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Patriarchy

Positioning Women within the Environmental Justice Framework: A Case from the Mining Sector

Citation:

Bose, Sharmistha. 2004. “Positioning Women within the Environmental Justice Framework: A Case from the Mining Sector.” Gender, Technology and Development 8 (3): 407–12.

Author: Sharmistha Bose

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Livelihoods Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2004

Mining Coal and Undermining Gender: Rhythms of Work and Family in the American West

Citation:

Rolston, Jessica Smith. 2014. Mining Coal and Undermining Gender: Rhythms of Work and Family in the American West. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Author: Jessica Smith Rolston

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2014

Extractive Industries and Women in Southern Africa

Citation:

Moyo, Theresa. 2011. “Extractive Industries and Women in Southern Africa.” BUWA! A Journal on African Women's Experiences. Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa. Accessed July 29, 2015. http://www.osisa.org/buwa/regional/women-and-extractive-industries-southern-africa.

Author: Theresa Moyo

Annotation:

“The main objectives of this article are to assess the participation of women in mining in southern Africa and to assess the underlying factors which limit participation. It also examines the impact of mining activities on women. Finally, the paper explores strategies to improve women’s participation in ability and to benefit from, the sector, and to reduce the negative impact on their lives.

The paper raises a number of questions. What role are women playing in the sector? What factors have determined their participation or non-participation? What is the impact of mining activities on the lives of women? What policies and strategies are required in order to promote greater and more meaningful participation of women?” (Moyo, 2015, p. 61)

Topics: Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Health, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 2011

Patriarchal Confusion? Making Sense of Gay and Lesbian Military Identity

Citation:

Bulmer, Sarah. 2013. "Patriarchal Confusion? Making Sense of Gay and Lesbian Military Identity." International Feminist Journal of Politics 15 (2): 137-156. doi:10.1080/14616742.2012.746565.

Author: Sarah Bulmer

Abstract:

In this article I investigate the possible uses of Cynthia Enloe's idea of ‘patriarchal confusion’ in understanding gay and lesbian military identity. Through an analysis of military discourses surrounding the inclusion of gays and lesbians in the British military since 2000, and using original interview data with serving personnel, I examine the contradictory ways in which queer identity has been incorporated within a military dominated by heteronormative masculinity. By examining conflicting attitudes towards gay and lesbian soldiers' participation in Pride marches, I show how patriarchal understandings of military identity become ‘confused’ by both heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender personnel. I argue for a move away from viewing the integration of non-traditional recruits through the dichotomous lens of subversion or co-option, and instead call for an engagement with the ambiguities and confusions that arise from that integration. Reading this confusion through Butler's concept of performativity, I demonstrate how even confused ideas about gender can reproduce patriarchy, and why patriarchy often simultaneously fails to reproduce itself. A performative reading of ‘patriarchal confusion’ therefore indicates the radically contingent character of the reproduction of patriarchal norms in the military and suggests that sites of confusion might be fertile grounds for feminist interventions.

Keywords: military, homosexuality, LGBT, military masculinities, patriarchy

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality

Year: 2013

Toward an Understanding of Gendered Agency in Contemporary Russia

Citation:

Holmgren, Beth. 2013. “Toward an Understanding of Gendered Agency in Contemporary Russia.” Signs 38 (3): 535-542. 

Author: Beth Holmgren

Abstract:

Assessments of Russian women’s current social and political status must take into account the complicated legacy of Soviet women’s “emancipation.” Although the Soviet government enforced women’s access to higher education and a broad array of professional opportunities, it never challenged traditional notions of masculinity and femininity, or the double burden tacitly assigned women. It did not invest in products and services that would have eased “women’s work” as homemakers and caretakers, nor did it protect women from sexual harassment on the job. The transition years have bared, glorified, and globalized the patriarchal state that lay just beneath the socialist veneer of the Soviet Union. Indeed, the Putin government has repackaged that patriarchy as conventionally and commercially masculinist. Women do exercise some power as consumers and mothers; they seek other-than-material fulfillment in facilitating positions rather than face opprobrium as public leaders. Some are attempting to scout new forms of agency as managers and business entrepreneurs. Yet there is no straightforward upward ladder for women in work and no generally acceptable movement toward lobbying for women’s rights. The women who wield the greatest sociopolitical influence in Russia today are media pundits, writers of serious literature, and journalists who combine writing with general social and political activism. In order to bridge the great divide in historical conditioning and contemporary circumstance that separates us from Russian women, we must work toward a better understanding of their complex forms of agency.

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2013

Models for Masculinity in Colonial and Postcolonial Papua New Guinea

Citation:

Fife, Wayne. 1995. “Models for Masculinity in Colonial and Postcolonial Papua New Guinea.” The Contemporary Pacific 7 (2): 277-302. 

Author: Wayne Fife

Abstract:

This paper discusses the kinds of models that became available in the colonial context for indigenous men to be men in what eventually became the country of Papua New Guinea. One of the legacies of colonialism and the missionization of masculinity is the development of a new hierarchy of masculine values. These newer norms are in marked contrast to older forms of male effectiveness, and they have helped to define social distinctions within contemporary Papua New Guinea. At the same time, the reality of human behavior spills over the confines of both older and newer cultural norms, and the results can be confusing for individual males. However, individual confusion does not affect the overall saliency of these historically engendered forms of masculinity, nor the importance they may have for the justification of emerging social and economic inequalities within the country.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea

Year: 1995

Drawing Politics in Pink and Blue

Citation:

Edwards, Janis L. 2007. “Drawing Politics in Pink and Blue.” PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (2): 249-53. 

Author: Janis L. Edwards

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Elections, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2007

Americanness, Masculinity, and Whiteness: How Michigan Militia Men Navigate Evolving Social Norms

Citation:

Cooter, Amy. 2013. "Americanness, Masculinity, and Whiteness: How Michigan Militia Men Navigate Evolving Social Norms." PhD. Diss. University of Michigan. 

Author: Amy Cooter

Abstract:

This dissertation is based on three years of ethnographic fieldwork and 40 indepth interviews with members of the Michigan militia. Militia members are mostly white men who believe in an originalist interpretation of the Constitution. Armed with rifles, they practice paramilitary exercises and protest various government actions. Militia members see themselves as "super citizens" who embody national ideals of freedom and equality even as they face public criticism as being violent, socially regressive, and racist. My dissertation examines how members respond to changing ideas about equality and inclusion while belonging to a group that lauds a mythic vision of the nation where white men had exclusive social power. I find that most militia members genuinely try to be egalitarian, and the ways in which they fail are instructive regarding white men's conceptualizations of other groups. I argue that an idealized national identity, strongly influenced by mythical stories of the country's founding, shapes members' responses to a variety of issues. Specifically, I find that members use the militia space to test and expand constructions of what it means to be a man in contemporary U.S. society even as they reference themes of a traditional, hegemonic masculinity when explaining their militia participation. Regarding race, militia members tend to be accepting of African Americans, but make very little effort to accept Muslim Americans. I argue that members have largely integrated anti-racist norms about African Americans, but they fear physical harm and change to an idealized national identity from Muslims as a result of past violence and attendant political change. Militia members' relationship to authority, primarily embodied by law enforcement actors is similarly complex. Members are likely to comply with authoritative actions they understand to be legitimate and in accordance with Constitutional principles and defy those actions they understand to be illegitimate. This work challenges current understandings of masculinity and whiteness, particularly among lower-middle class, American men as it shows that men who strongly value a mythical American identity that is premised on the social power of white men nonetheless consciously grapple with issues of gendered and raced equality.

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militias, Non-state armed groups, Race, Religion, Rights, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2013

Big Men and Ballots: The Effects of Traditional Leaders on Elections and Distributive Politics in Zambia

Citation:

Baldwin, Kate. 2010. "Big Men and Ballots: The Effects of Traditional Leaders on Elections and Distributive Politics in Zambia." PhD. Diss. Columbia University. 

Author: Kate Baldwin

Abstract:

This dissertation examines an inconsistency in the literature on African politics. Most scholars accept that African politics is "patrimonial"; politicians stay in power by building relationships with local big men, such as traditional chiefs, who can mobilize support for them. However, the vast majority of governments in Africa are now elected, and when voters choose their government in the secrecy of the ballot box, it is not clear that traditional chiefs can influence how they vote. An "institutionalist" perspective would suggest that chiefs' political views are irrelevant once the secret ballot has been instituted.

Topics: Gender, Men, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Governance, Elections, Tribe Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zambia

Year: 2010

Subalternization of Asian Women Workers in American Transnational Capitalism in the Late Twentieth Century

Citation:

Kim, Min Hoe 김민회. 2009. “Subalternization of Asian Women Workers in American Transnational Capitalism in the Late Twentieth Century.” Journal of American Studies 41 (1): 45–71.

Author: Min Hoe Kim 김민회

Abstract:

One thing which Asian American scholars in the late twentieth century have considered as the most controversial issue in relation to Asian women subjectivity is how to recover visibility of Asian women subject and relocate them from the subalternized positions in the processes of multinational, corporate capitalism which collude with the local patriarchies and constantly-reinvented traditions by them. Gayatri Spivak indicates that those systems have erased the Asian women workers' desire not only for becoming an independent subject for those phllucentric labor systems but also for being a consuming subject to which they have produced by themselves. Similarly, Grace Chang, Evelyn Hu-DeHart, Aihwa Ong, and Andrew Ross argue that Asian and Asian immigrant workers have been placed at a doubly oppressive subject by domestic and international economic systems of labor division. By examining the subcontract system and sweatshops which substantially reinforce the collusion of local patriarchal social and economic system with the transnational capitalism, this essay reveals how the transnational corporations manipulate the cheap labor of Asian female workers without facing moral responsibility using subcontract system and further examine ethnic-based advertisement to the Asian countries at which their plants are located. The purpose of this essay is to raise such controversial issues in relation to two patriarchal economic systems on the surface and conclusively seek an alternative to centerizing women subjectivity from the marginalized and sublaternized positions by examining one Korean struggle with local and transnational capitalism.

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 2009

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