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Patriarchy

Women and Peace Building: From Historical to Contemporary African Perspectives

Citation:

Shulika, Lukong Stella. 2016. "Women And Peace Building: From Historical to Contemporary African Perspectives." Ubuntu Journal of Conflict And Social Transformation 5 (1): 7-31.

Author: Lukong Stella Shulika

Abstract:

The subject of women and peacebuilding is arguably an area of research which, prior to the 21st century, remained undeveloped and unexplored in the field of conflict and peace, and in the practice of peacebuilding. This development signalled a new attentiveness on the importance of women's roles as indispensable stakeholders in peacebuilding processes. However, pre contemporary consciousness, women did leverage standard decision-making prowess that served diverse political, socio-economic, and security goals. Through a review of relevant literature and purposive unstructured interviews in Liberia, this paper examines the changing landscape of women's peacebuilding roles using examples from cross-cultural African experiences. The paper asserts that before the internationalization of women's role in the affairs of peacebuilding, women were already subconsciously or consciously involved in such decision-making processes, especially under the aegis of women organizations. Likewise, it contends that patriarchy and marginalization of women was quite in existence and these challenges which are unquestionably in continuity in the contemporary impede women's peacebuilding efforts. From these, this paper contributes to the evolving literature on women and peacebuilding discourses.

Keywords: women, women organizations, peacebuilding, Liberia, African perspectives, international policies

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Liberia

Year: 2016

Rape as a Weapon of War(riors): The Militarisation of Sexual Violence in the United States, 1990-2000

Citation:

Cerretti, Josh. 2016. “Rape as a Weapon of War(riors): The Militarisation of Sexual Violence in the United States, 1990-2000.” Gender & History 28 (3): 794-812. 

Author: Josh Cerretti

Topics: Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, SV against men, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

Death Does Not Become Her: An Examination of the Public Construction of Female American Soldiers as Liminal Figures

Citation:

Millar, Katharine M. 2015. "Death Does Not Become Her: An Examination of the Public Construction of Female American Soldiers as Liminal Figure." Review of International Studies 41 (04): 757-79. doi: 10.1017/s0260210514000424.

Author: Katharine M. Millar

Abstract:

Since the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, over 150 female American military personnel have been killed, over 70 following hostile fire. Given Western society’s long-standing practice of reserving the conduct of collective violence to men, these very public deaths are difficult to encompass within the normative and ideological structures of the contemporary American political system. This study examines the ways in which the public duty to commemorate the heroism of soldiers – and the private desire to accurately remember daughters and wives – poses a significant challenge to coherent discursive representation. In doing so, the study employs hermeneutical interpretation to analyse public representations of female soldiers and their relation to death in US popular culture. These representations are examined via Judith Butler’s concept of grievability – the possibility of receiving recognition as a worthy life within the existing social imaginary. It is argued that female soldiers are grievable as both ‘good soldiers’ and ‘good women’, but not as ‘good female soldiers’. The unified subject position of ‘good female soldier’ is liminal, and thus rendered socially and politically unintelligible. The article concludes with an analysis of the implications of this liminality for collective mourning and the possibility of closure after trauma.

 

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2015

No Longer a Bargain: Women, Masculinity, and the Egyptian Uprising

Citation:

Hafez, Sherine. 2012. “No Longer a Bargain: Women, Masculinity, and the Egyptian Uprising.” American Ethnologist 39 (1): 37–42.

Author: Sherine Hafez

Abstract:

Although, according to eyewitness accounts, women made up 20 to 50 percent of the protesters in Tahrir Square, the events immediately following the Egyptian uprising revealed that women would not be part of the political deliberations between various contending parties and the Supreme Military Council in charge of the country. In this essay, I take a close look at the sociocultural dynamics behind the inclusion–dis-inclusion of women in the political sphere to question how this contradiction has, in recent years, characterized the nature of gender relations in Arab countries like Egypt. Multilayered, rapidly changing, and challenged patriarchal power lies at the very core of the uprising in Egypt. What the events of this uprising have revealed is that notions of masculinity undermined by a repressive regime have observably shifted the terms of the patriarchal bargain.

Keywords: Egypt's uprising, gender relations in the Middle East, masculinity, patriarchy, patriarchal bargain, state patriarchy, women and revolution

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Egypt

Year: 2012

Fluid Masculinities? Case Study of the Kingdom of Bahrain

Citation:

Karolak, Magdalena, Hala Guta, and Neva Helena Alexander. 2014. “Fluid Masculinities? Case Study of the Kingdom of Bahrain.” International and Cultural Psychology 4: 159–74.

Authors: Magdalena Karolak, Hala Guta, Neva Helena Alexander

Abstract:

The need to assess male social roles and gender identity in the modern social context prompted the emergence of a gender specialized psychology devoted to the study of men (Levant, R. F., & Pollack, W. S. (1995). A new psychology of men. New York: Basic, p. 1). Indeed, the breadth of the study of psychology of men focuses on the crisis of masculinity in the West. Social changes related to rising male unemployment, female emancipation and transformation of the labor market undermined the position of man as the breadwinner; and consequently led to a gradual dismantling of the patriarchal organization of society (MacInnes, J. (1998). The end of masculinity. Buckingham: Open University Press, p. 55). This research is a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with a sample of nine Bahraini men aged 20–40 and aims at analyzing the subjective experience of masculinity based on the case study of the Kingdom of Bahrain. A literature overview of the subject is followed by data analysis. Its specific cultural context presents a hegemonic masculinity deeply rooted in the organization of society and supported by religion. Nonetheless, rapid modernization of the region has prompted social, economic and cultural changes. Their impact on the male psyche has not been studied yet. As a matter of fact, research on how masculinity is experienced in the Arabian Peninsula is virtually inexistent. Studies devoted to the subject of masculinity deal primarily with the transformation of female and male roles in society (Elamin & Omair. Personnel Review, 39(6), 747–766, 2010; Schlaffer, E., & Kropiunigg, U. (2011). Saudi youth: Unveiling the force for change. Gulf analysis paper). Even from this perspective, Bahrain has never been studied. Our research is thus a pioneer work since it focuses on the psychological aspects of the construction and experience of masculinity and it deals with the subject of Bahrain.

Keywords: normative ideal, hegemonic masculinity, masculine ideal, feminine trait, luxury brand

Topics: Economies, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Religion Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Bahrain

Year: 2014

Toward Human Security and Gender Justice: Reflections on Afghanistan and Iraq

Citation:

Moghadam, Valentine M. 2013. “Toward Human Security and Gender Justice: Reflections on Afghanistan and Iraq.” In Globalization, Social Movements, and Peacebuilding, edited by Jackie Smith and Ernesto Verdeja, 97–133. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Author: Valentine M. Moghadam

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Justice, Security, Human Security, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq

Year: 2013

The False Choice between Universalism and Religion/Culture

Citation:

Nayak, Meghana. 2013. “The False Choice between Universalism and Religion/Culture.” Politics & Gender 9 (01): 120–25. doi:10.1017/S1743923X12000785.

Author: Meghana Nayak

Abstract:

I seek to engage the authors in a deeper interrogation of their claims, particularly that societies can mitigate the evolutionary legacy of patriarchy by limiting the influence of religious/cultural enclaves and instead promoting universalism, as exemplified in CEDAW and international law. I challenge and politicize this alleged “choice” between universalism and cultural/religious enclaves/relativism, as it ultimately rests on a series of too-easy dichotomies (secular/religious, western/nonwestern) that may inadvertently stymie collaborative attempts between “western” and “non-western” feminists to challenge inequitable family law and gender violence. Hudson, Bowen, and Nielsen (2011) do offer critiques of western states. They are careful to point out nuances, subtleties, and complexities with their concept of religious/cultural enclaves. They also convincingly broaden the concept of gender equality beyond formal political rights to the kind of social, legal, and economic justice encapsulated in equitable family law and freedom from violence. And, they provoke an examination of why and how gender equality and gender violence are linked. But I suggest that their empirical research might have better traction by taking seriously two problematic implications of championing the “universal” as necessarily progressive: the failure to recognize patriarchy as part of universalism; and the inattention to why and how religious/cultural enclaves are patriarchal.

Topics: Feminisms, Patriarchy, International Law, International Human Rights

Year: 2013

The Energy-Enterprise-Gender Nexus: Lessons from the Multifunctional Platform (MFP) in Mali

Citation:

Sovacool, Benjamin K., Shannon Clarke, Katie Johnson, Meredith Crafton, Jay Eidsness, and David Zoppo. 2013. “The Energy-Enterprise-Gender Nexus: Lessons from the Multifunctional Platform (MFP) in Mali.” Renewable Energy 50: 115–25.

Authors: Benjamin K. Sovacool, Shannon Clarke, Katie Johnson, Meredith Crafton, Jay Eidsness, David Zoppo

Abstract:

The Mali Multifunctional Platform (MFP)—a government managed, multilaterally sponsored energy program that distributed a small diesel engine attached to a variety of end-use equipment—expanded access to modern energy services and raised village incomes from 1999 to 2004. Over this period, it successfully distributed more than 500 MFPs throughout Mali, and in doing so empowered women, improved educational opportunities, and enhanced food security and community cohesion. The MFP has also motivated the government to install 1800 such platforms by the end of 2012. Based on original research interviews supplemented with an extensive literature review, this study introduces readers to the rural energy situation in Mali and describes the history of the MFP project. It then discusses the benefits the project achieved, as well as five sets of challenges the MFP faces: a growing number of non-functional platforms, lack of policy coordination, poverty, dependence on imported technology and fuel, and patriarchy. The study concludes by offering six lessons for energy development planners and practitioners.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Infrastructure, Energy, Security, Food Security Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Mali

Year: 2013

Petroleum Perpetuates Patriarchy

Citation:

Ross, Michael. 2012. “Petroleum Perpetuates Patriarchy.” In The Oil Curse: How Petroleum Wealth Shapes the Development of Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Author: Michael Ross

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy

Year: 2012

Gender Structures in Car Availability in Car Deficient Households

Citation:

Scheiner, Joachim, and Christian Holz-Rau. 2012. “Gender Structures in Car Availability in Car Deficient Households.” Research in Transportation Economics 34 (1): 16–26. doi:10.1016/j.retrec.2011.12.006.

Authors: Joachim Scheiner, Christian Holz-Rau

Abstract:

This paper studies the intra-household allocation of cars in car deficient households from a gender perspective. An individual’s car access is measured in terms of duration of car use over a week. Car deficient households are defined as households with fewer cars than drivers. We develop a set of hypotheses that serve to explain gender differences in car availability, and empirically test some of these hypotheses by using multiple regression analysis. The data we use is the German Mobility Panel 1994–2008. Our findings provide evidence for the importance of social roles and economic power in intra-household negotiations about the limited resource of the household car. We cannot clearly decipher whether patriarchal structures and/or gender preferences are relevant as well, but our data suggest that both may play a role.

Keywords: gender, Car availability, Car deficient households, Time use, Intra-household car allocation

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Infrastructure, Transportation

Year: 2012

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