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Political Economies

Military Markets, Masculinities and the Global Political Economy of the Everyday: Understanding Military Outsourcing as Gendered and Racialised

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda, and Saskia Stachowitsch. 2017. “Military Markets, Masculinities and the Global Political Economy of the Everyday: Understanding Military Outsourcing as Gendered and Racialised.” In The Palgrave International Handbook of Gender and the Military, edited by Rachel Woodward and Claire Duncanson, 371–85. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. 

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Saskia Stachowitsch

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter examines the racialized and gendered practices that underpin and shape military privatization. It first traces the emergence of the research field; second, it highlights why critical research in this area remains important to understanding the gendering of war and military institutions; and third, it advances the field by integrating feminist global political economy to theorise private military security as an issue of labour, foregrounding gendered and racialized labour relations, global labour chains, labour migration patterns and the unpaid reproductive labour which constitute the private security industry” (Chisholm and Stachowitsch 2017, 371). 

Topics: Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Political Economies, Race

Year: 2017

Perspectives on Private Security: The Myth, the Men and the Markets

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda. 2018. “Perspectives on Private Security: The Myth, the Men and the Markets.” In Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender, edited by Juanita Elias and Adrienne Roberts, 196-210. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Author: Amanda Chisholm

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter seeks to broaden gender discussions on PMSCs and the Global Political Economy (GPE) of militaries/peacekeeping by asking what can be learned about security when seen through a feminist IPE lens – taking into account questions around the reproductive labour of the industry, how value and valuation are produced, and paying attention to the labour chains that underpin this global industry. Such a broadening allows us to see the security industry as both a security and political economy issue” (Chisholm 2018, 197). 

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Political Economies, Security

Year: 2018

A Wealth of Expertise and Lived Experience

Citation:

Krause, Jana, and Cynthia Enloe. 2015. “A Wealth of Expertise and Lived Experience.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 17 (2): 328–38.

Authors: Jana Krause, Cynthia Enloe

Annotation:

Summary:
"The day before the United Nations (UN)-sponsored “Geneva II” peace talks on Syria that commenced in January 2014, women peace activists from around the globe met with Syrian women civil society activists in Geneva to discuss women’s roles in peacemaking. This gathering was entitled the “Women Lead to Peace Summit.” Transnational feminist groups – the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), Code Pink, Madre, Kvinna till Kvinna and the Nobel Women’s Initiative – designed this alternative summit to put pressure on all parties involved in the “Geneva II” talks to include women civil society representatives in the formal peace negotiations.Women activists, including Nobel Peace Laureates Shirin Ebadi (Iran) and Mairead Maguire (Northern Ireland), shared their lived experience of peace activism: brokering ceasefires, coordinating humanitarian support, shaping peace negotiations and leading reconciliation efforts. Based on our participation at this one-day event, we provide an account of women peace activists’ discussions in Geneva and the lessons they have learnt from each other. This piece also reflects upon feminist understandings of women’s experiences in war, and implications for their participation in peace processes. We quote by name individuals who spoke in public forums but leave those with whom we had private conversations unnamed" (Krause and Enloe 2015, 328). 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, peace and security, International Organizations, Peacebuilding, Political Economies, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 2122

Year: 2015

Authoritarianism in the Hypermasculinized State: Hybridity, Patriarchy, and Capitalism in Korea

Citation:

Han, Jongwoo, and L. H. M Ling. 1998. “Authoritarianism in the Hypermasculinized State: Hybridity, Patriarchy, and Capitalism in Korea.” International Studies Quarterly 42 (1): 53–78.

Authors: Jongwoo Han, L. H. M Ling

Abstract:

Authoritarianism in East Asia's capitalist developmental state (CDS) is highly gendered. A hybrid product of Western masculinist capitalism and Confucian parental governance, CDS authoritarianism takes on a hypermasculinized developmentalism that assumes all the rights and privileges of classical Confucian patriarchy for the state while assigning to society the characteristics of classical Confucian womanhood: diligence, discipline, and deference. Society subsequently bears the burden of economic development without equal access to political representation or voice. Women in the CDS now face three tiers of patriarchal authority and exploitation: family, state, and economy. Nevertheless, new opportunities for democratization may arise even in the hypermasculinized state. We suggest: (1) em- phasizing substantive, notjust procedural, democratization, (2) exercising a maternalized discourse of dissent, and (3) applying hybrid strategies of social mobilization across states, societies, cultures, and movements. South Korea during the 1960s-1970s serves as our case study.

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Political Economies Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 1998

Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers

Citation:

Gladwin, Christina H, ed. 1991. Structural Adjustment and African Women Farmers. Gainesville: University of Florida Press: Center for African Studies, University of Florida.

Author: Christina H. Gladwin

Annotation:

Summary: 
Focuses on the debates surrounding structural lending programmes and the effect they have on women in Africa. It questions the conventional dependency model and provides some counter-evidence that the economic position of women in societies with freer market policies has improved (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Structural adjustment and structural transformation in sub-Saharan Africa
Stephen O'Brien
 
2. Women, structural adjustment, and transformation: some lessons and questions from the African experience
Uma Lele
 
3. Getting priorities right: structural transformation and strategic notions
Bruce F. Johnston
 
4. Policies to overcome the negative effects of structural adjustment programs on African female-headed households
Jean M. Due
 
5. Impact of structural adjustment programs on Women and their households in Bendel and Ogun States, Nigeria
Patience Elabor-Idemudia
 
6. Women and structural adjustment in Zaire
Brooke Schoef et al.
 
7. Impact of structural adjustment programs on rural women in Tanzania
Ruth Meena
 
8. Fertilizer subsidy removal programs and their potential impacts on women farmers in Malawi and Cameroon
Christina H. Gladwin
 
9. Women traders in Ghana and the structural adjustment program
Gracia Clark and Takyiwaa Manuh
 
10. Ideology and political economy of gender: women and land in Nso, Cameroon
Miriam Goheen
 
11. Women's agricultural work in a multimodal rural economy: Ibarapa District, Oyo State, Nigeria
Jane I. Guyer with Olukemi Idowu
 
12. Structural transformation and its consequences for Orma women pastoralists
Jean Ensminger
 
13. New women's organizations in Nigeria: one response to structural adjustment
Lillian Trager and Clara Osinulu
 
14. Role of home economics agents in rural development programs in northern Nigeria: impacts of structural adjustment
Comfort B. Olayiwole
 
15. Curriculum planning for women and agricultural households: the case of Cameroon
Suzanna Smith, Barbara Taylor
 
16. Women farmers, structural adjustment, and FAO's plan of action for integration of women in development
Anita Spring and Vicki Wilde.
 

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Households, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Rights, Land Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa Countries: Cameroon, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania

Year: 1991

The Strategic Silence: Gender and Economic Policy

Citation:

Bakker, Isabella, ed. 1994. The Strategic Silence: Gender and Economic Policy. London, UK; Atlantic Highlands, N.J., USA: Zed Books in association with the North-South Institute/l’Institut Nord-Sud.

Author: Isabella Bakker

Annotation:

Summary:
Most treatments of economic change harbour a conceptual silence: the refusal to recognise that global restructuring is occurring on a gendered terrain. This book's unique contribution to the literature on restructuring and adjustment lies in its application of feminist scholarship to macroeconomics. The contributors focus on these conceptual silences, examining macroeconomic methods and policies in order to propose new research strategies to deliver a more gender-aware economics (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction : engendering macro-economic policy reform in the era of global restructuring and adjustment
Isabella Bakker
 
2. Conceptual silences and new research strategies. Micro, meso, macro : gender and economic analysis in the context of policy reform
Diane Elson
 
3. Shifting the boundaries : gender and the politics of restructuring
Janine Brodie
 
4. Structural adjustment, demographic change and population policies : some preliminary notes
Caren Grown
 
5. Gender, productivity and macro-economic policies in the context of structural adjustment and change
Marjorie W. Williams
 
6. Macro-economics, the state and the household : lessons from the north and south. Restructuring in the fishing industry in Atlantic Canada
Martha MacDonald
 
7. The implications of economic restructuring for women : the Canadian situation
Marjorie Griffin Cohen
 
8. Gender bias and macro-economic policy : methodological comments from the Indonesian example
Barbara Evers
 
9. Turkish women and structural adjustment
Nilufer Cagatay
 
10. Mexican rural women wage earners and macro-economic policies
Antonieta Barrón
 
11. Women and the state : some considerations of ideological and economic frameworks in engendering policies
Haleh Afshar
 
12. The impact of structural adjustment policies on women : some general observations relating to conceptual bias
Swapna Mukhopadhyay.
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Households, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies, Privatization Regions: Americas, Central America, North America, Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Canada, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey

Year: 1994

After Revolution: Mapping Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua

Citation:

Babb, Florence E. 2001. After Revolution: Mapping Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua. Austin: University of Texas Press. 

Author: Florence Babb

Annotation:

Summary:
An exploration of how Nicaragua's least powerful citizens have fared in the years since the Sandinista revolution, as neo-liberal governments have rolled back state-supported reforms and introduced measures to promote the development of a market-driven economy (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Introduction: Writing after Revolution
 
2. Negotiating Spaces: The Gendered Politics of Location
 
3. "Managua Is Nicaragua": Gender, Memory, and Cultural Politics
 
4. Place on a Map: The Local and the National Viewed from the Barrio
 
5. Unmaking the Revolution: Women, Urban Cooperatives, and Neoliberalism
 
6. From Cooperatives to Microenterprises in the Postrevolutionary Era
 
7. Narratives of Development, Nationhood, and the Body
 
8. Toward a New Political Culture
 
9. Conclusion: Remembering Nicaragua

Topics: Economies, Political Economies, Post-Conflict, Privatization Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2001

Gender, Governance and the Global Political Economy

Citation:

Griffin, Penny. 2010. “Gender, Governance and the Global Political Economy.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 64 (1): 86–104.

Author: Penny Griffin

Abstract:

This article considers a range of governance actors (including also the role of political enquiry into the global political economy in and of itself) to analyze how neo-liberal governance strategies seek to socialize human bodies (female, male or otherwise) into a global system of neo-liberal economic productivity. Contemporary mechanisms of global governance, it is suggested, seek to engineer a capitalist ‘market society’ while claiming to ‘empower’ poor people. In recent years, ‘empowerment’ rhetoric in global governance has increasingly depended on measuring the ‘economic’ role(s) of women in developing countries, judging their contributions productive only where they can be gauged to directly contribute to ‘formal economy’ growth. Reinforcing the assumption that ‘formal’ contributions are the only contributions worth measuring, such rhetoric simultaneously eradicates all other (non-competitive and/or non-entrepreneurial) behavioral possibilities for women, while clearly excluding all those who are not ‘women’. Against the instrumentalization of gender (as a category pertaining only to women and studies of women), this article argues that gender in global governance means much more than simply describing whether people are male or female and quantifying their productive capacities accordingly. As a broad and complex category of analysis, gender enriches the dynamism both of our studies of and practices in the global political economy. To ignore gender's role in the global political economy is to fail to see the power that gender (as a composite part of the relations of power that drive systems of economic development and growth) brings to our everyday understandings, and especially to our understandings of economic ‘common sense.’ (Abstract from original)

Topics: Globalization, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies

Year: 2010

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