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Patriarchy

A Luta pela Terra sob Enfoque de Gênero. Os lugares da diferença no Pontal do Paranapanema.

Citation:

Franco García, María. 2004. "A Luta Pela Terra Sob Enfoque de Gênero. Os lugares da diferença no Pontal do Paranapanema." PhD diss., Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho-UNESP.

Author: María Franco García

Abstract:

PORTUGUESE ABSTRACT:
Esta pesquisa tem como problema a diferença existente na produção e reprodução de relações sociais de gênero nos lugares da Luta pela Terra, ou seja,os assentamentos e acampamentos rurais. Esta falta de sintonia espacial e de gênero tem repercussões políticas diretas. Se de um lado verificamos nos assentamentos com origem na luta do MST, a redução da esfera de participação da mulher trabalhadora na vida social e gestão territorial do seu entorno imediato, também observamos nos acampamentos uma tomada de consciência da contradição social em termos de classe e de gênero, através da mobilização social e organizativa. A observação desses lugares nos leva a constatar a estrutura generificada do espaço como produto da organização social. E, nos encaminha a refletir a relação dialética da produção do espaço e construção das relações de gênero na dinâmica territorialização - desterritorialização - reterritorialização da Luta pela Terra. Ainda, analisar esta relação não se restringe apenas aos lugares da luta, os acampamentos e assentamentos rurais, enquanto realidades isoladas ou monolíticas, mas atingir a espacialidade escalar e abordar a dinâmica que os anima. As redefinições do mundo do trabalho, e do ser que trabalha, na escala global junto com as transformações recentes da agropecuária brasileira são os recortes para apreendermos o desenho societal dos trabalhadores e trabalhadoras sem-terra. Todavia, a análise do espaço se dirige para geograficidade das práticas e relações de poder que se estabelecem entre diferentes sujeitos sociais, homens e mulheres, em acampamentos e assentamentos rurais, entendendo estes lugares como escalas geográficas onde os trabalhadores e trabalhadoras Sem-Terra, anteriormente fragmentados, se unem numa comunidade definida politicamente.
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT:
El problema central de nuestra investigación reside en la diferencia existente en la producción y reproducción de las relaciones sociales de género en los lugares de la Lucha por la Tierra, es decir, los campamentos y asentamientos rurales. La falta de armonía espacial y de género tiene repercusiones políticas directas. Si por un lado verificamos en los asentamientos cuyo origen es la lucha del MST, la reducción de la esfera de participación de las mujeres trabajadoras en la vida social y en la gestión territorial de su entorno inmediato, también observamos en los acampamentos la toma de conciencia de la contradicción social en términos de clase y género, por medio de la movilización social y organizativa. El examen de estos lugares nos lleva a constatar la estructura generificada del espacio como producto de la organización social. Asimismo, nos orienta hacia la reflexión de la relación dialéctica de la producción del espacio y la construcción de las relaciones de género en la dinámica territorializacióndesterritorialización-reterritorialización de la Lucha por la Tierra. Pero, analizar esta relación no se limita apenas a los lugres de la lucha, los campamentos y asentamientos rurales, como realidades aisladas o monolíticas, sino alcanzar la espacialidad escalar y abordar la dinámica que los anima.
Las redefiniciones del mundo del trabajo y del ser que trabaja a escala global y las transformaciones recientes de la agropecuaria brasileña son los recortes que usamos para comprender el diseño societal de los trabajadores y trabajadoras sintierra. Además, el análisis espacial se dirige hacia la geograficidad de las prácticas y relaciones de poder que se establecen entre diferentes sujetos sociales, mujeres y hombres, en los lugares construidos a lo largo del proceso de la Lucha por la Tierra. Siendo estos lugares escalas geográficas donde estos trabajadores y trabajadoras sin tierra, anteriormente fragmentados, se unen en una comunidad definida políticamente.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
Our research interest resides in the existent difference in the production and reproduction of the social relationships of gender in the places of the Land Struggle, that is, the encampments and rural settlements. The lack of space harmony and of gender has direct political repercussions. If on one hand we verify in the settlements whose origin is the struggle of the MST, the reduction of the sphere of the hard-working women's participation in the social life and in the territorial administration of its immediate environment, we also observe in the encampments the taking of conscience of the social contradiction in class terms and gender, by means of the social and organizational mobilization.
The exam of these places takes us to verify the generificated structure of the space as product of the social organization. Also, it guides us toward the reflection of the dialectical relationship of the production of the space and the construction of the gender relationships in the dynamic territorialization–desterritorialization–reterritorialization of the Land struggle. But, to analyze this relationship is not hardly limited to the places of the struggle, the encampments and rural settlements, as isolated or monolithic realities, but reaching the scalar spatiality and to approach the dynamics that encourages them. The redefinitions of the labour world and the being who works to global scale and the recent transformations of the Brazilian agriculture and cattle are the cuttings that we use to understand the class configuration of landless workers. Also, the space analysis goes toward the geographiality of the practices and relationships of power that settle down among different social subject, female and male, in the built places along the process of the Land Struggle. These kind of places are geographical scales where these landless workers, previously broken into fragments, they unite politically in a defined community.

Keywords: relações de gênero, classe trabalhadora, escala geográfica, lugar, assentamento, acampamento, luta pela terra, gender relationships, hard-working class, geographical scale, place, encampments, settlements, the land struggle

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

“Bottom Power:” Theorizing Feminism and the Women’s Movement in Sierra Leone (1981-2007)

Citation:

Day, Lynda R. 2008. “‘Bottom Power:’ Theorizing Feminism and the Women’s Movement in Sierra Leone (1981-2007).” African and Asian Studies 7 (4): 491–513.

Author: Lynda R. Day

Abstract:

This paper examines the theory and praxis of women’s political activism in contemporary Sierra Leone. In spite of the steady upswing in the number of women elected or appointed to positions of political authority, the growing influence of women in politics runs into male resistance which privately and derisively refers to women’s newly held positions of authority and public clout as “bottom power.” This essay proposes that male pushback results from a neo-liberal women’s movement that frames women’s economic marginality and lack of access to political power as the result of patriarchy and male privilege, rather than using an African feminist framework which recognizes women’s lack of resources as primarily the result of the appropriation of the country’s wealth by multinational corporations, lending agencies and members of the elite. If viewed from this perspective, the women’s movement would be framed as a socially transformative struggle for all sectors of society, and not as a contest between men and women for power.

Keywords: Sierra Leone, African women, women’s social movements, African feminism, fifty/fifty, women’s political activism

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Multi-national Corporations, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2008

Gender Budgeting Statement: Misleading and Patriarchal Assumptions

Citation:

Das, Subrat, and Yamini Mishra. 2006. “Gender Budgeting Statement: Misleading and Patriarchal Assumptions.” Economic and Political Weekly 41 (30): 3285-88.

Authors: Subrat Das, Yamini Mishra

Abstract:

The gender budgeting statement presented in the union budget for 2006-07 covers a significant number of ministries/departments and is hence a welcome step. However, many of the figures given in the statement reflect highly questionable assumptions, which on the one hand are unjustifiable and on the other quite patriarchal.

 

Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2006

Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, and Claudia Ranaboldo. 2011. Women’s Land: Reflections on Rural Women’s Access to Land in Latin America. Translated by Sara Shields. La Paz, Bolivia: Fundación Tierra.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Susana Lastarria-Cornhiel, Claudia Ranaboldo

Abstract:

The human rights of women are not yet fully respected despite the progress made in legislation at global, regional, and national levels. Apart from formal legislation, access to and control of land by women should be part of other mechanisms for recognising these rights, in communities, for example, where women are often not included in spaces for participation and decisionmaking. Although the law may protect their land rights, it is difficult for rural women to gain access to the judicial system to protest when these rights are violated.

This scenario of inequality in which women find themselves can be reversed through social and economic changes to give women the tools they need to empower themselves.
 
This book is the result of a collective effort by many women from several parts of Latin America. It is unique because it represents the accumulation of reflections, inputs, visits, discussions, and meetings. The document synthesises various activities taken forward by ILC and other institutions: the publication of six research studies carried out in 2009, two international discussion forums (one held in Colombia and the other in Costa Rica), and the reflections of three specialists on agrarian issues who – drawing on their own experiences and expertise – engage in a dialogue with the research studies to generate further knowledge. (ELLA)

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Ethnicity, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Land grabbing, Livelihoods, Political Participation, Rights, Human Rights, Indigenous Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Americas, Central America, South America

Year: 2011

The Gender Asset Gap: Land in Latin America

Citation:

Deere, Carmen Diana, and Magdalena Leon. 2003. “The Gender Asset Gap: Land in Latin America.” World Development 31 (6): 925–47. doi: 10.1016/S0305-750X(03)00046-9.

Authors: Carmen Diana Deere, Magdalena Leon

Abstract:

The gender asset gap in Latin America with respect to ownership of land is significant. In few countries do women constitute even one-quarter of the landowners. Gender inequality in land ownership is related to male preference in inheritance, male privilege in marriage, male bias in community and state programs of land distribution as well as gender bias in the land market, with women less likely than men to be successful buyers. But there are also important differences by gender in how land is acquired. Inheritance is the primary means by which most women become landowners; men are much more likely than women to acquire land through its distribution by communities or the state and via the market. Factors contributing toward a trend toward greater gender equity in land inheritance and in recent state programs are highlighted.

Keywords: Property Rights, gender, land tenure, inequality, inheritance, Latin America

Topics: Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equity, Households, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights Regions: Americas

Year: 2003

Zimbabwe's 'Fast Track' Land Reform: What about Women?

Citation:

Goebel, Allison. 2005. “Zimbabwe’s ‘Fast Track’ Land Reform: What about Women?” Gender, Place & Culture 12 (2): 145–72. doi: 10.1080/09663690500094799.

Author: Allison Goebel

Abstract:

The wave of occupations of commercial farms in Zimbabwe starting in the year 2000 captured worldwide attention. By the end of that year, the government of Zimbabwe initiated the ‘fast track’ land reform process meant to formalize the occupations, and encourage further land appropriation and redistribution. Where are women in this process? The Women and Land Lobby Group (WLLG) was formed in 1998 by Zimbabwean women activists committed to the land issue. Since 1998 they have lobbied government to include women’s interests in the design of land reform, and have made some inroads in improving women’s formal rights to land as stated in policy documents. However, the current ‘fast track’ practices continue to privilege men as primary recipients of resettlement land, and the emerging role of traditional authorities in the land reform process marginalizes women. Other legal provisions that may help women struggle for changes remain weak. The contradiction between customary law, practices and attitudes and modern individual rights represents a complex battleground for women and land in Southern Africa, and calls for new feminist conceptualizations of the state as a vehicle for gender justice.

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Forced Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, International Organizations, Justice, Land grabbing, NGOs, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2005

Negotiating between Patriarchy and Emancipation: Rural-to-Urban Migrant Women in Albania

Citation:

Çaro, Erka, Ajay Bailey, and Leo van Wissen. 2012. “Negotiating between Patriarchy and Emancipation: Rural-to-Urban Migrant Women in Albania.” Gender, Place & Culture 19 (4): 472–93. doi: 10.1080/0966369X.2011.610096.

Authors: Erka Caro, Ajay Bailey, Leo van Wissen

Abstract:

It is essential to explore the role of gender while analysing internal migration in Albania to account for the differing experiences of men and women. Quantitative studies suggest that Albanian internal migration is pioneered by men, with women merely acceding to their wishes. This article addresses the undervalued role of women in the academic discourse concerning migration in Albania. Utilizing ethnographic research techniques, it explores the role of women migrating from rural to urban areas as part of a larger household and examines the coping and negotiating strategies used for survival in the city. Our findings reveal that women actively participate in the rural-to-urban migration process, including the initial decision to migrate and the choice of destination. Women's narratives provide evidence of specific emancipation strategies through which they express themselves and their new ways of living. Women adjust to and challenge their new urban environment through gaining paid employment and expanding their social networks, as well as experience emancipation through daughters and by changing their appearance, achieving varying degrees of personal and social prosperity.

Keywords: emancipation, women, migration, rural-to-urban, Albania

Annotation:

Quotes and Notes:

According to Hugo (2000), when women move from rural to urban areas there is an increased potential for empowerment, as they are often separated from the extended family and can engage in paid employment outside the home. As a result of migration, women thus experience an increase in ‘autonomy, self confidence and agency’ (Ghosh 2009, 36). The benefits of migration can, however, vary for migrant women depending on their motivations, expectations, educational level, background characteristics, social status and the presence or otherwise of their husband in the household.” (473) 

Many societies, especially patriarchal ones, function according to social and cultural norms that determine the level of women’s participation in the migration process and the nature of gender relationships in the new settings (Ghosh 2009). To understand the social position of women in Albania and whether migration can influence this, it is essential to recognize that gender and migration are embedded in historical, regional and cultural settings, and that gender relationships in Albania are steeped in a strong patriarchal tradition.” (474)

Research Questions/Main Ideas:

“In this article, we argue that while international migration is determined by men, internal migration is often initiated by women and then conceived as a family project.” (473)

“Focusing on mothers and daughters within the context of emerging urbanization, this research aims to (1) explore the role of women in the migration process, (2) detail their emancipation strategies following migration and (3) compare the strategies and experiences of mothers and daughters.” (473)

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households Regions: Europe, Baltic states, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Albania

Year: 2012

Lording It over the Goddess: Water, Gender, and Human-Environmental Relations

Citation:

Strang, Veronica. 2015. “Lording It over the Goddess: Water, Gender, and Human-Environmental Relations.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 30 (1): 85–109.

Author: Veronica Strang

Abstract:

Focusing on human engagements with water, this article steps back from specifically cultural or historical contexts in order to trace the larger patterns of social, religious, and technological change that have transformed most societies’ relationships with their environments. It examines transitions from totemic “nature religions” to male-dominated and hierarchical belief systems, and considers how these intersected with shifts to settlement and agriculture, differentiated gender roles, and stratified socio- political arrangements. With developments in farming, enlarging societies moved from egalitarian partnerships with other species and ecosystems to more directive interactions. Irrigation channeled water into human interests. Initially seen as embodying female principles, it became the gift of male religious beings. From being a common good, it became subject to male property rights. Long understood as the substance of social and spiritual regeneration, it was reframed as an economic “asset.” Observing these transformations, the article also considers long-term contraflows: indigenous struggles; subaltern religions; and environmentalist and feminist challenges to sociopolitical inequalities. 

Annotation:

The article begins by tracing the transformation of societies from nature religions, which embodied more egalitarian principles, to an increasingly male-dominated and hierarchical belief system. By studying the history of water one is able to see such a transition as water, considered the embodiment of female principles, came to be under male ownership, a signal of shifting gender roles. The author examines the history of water and its representation in ancient cultures and religions, specifically the feminization of the source. A shift in human-environmental relations took place that focused on meeting human needs and divine purposes, thus personal privatized ownership of water and water resources developed. Parallels between the exploitation of nature, specifically water resources, and the subordination of women were argued. The author concludes by mentioning that, although counter movements have emerged in recent years, patterns of exploitation and subordination need to be considered in order for gender roles in water resource management to improve. 

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Religion, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2015

Gender Issues in Water and Sanitation Programmes : Lessons from India

Citation:

Cronin, Aidan A., Pradeep K. Mehta, and Anjal Prakash, eds. 2015. Gender Issues in Water and Sanitation Programmes : Lessons from India. New Delhi, IND: Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd. 

Authors: Aidan A. Cronin, Pradeep K. Mehta, Anjal Prakash

Annotation:

This book fills the gaps in conceptual knowledge related to gender outcomes in water and sanitation issues. It illustrates how to get the desired gender outcomes in WASH programs by providing real-life case studies from different regions of India. The first section focuses on the Gender and WASH problem, forming a background for the case studies in India. Ways of incorporating gender dimensions in water management and in water and sanitation agendas in India are heavily explored here. The second section provides a contextual understanding of gender and WASH in India through basic facts, statistics, and anecdotes. The final section discusses women’s participation in the sanitation sector with a focus on developing innovative ways in which women’s role and participation can be up scaled. Through the case studies, the authors argue that the identification of vulnerable households can help in devising systems to reduce the hardships faced by women. Water governance was found to be limiting for women when the existing social dynamics of the region were not addressed. Current training programs of the Government of India were found to lack in having an approach to gender and equity in WASH. The book concludes by offering further thoughts on the “gender how?” question, while providing suggestions for further policy initiatives on gender in WASH. Such suggestions are highly centered on further research in the gender and hygiene field. 

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: India

Year: 2015

Pages

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