Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Peace Processes

Feminist Strategies in International Governance


Caglar, Gülay, Elisabeth Prügl, and Susanne Zwingel, eds. 2013. Feminist Strategies in International Governance. London: Routledge.

Authors: Gülay Caglar, Elisabeth Prügl, Susanne Zwingel


The struggle for women’s rights and to overcome gender oppression has long engaged the efforts of inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. Feminist Strategies in International Governance provides a new introduction to the contemporary forms of this struggle. It brings together the voices of academics and practitioners to reflect in particular on the effectiveness of human rights strategies and gender mainstreaming. It covers three international issue areas in which feminists currently seek change: women’s human rights and violence against women; the participation of women in peace-making and their protection during conflict; and the gendered effects of development, economic and financial governance. The book combines a critical reflection on the current state of feminist politics with an introduction to urgent issues on the contemporary international agenda. In addition, the book draws on innovative conceptualizations from constructivism in international relations, legal anthropology and discourse theory to provide new framings of current feminist struggles. Offering an accessible guide to the engendering of international governance and examining the challenges for international feminist politics in the future, this work will be of great interest to students and scholars of international organizations, gender politics and global governance. (Routledge)

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, Governance, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, NGOs, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights


The Dialogue That Died


Cockburn, Cynthia. 2014. “The Dialogue That Died.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 16 (3): 430–47. doi:10.1080/14616742.2013.849964.

Author: Cynthia Cockburn


For fifteen years, in the north of the state of Israel, a women's organization existed in which Israeli Jewish and Israeli Palestinian women activists worked together for peace and justice in a careful and challenging dialogue across difference. “Bat Shalom of the North” was the subject of research by the author in 1996. In this article she reports on her return in 2012 to re-interview former members. Applying the feminist concept of “transversal politics” she analyzes the organization's trajectory, radicalization and eventual closure in the context of a failed peace process and increasing violence in the region. Their perspective on Israel's oppression of its Palestinian minority led the surviving members of Bat Shalom of the North in its final days to envision not a “two-state solution” to the Israel Palestine conflict but a single, inclusive, multicultural and democratic country, in which subject identities are built not on a feeling of belonging to land, language or religion but on shared adhesion to human and democratic rights.

Keywords: Israel, Palestinians, women, conflict, occupation, land, identity

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2014

Troubled Engagement in Ethnicized Conflict


Byrne, Siobhan. 2014. “Troubled Engagement in Ethnicized Conflict.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 16 (1): 106–26. doi:10.1080/14616742.2012.757020.

Author: Siobhan Byrne


Feminist cross-community initiatives, which emerged in Northern Ireland and Israel/Palestine in the 1980s, are frequently lauded in the gender and conflict literature as evidence of the ways in which women can work across ethnonational boundaries. In particular, the theory of ‘transversal dialogue’, developed by Nira Yuval-Davis and adopted by other feminist scholars and activists, suggests that participants have developed a mode of dialogue that enables them to acknowledge differences while developing common goals. In ethicized conflict, transversal politics is understood as an alternative to the essentializing of ‘identity politics’ as well as their undemocratic character. The empirical research, however, suggests that identity politics remains relevant for participants, particularly when cross-community dialogue is limited by external political realities and internal community divisions. In my view, understanding the ways in which identity politics contributes to the development of feminist goals related to women's inclusion in peace processes and post-conflict peace-building is not at odds with transversal politics; rather, women use both modes of politics to build feminist networks and tackle women's marginalization in hyper-masculinized and militarized zones of ethnicized conflict.

Keywords: cross-community feminist activism, ethnicized conflict, identity politics, Israel/Politics, Northern Ireland, transversalism

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Ireland, Israel

Year: 2014

Female Peacekeepers and Gender Balancing: Token Gestures or Informed Policymaking?


Karim, Sabrina, and Kyle Beardsley. 2013. “Female Peacekeepers and Gender Balancing: Token Gestures or Informed Policymaking?” International
Interactions 39 (4): 461–88.


Authors: Sabrina Karim, Kyle Beardsley


Since the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1325 (2000), which is referenced in most of the mandates for peacekeeping authorizations and renewals as of its adoption, UN peacekeeping forces have begun a process of gender balancing. While we have seen an increase in the numbers of female peacekeepers during the decade 2000–2010 and variation in the distribution patterns of female military personnel, we do not know if female military peacekeepers are deploying to areas that are safest or to areas with the greatest need for gender-balanced international involvement. Because the decision-making authority in the allocation of peacekeeping forces rests with the troop-contributing countries, which might not have bought into the gender balancing and mainstreaming initiatives mandated by the UN Security Council, we propose and find evidence that female military personnel tend to deploy to areas where there is least risk. They tend not to deploy where they may be most needed—where sexual violence and gender equity has been a major problem—and we find only a modest effect of having specific language in the mandates related to gender issues.

Keywords: gender balance, peacekeeping, UNSCR 1325, women, peace, and Security

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2013

Naga Women Making a Difference: Peace Building in Northeastern India


Manchanda, Rita. 2005. “Naga Women Making a Difference: Peace Building in Northeastern India.” Institute for Inclusive Security


Author: Rita Manchanda

Keywords: conflict prevention, negotiation, mediation

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Conflict Prevention, Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Nonviolence, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2005

Narratives of Peace: Naga Women in the Self Determination Struggle


Vamuzo, Meneno. 2012. “Narratives of Peace: Naga Women in the Self Determination Struggle.” InTensions Journal, no. 6, 1–23.

Author: Meneno Vamuzo


Naga women live in a politically sensitive environment given their people’s prolonged struggle for self-determination. They also face the complexity of a society that is undergoing the binary of change and continuity, with the pull towards modernity, on the one hand, and strong undercurrents of traditional and customary practices on the other. The latter are often geared towards a strong patriarchal system that is often inclined to disfavouring women. Nevertheless, Naga women have managed to engage themselves effectively within their traditional space and have significantly impacted their society. Through a tactful and non-contentious stance, they have continued to influence the dynamics of peacemaking. This article looks at some narratives of contemporary Naga women who are active peacemakers in a geographically and politically divided Nagaland.

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Peacebuilding, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Myanmar

Year: 2012

Women in Peace Politics


Banerjee, Paula. 2008. Women in Peace Politics. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.

Author: Paula Banerjee


"Women in Peace Politics explores the role of women as agents and visionaries of peace in South Asia. Peace is redefined to include in its fold the attempt by women to be a part of the peace making process, reworking the structural inequalities faced by them and their struggle against all forms of oppression. This volume, the third in the series of the South Asia Peace Studies, deals with the myriad dimensions of peace as practised by South Asian women over a period of time. It chronicles the lives of "ordinary" women—their transformative role in peace and an attempt to create a space of their own. Their peace activism is examined in the historical context of their participation in national liberation movements since the early twentieth century. The articles in the collection adopt a new approach to understanding peace—as a desire to end repression that cuts across caste, class, race and gender and an effort on the part of women to transform their position in society."

Topics: Caste, Class, Conflict Prevention, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Political Participation, Race, Security, Human Security Regions: Asia, South Asia

Year: 2008

Soldier Girl? Not Every Tamil Teen Wants to Be a Tiger


Mitchell, James. 2006. “Soldier Girl? Not Every Tamil Teen Wants to Be a Tiger.” The Humanist 66, no. 5: 16.


Author: James A. Mitchell


The most appropriate stamp might be "The Children's War," for both victim and combatant, because the civil war in Sri Lanka isn't being waged exclusively by adults, nor is it just a boys' club. The Tamil Tigers have two significantly negative reputations: masters of the suicide bomb attack and recruiters of child soldiers. In spite of a growing body of testimony-too many girls have described the training sessions, so their existence can't be denied-the LTTE still denies that their child-recruitment strategy includes weapons training and the solicitation of suicide bombers.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, Gender, Girls, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Non-state armed groups, Peace Processes Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Sri Lanka

Year: 2006

The Cost of Ignoring Gender in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: A Feminist Perspective


Puechguirbal, Nadine. 2012. “The Cost of Ignoring Gender in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: A Feminist Perspective.” In Amsterdam Law Forum, 4:4–19.


Author: Nadine Puechguirbal


This article focuses on the cost of ignoring gender when analysing conflict and post-conflict environments. It explains how a feminist perspective allows us to uncover hidden gender power relations and deconstruct the so-called gender-neutral approach in international relations. By highlighting the differential impact of war on women and men regarding security issues, it is understood that the cessation of hostility is not always synonymous with peace for women. It is also understood how patriarchy resurfaces after a war and marginalises women who are mainly seen as powerless victims and sidelined in peace talks that promote a conservative return to the status quo ante bellum.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict

Year: 2012


© 2019 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at

Subscribe to RSS - Peace Processes