. doi:10.1002/j.1834-4461.2003.tb02839.x.

Author: Martha Macintyre

Abstract:

The goldmining project on Lihir Island in New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea, has brought dramatic socio-economic changes. In this matrilineal society, while women's economic contributions were substantial, their political status was not. Women's participation in decision-making about the mine has been restricted, mainly because men have excluded them. The mining company established a women's section that has supported the development of women's organizations and a range of economic development projects. The women's organizations provide the context for new political roles for women but have experienced many setbacks that are common in such groups across Papua New Guinea. Through the Lihir experience in the first five years of the mine, this paper examines the tensions and divided loyalties that constrain women's organizations and often lead to the failure of income-generating women's projects in Papua New Guinea.

Topics: Development, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Political Participation Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 2003

Engaging UNSCR 1325 through Australia’s National Action Plan

Citation:

Lee-Koo, Katrina. 2016. “Engaging UNSCR 1325 through Australia’s National Action Plan.” International Political Science Review 37 (3): 336-49.

Author: Katrina Lee-Koo

Abstract:

This article examines Australia’s National Action Plan (NAP) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) within the context of global debates on the implementation of UNSCR 1325 and its associated resolutions. It demonstrates that Australia has made a strong rhetorical commitment to the United Nations WPS agenda that aligns itself with global feminist goals to enhance the protection and political participation of women in conflict-affected regions. Rhetorically, Australia also supports a broad conceptualisation of global security that challenges the gender relations that create women’s insecurity. However, these words fail the test of practice. The 2012 Australian NAP lacks the architecture to ensure strong, consistent, and comprehensive action on the WPS agenda. This article explores the sites of these failures and argues that addressing these issues is the first necessary step towards reconnecting government rhetoric with WPS outcomes.

Keywords: Australia, National Action Plan, UNSCR 1325, global security

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, peace and security, Peacebuilding, Political Participation, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia

Year: 2016

Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda

Citation:

Naiga, Resty, Marianne Penker, and Karl Hogl. 2017. “Women’s Crucial Role in Collective Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Infrastructure in Rural Uganda.” Society & Natural Resources 30 (4): 506–20. doi:10.1080/08941920.2016.1274460.

Authors: Resty Naiga, Marianne Penker, Karl Hogl

Abstract:

Operation and maintenance of communally owned water sources in Uganda still pose challenges despite the devolution of water management from the state to user communities. Using a mixed-methods approach and a gender-sensitive collective action analytical framework, this article quantifies the role of women in drinking-water governance and identifies barriers to women’s participation. The findings show that women not only are more willing to contribute but have also stated higher actual contribution than their male counterparts. The article outlines the institutional and individual attributes constraining women’s effective participation in water management and suggests how to enhance women’s participation in water governance. We argue that a strategy built on water users’ collective action in Uganda has to be built on women’s participation through effective rules and monitoring mechanisms, as well as on long-term sensitization and awareness creation on gender stereotypes that hitherto hinder women’s participation.

Keywords: collective action, demand-driven approach, drinking water, gender relations, local water governance, operation and maintenance, rural Uganda, willingness to contribute, women

Topics: Citizenship, Development, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Political Participation Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2017

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