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Peace Processes

The Role of Women in Global Security

Citation:

Norville, Valerie. 2011. The Role of Women in Global Security. 246. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace.

Author: Valerie Norville

Abstract:

This report examines women’s roles in peacebuilding, postconflict reconstruction, and economic development. It draws on discussions at the conference on The Role of Women in Global Security, held in Copenhagen on October 29–30, 2010, and co-hosted by the U.S. Embassy in Denmark and the Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in partnership with the U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP). Ambassador Laurie S. Fulton, U.S. ambassador to Denmark and former member of USIP’s board, brought together participants from the United States, Nordic-Baltic countries, Afghanistan, Liberia, and Uganda to focus on the roles that women can play as leaders in areas of active conflict and postconflict. Participants from the public and private sector, including the military, civilian, NGO, academic, and corporate worlds, joined to share experiences and best-practice recommendations on how to increase women’s participation in their communities to effect positive change: resolving active conflicts, assisting in postconflict reintegration, and furthering economic development. Ambassador Fulton noted that men and women with first-person practical experience were able to share their recommendations with those “who represent political leadership from host countries and international organizations who can encourage implementation of those recommendations.”

 

Annotation:

• Building lasting peace and security requires women’s participation. Half of the world’s population cannot make a whole peace.

• Ten years after the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1325 on increasing women’s participation in matters of global security, the numbers of women participating in peace settlements remain marginal.

• While improvements have been made, women remain underrepresented in public office, at the negotiating table, and in peacekeeping missions.

• The needs and perspectives of women are often overlooked in postconflict disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR), as well as in security sector reform, rehabilitation of justice, and the rule of law.

• Many conflicts have been marked by widespread sexual and gender-based violence, which often continues in the aftermath of war and is typically accompanied by impunity for the perpetrators.

• A continuing lack of physical security and the existence of significant legal constraints in postconflict societies hamper women’s integration into economic life and leadership.

• Best practices for increasing women’s participation include deployment of gender-balanced peacekeeping units, a whole-of-government approach to security sector and judicial reform, and more intentional solicitation of the input of women at the community level on priorities for national budgets and international programs. 

Topics: Economies, Economic Inequality, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, UNSCR 1820, UNSCR 1888, UNSCR 1889

Year: 2011

Reform or More of the Same? Gender Mainstreaming and the Changing Nature of UN Peace Operations

Citation:

Barnes, Karen. 2006. “Reform or More of the Same? Gender Mainstreaming and the Changing Nature of UN Peace Operations”. YCISS Working Paper 41, Department of International Relations, London School of Economics, London.

Author: Karen Barnes

Topics: Conflict Prevention, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence

Year: 2006

A movement stalled: outcomes of women’s campaign for equalities and inclusion in the Northern Ireland peace process

Citation:

Cockburn, Cynthia. 2013. “A movement stalled: outcomes of women’s campaign for equalities and inclusion in the Northern Ireland peace process.” Interface 5 (1): 151-82.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn

Abstract:

The Good Friday Agreement signed in Belfast in April 1998, and the post-conflict constitution embodied in the ensuing Northern Ireland Act, differed in one important respect from most other peace accords. Thanks to the input of civil society, and particularly of the women’s voluntary, trade union and community sectors, the Agreement was not limited to a settlement between the belligerent parties. It envisioned a transformed society, rid of the inequities of a colonial past and reshaped according to principles of inclusion and human rights. The persuasiveness of this agenda lay in its promise to address the poverty, disadvantage and exclusion afflicting the working class of both Catholic and Protestant communities. This article draws on a re-interviewing in 2012 of feminist activists with whom the author engaged in a major project in the 1990s. It evaluates the extent to which the principles and policies for which their movement struggled have been enacted in Northern Ireland governance in the intervening decade and a half.

Keywords: post-conflict, civil society, women, human rights, working class, Catholic, Protestant, feminist activists

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Poverty, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Nonviolence, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Religion, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Ireland

Year: 2013

Social Capital and Dispute Resolution in Informal Areas of Cairo and Istanbul

Citation:

Belge, Ceren, and Lisa Blaydes. 2014. "Social Capital and Dispute Resolution in Informal Areas of Cairo and Istanbul." Studies In Comparative International Development 49 (4): 448-76.

Authors: Ceren Belge, Lisa Blaydes

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Egypt, Turkey

Year: 2014

In the Midst of War: Women’s Contribution to Peace in Colombia

Citation:

Rojas, Catalina. 2004. In the Midst of War: Women’s Contribution to Peace in Colombia. Cambridge, MA: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

Author: Catalina Rojas

Abstract:

Women have been victims and actors in Colombia’s cycles of violence and peace. In talks organized by President Andrés Pastrana in 1999, women represented both the government and FARC, the major guerrilla group. In 2000, 600 women participated in a women’s public forum that pressed FARC and government leaders to consider women’s concerns. In 2002, women’s groups continued to work towards peace after talks fell apart, reaching a consensus on the issues affecting Colombian women. In spite of the dangers women face as a result of being recognized as political leaders, they remain at the forefront of local efforts for peace.

This publication assesses the importance of a gender perspective in peace negotiations and documents the critical work of women at the local, regional, and national levels to mitigate the effects of continued violence on their communities, mobilize for renewed dialogues, and prepare for the next cycle of peace in Colombia. (Institute for Inclusive Security)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Society, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Gender Roles, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state armed groups, NGOs, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2004

Good Governance from the Ground Up: Women’s Roles in Post-Conflict Cambodia

Citation:

McGrew, Laura, Kate Frieson, and Sambath Chan. 2004. Good Governance from the Ground Up: Women’s Roles in Post-Conflict Cambodia. Cambridge, MA: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

Authors: Laura McGrew, Kate Frieson, Sambath Chan

Abstract:

Women are spearheading Cambodia’s transformation to democracy. During the years when the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia watched over the nation’s progress, women jumped at the chance to aid in reconstruction. They aimed to make the process of drafting a new constitution more inclusive, and they rallied to help ensure peaceful elections following violent campaign periods. Today, women compose the majority of Cambodians with experience in conflict management and peace building.

This publication traces women’s contributions to governance and peace through local and national politics as well as civil society; examines the significance of gender perspectives to the promotion of good governance; and reflects on mechanisms enhancing women’s participation in the political arena. (Institute for Inclusive Security)

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equity, Governance, Constitutions, Quotas, Elections, Post-conflict Governance, International Organizations, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Cambodia

Year: 2004

‘Add women and stir’: the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands and Australia’s implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325

Citation:

Westendorf, Jasmine-Kim. 2013. “‘Add women and stir’: the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands and Australia’s implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325.” Australian Journal of International Affairs
 67 (4): 456-74.

Author: Jasmine-Kim Westendorf

Abstract:

With the changing nature of warfare and the increasing awareness of the specific gender dimensions of war and peace, the international legal framework has been expanded to address the particular challenges faced by women in conflict and post-conflict contexts. This process culminated in 2000 with the first United Nations document to explicitly address the role and needs of women in peace processes: United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 on women, peace and security. Thirteen years on, this article assesses the extent to which Australia’s stated commitment to women, peace and security principles at the level of the international norm has translated into meaningful action on the ground in the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). The analysis shows that despite it being an ideal context for a mission informed by UNSCR 1325, and Australia being strongly committed to the resolution’s principles and implementation, the mission did not unfold in a manner that fulfilled Australia’s obligations under UNSCR 1325. The RAMSI case highlights the difficulty in getting new security issues afforded adequate attention in the traditional security sphere, suggesting that while an overarching policy framework would be beneficial, it may not address all the challenges inherent in implementing resolutions such as UNSCR 1325.

Keywords: conflict, gender, peace-building, peace process, strategic studies

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania Countries: Australia, Solomon Islands

Year: 2013

Women’s Rights Are Human Rights: The Merging of Feminine and Feminist Interests among El Salvador’s Mother of the Disappeared (CO-MADRES)

Citation:

Stephen, Lynn. 1995. “Women’s Rights Are Human Rights: The Merging of Feminine and Feminist Interests among El Salvador’s Mother of the Disappeared (CO-MADRES).” American Ethnologist 22 (4): 807-27.

Author: Lynn Stephen

Abstract:

This article suggests that the multiple facets of women's identities and the ways in which they both accommodate and resist dominant ideologies of gender hierarchy and national security explains their political activity. How CO-MADRES have incorporated issues of state repression, domestic inequality and women's sexuality into a discourse on human rights.

Keywords: female identities, gender hierarchy, national security, political activity, CO-MADRES, state repression, domestic inequality, women's sexuality, human rights, gender discourse

Topics: Civil Society, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Governance, Livelihoods, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Human Security, Sexuality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: El Salvador

Year: 1995

An Introduction to UNSCR 1325

Citation:

Olsson, Louise, and Theodora-Ismene Gizelis. 2013. “An Introduction to UNSCR 1325.” International Interactions 39 (4): 425-34.

Authors: Louise Olsson, Theodora-Ismene Gizelis

Abstract:

The article introduces various papers published within the issue on the United Nations' Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security (UNSCR 1325) and women's participation in peace agreements and in peace-related political processes.

Keywords: UNSCR 1325, political participation, peace process, peace agreements

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, International Law, International Human Rights, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Human Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2013

Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina

Citation:

Björkdahl, Annika, and Johanna Mannergren Selimovic. 2014. “Gendered Justice Gaps in Bosnia-Herzegovina.” Human Rights Review 15 (2): 201-18.

Authors: Annika Björkdahl , Johanna Mannergren Selimovic

Abstract:

A gendered reading of the liberal peacebuilding and transitional justice project in Bosnia–Herzegovina raises critical questions concerning the quality of the peace one hopes to achieve in transitional societies. By focusing on three-gendered justice gaps—the accountability, acknowledgement, and reparations gaps—this article examines structural constraints for women to engage in shaping and implementing transitional justice, and unmasks transitional justice as a site for the long-term construction of the gendered post-conflict order. Thus, the gendered dynamics of peacebuilding and transitional justice have produced a post-conflict order characterized by gendered peace and justice gaps. Yet, we conclude that women are doing justice within the Bosnian–Herzegovina transitional justice project, and that their presence and participation is complex, multilayered, and constrained yet critical.

Keywords: gender, gender-just peace, transitional justice, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Critical agency

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Transitional Justice, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2014

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