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Peace Processes

Sexing the Subject of Transitional Justice


Rimmer, Susan Harris. 2010. “Sexing the Subject of Transitional Justice.” The Australian Feminist Law Journal 32: 123-47.

Author: Susan Harris Rimmer


In the absence of the requisite political will at both the domestic and international level, transitional justice mechanisms can be manipulated or rendered impotent, whilst creating false expectations, waylaying the efforts of human rights advocates and costing millions of donor dollars. A feminist strategic legalist approach would focus on gaining the full participation of women in peace negotiations and key decisions about transitional justice processes and the development of a justice sector, and preserving evidence and acquiring data in relation to international and domestic gender crimes for the day when fair trials can be held. The formal ending of violence does not necessarily mean the achievement of peace, rather it provides a 'new set of opportunities that can be grasped or thrown away'. Law in a transitional period might hold an 'independent potential for effecting transformative politics' and 'liberalising' change. On the other hand, in the context of the societal breakdown caused by armed conflict, feminist scholars may be asking international law to engage in too much 'heavylifting'. If transitional justice represents theory and praxis in a liminal zone between international relations and international law, both of which have proved resistant to feminist analysis, why are many feminists so confident that transitional justice represents an opportunity for transformative change?

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law IHL, International Organizations, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, War Crimes, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2010

Feminisms in the Aftermath of September 11


Eisenstein, Zilliah. 2002. Feminisms In The Aftermath Of September 11. Social Text 20 (3): 79-99.

Author: Zilliah Eisenstein


This essay is about how women's rights as a complicated discourse, and the burkha as a complex symbolic, are the sites from which to understand the complexity of global power struggles at this moment. But first a note of context is necessary to clear some space for thinking—openly, critically, historically—in terms of a before and after of September 11. September 11 has not changed everything. It has just made clear how much context and perspective and location matter. Ask the people of Chile about September 11—when their beloved president, Salvador Allende, was gunned down in a coup d'état supported by the United States. Ask them the meaning of trauma and grief. Think back to the Gulf War and U.S. militarist terrorism of its smart bombs. Think across and beyond to the children of Iraq, today, this minute, who need cancer drugs or textbooks for their schools and cannot have them because of the economic sanctions imposed on their country. Do what women always do—multitask, so that you are not simply concentrated on yourself, or the United States, or this moment.

Keywords: gender analysis, gender and conflict, middle east, iran, September 11, constructivism and gender, feminism, Iraq, MENA

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Health, PTSD, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Religion, Security, Human Security, Sexuality, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iran, Iraq

Year: 2002

Gender and ‘Peace Work’: An Unofficial History of Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations


Aharoni, Sarai. 2011. “Gender and ‘Peace Work’: An Unofficial History of Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations.” Politics & Gender 7 (3): 391–416. doi:10.1017/S1743923X11000274.

Author: Sarai Aharoni


Unlike earlier attempts to theorize Israeli women’s peace activism in civil society, this article examines the involvement of women in backstage roles of formal negotiations during the Oslo Process. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of the organizational structure and gender division of labor in Israeli negotiating bodies, I find that women were placed as midlevel negotiators and professional and legal advisors, and also served as spokeswomen and secretaries. This pattern of participation reveals 1) that the “security logic,” developed by Israeli negotiators led to, and reinforced, a structured gendered division of labor, providing a rational justification for gender inequality; 2) that the ability to control administrative capacities and women workers generated symbolic masculine power and assisted in maintaining asymmetries between Israeli and Palestinian delegations; 3) and that midlevel Israeli negotiators’ narratives reveal the extent to which conceptual confusion and self-contradictory approaches toward the Oslo Accords reinforced women’s overall invisibility. I conclude that patterns of rigid gender roles in official negotiating structures not only minimize women’s meaningful inclusion in peace negotiations but also affect the production of public historical narratives about gender, peace, and war.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011

Peace Process: Israeli and Palestinian Women


Espanioli, Nabila, and Dalia Sachs. 1991. “Peace Process: Israeli and Palestinian Women.” Bridges 2 (2): 112–19.

Authors: Nabila Espanioli , Dalia Sachs

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Peace Processes, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1991

Women and the Art of Peacemaking: Data from Israeli-Palestinian Interactive Problem-Solving Workshops


D’ Estrée, Tamra Pearson, and Eileen F. Babbitt. 1998. “Women and the Art of Peacemaking: Data from Israeli-Palestinian Interactive Problem-Solving Workshops.” Political Psychology 19 (1): 185–209.

Authors: Tamra Pearson d'Estree, Eileen F. Babbitt


Are women “natural” peacemakers? If so, is this because of natural inclinations to avoid conflict or to engage in tough discussions? Are there particular skills in which women excel that make them more likely than their male counterparts to be able to build relational bridges, to facilitate negotiations, and to reduce tensions? After a review of the literature on gender differences in such skills, a systematic comparison of interaction quality is made between two Israeli-Palestinian interactive problem-solving workshops that differed only in gender composition. A third Israeli-Palestinian workshop that involved female political elites is also examined for subsequent changes in the conflict relationship or for changes in political activity. The implications of different repertoires of skills for altering political processes are discussed.

Keywords: peacemaking, conflict resolution, gender, elites, peace process, middle east

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peace Processes, Political Participation Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1998

Peacekeeping and Prostitution in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo


Harrington, Carol. 2003. “Peacekeeping and Prostitution in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.” Paper presented at the 5th European Feminist Research Conference, Lund, August 20-23.

Author: Carol Harrington


This paper compares the organisation of sexual violence in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo during UN operations to the sexual violence associated with US military bases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) during the 1970s, while also drawing some comparisons with the way sexual violence was organised in wartime Yugoslavia. I argue that in all of these cases military men agree that soldiers are entitled to heterosexual encounters, and thus provide women for soldiers to have sex with, treating the women concerned as people whose well- being, dignity and bodily integrity is of no relevance at all. Such sexual violence appears to be institutionalised across contemporary militaries. However, the political logic that categorises women as people to be protected or as people who have no rights to bodily integrity differs across sites. My enquiry is based in a sociology of the body that treats sexual violence as political violence, thus I expect that the sexual categorisation and organisation of women for soldiers will reveal important aspects of the political order the militaries involved are defending. I will elaborate on this theoretical perspective in relation to the three cases in the course of my discussion. Through comparing these three military contexts I seek to understand how military thinkers in the case of Bosnia and Kosovo divided people in relation to physical security and rights to bodily integrity, and thus to uncover the logic of the political order these peacekeeping operations defended. (Intro)

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, SV against women, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, Violence Regions: Asia, East Asia, Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Korea, South Korea

Year: 2003

UNSCR 1325 and Women’s Peace Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territory


Farr, Vanessa. 2011. “UNSCR 1325 and Women’s Peace Activism in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 13 (4): 539–56. doi:10.1080/14616742.2011.611661.

Author: Vanessa Farr


Palestinian women's organized resistance to the Israeli occupation is decades old and has been well-documented and analyzed by feminists in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) and outside. Some of the most recent attempts to formulate and shape this resistance make reference to UNSCR 1325. The application of the Resolution in the work of three women's organizations in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and Palestinian-Israeli peace-making attempts are analysed in this paper. However, the paper concludes that the disconnects between women's activism on the ground and in academia, the intentions stated in the UNSCR 1325, and the Israel-Palestine peace process are so vast that there is little evidence that the Resolution offers an effective mechanism for women to make their voices heard.

Keywords: occupied Palestinian territory, West Bank, Gaza Strip, women's peace activism, state-building, UNSCR 1325

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Discourses, NGOs, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2011

Gender, Peace and Peacekeeping: Lessons from Southern Africa


Pillay, Anu. 2006. Gender, Peace and Peacekeeping: Lessons from Southern Africa. 128. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.

Author: Anu Pillay


This paper reflects on the intersection between gender, peace and peacekeeping. The author draws on evidence from two Southern African peacekeeping experiences (UNOMSA in South Africa and MONUC in the DRC) to contend that having a critical mass of women in peacekeeping missions can make the mission more effective, but also changes gender stereotypes and rigid patriarchal gender roles. The author views conflict as, amongst other things, a motor of transformation. Conflict, though certainly fraught with gender-based violence, presents an opportunity for women to seek to change existing gendered power relations. (ISS Africa).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against women Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2006

Nepal: A Gender View of the Armed Conflict and the Peace Process


Arino, Maria Villellas. 2008. "Nepal: A Gender View of the Armed Conflict and the Peace Process." Quaderns de Construccion de Pao 4. 

Author: María Villellas Ariño


Nepal is going through a period that is crucial to its future. After two years of a long and not always easy peace process, important reforms are beginning in an attempt to lay the basis of a new society, tackling some of the structural causes that led to the outbreak of the armed conflict. Nepali women have been deeply affected by this armed conflict, and, as with many other conflicts, its origin and course have had a notable gender dimension. Various factors provide evidence of this dimension, such as the use of gender violence or the large number of women combatants in the Maoist ranks, as well as the fact that the negotiation process which has led to the signing of the peace agreement largely excluded women. The purpose of this paper is to offer an analysis of the armed conflict and peace process Nepal is going through from a gender standpoint, analysing this situation from a feminist point of view. With this intention, the armed conflict that took place between 1996 and 2006 in Nepal is analysed from a gender perspective, paying particular attention to the consequences of the war and women's active involvement in it. Secondly, the peace process that put an end to the armed conflict is analysed, concerning the negotiations and the involvement of civil society and the international community from a gender standpoint. Finally, some of the most important challenges to be faced so that the post-war rehabilitation process takes place in the most inclusive and least discriminatory way possible, giving room for broad transformations in order to put an end to the exclusion of Nepali women, are noted.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2008

The Gender−Culture Double Bind in Israeli−Palestinian Peace Negotiations: A Narrative Approach


Aharoni, Sarai B. 2014. “The Gender-Culture Double Bind in Israeli-Palestinian Peace Negotiations: A Narrative Approach.” Security Dialogue 45 (4): 373–90. doi:10.1177/0967010614537329.

Author: Sarai B. Aharoni


This article investigates structural conditions for women’s inclusion/exclusion in peace negotiations by focusing on the linkage between acts of gender stereotyping and cultural framing. Through a narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews with Israeli negotiators and administrators who participated in official negotiations during the Oslo peace process, I link two recent claims about how gender may affect negotiators’ understandings of strategic exchange: the gendered devaluation effect and the gender–culture double bind hypothesis. Building upon postcolonial feminist critique, I argue that narratives about women and cultural difference (a) demonstrate and engage with Israeli essentialist and Orientalist discourses about Arab culture and masculinity; (b) manifest how ideas about strategic dialogue and negotiations are gendered; and (c) convey how policymakers and negotiators may use cultural claims to rationalize women’s exclusion from diplomatic and strategic dialogue. Furthermore, the study implies that dominant framings of Israeli–Palestinian negotiations as a binary East–West encounter need to be replaced by a more nuanced conceptualization of cultural identity that captures contextual aspects of difference, including the existence of military power and masculine dominance.

Keywords: gender, Narratives, Peace Negotiations, postcolonial feminism, Israeli-Arab conflict

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2014


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