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NGOs

The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters

Citation:

Ray-Bennett, Nibedita S. 2010. “The Role of Microcredit in Reducing Women’s Vulnerabilities to Multiple Disasters.” Disasters 34 (1): 240-60.

Author: Nibedita S. Ray-Bennett

Abstract:

This article explores the relationship between microcredit and vulnerability reduction for women-headed households in ‘multiple disasters’. Here multiple disasters are understood as disasters that occur in one specific place and cause severe devastation. The case study covers the super-cyclone in 1999, floods in 2001 and 2003, and drought in 2002 in Orissa, India. The study entailed eight months fieldwork and interviews with several governmental and non-governmental officials and 12 women-headed households from different social castes. The findings suggest that micro-credit is a useful tool to replace women’s livelihood assets that have been lost in multiple disasters. But inefficient microcredit delivery can cause microdebts and exacerbate caste, class and gender inequalities. It is posited that microcredit delivery cannot achieve vulnerability reduction for women in multiple disasters unless it is complemented by effective financial services, integrated policy planning and disaster management between government, non-governmental organisations and the community.

Keywords: microcredit, multiple disasters, Orissa, vulnerability, women-headed households

Topics: Caste, Class, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, Livelihoods, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2010

Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India

Citation:

Pincha, Chaman. 2008. Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India. Mumbai: Earthworm Books.

Author: Chaman Pincha

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This study attempts to analyze the differential impact of the Tsunami on men, women, and Aravanis. It captures the experience of the most marginalized communities and of the women within them, i.e., experiences of unmarried girls, widows without children as against those of widows with children. Although the analysis focuses on women’s lives, it does so with the understanding that their lives operate within a system of gender inequalities and gender power relations. The study also focuses on understanding the role played by NGOs at the time of the Tsunami, as they were working actively alongside government agencies in the delivery of relief and development of rehabilitation programs. An attempt has been made to look at the gender mainstreaming strategies of NGOs, an area, which has hitherto not been systematically analyzed. This initiative by the gender researcher and her team was made under the auspices of Anawim Trust and with support from Oxfam America to understand and analyze the steps taken by NGOs to enhance the agency of women, vulnerable men, and excluded groups (such as Aravanis), with the purpose of cross-agency learning and replication. This work therefore documents both the good practices as well as missed opportunities with the belief that these will deepen our understanding of “what works” and “what does not” in integrating the SGNs and PGNs of both men and women in disaster response and preparedness” (Pincha 2008, 12-13).
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction
 
2. Gender Differential Impacts of Tsunami 
 
3. NGO's Gender Mainstreaming Strategies: An Analysis
 
4. Toward Strengthening Gender Mainstreaming Efforts
 
5. Mainstreaming Gender in Disaster Management: Opportunities and Future Challenges 
 
6. Annex - 1
 
7. Annex - 2 
 
8. Annex - 3

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2008

From Guns to God: Mobilizing Evangelical Christianity in Urabá, Colombia

Citation:

Theidon, Kimberly. 2015. “From Guns to God: Mobilizing Evangelical Christianity in Urabá, Colombia.” In Religious Responses to Violence: Human Rights in Latin America Past and Present, edited by Alexander Wilde, 443–76. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Author: Kimberly Theidon

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter draws on field research with former combatants from the paramilitaries Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) and Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN). Since January 2005 I have been conducting anthropological research on the individual and collective demobilization programs. To date my Colombian colleague Paola Andrea Betancourt and I have interviewed 236 male and 53 female former combatants. In addition, we have interviewed representatives of state entities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as well as the military, the Catholic and Evangelical churches, and various sectors of the 'host communities' to which former combatants are sent or to which they return. I sought to understand the local dynamics between victims and victimizers and the experiences of those individuals and communities the UNDPKO rightly describes as lying somewhere in between" (Theidon 2015, p. 445). 
 
“I begin with an overview of Colombia’s current DDR program and its impact on Urabá, located in the region with the highest concentration of demobilized combatants. I then explore how evangelical pastors manage memory and the past, issues of great relevance in the lives of former combatants and those around them. This leads to a discussion of repertoires of justice and the elaboration of local theologies of redemption and reconciliation. I conclude by analyzing the role these churches play in providing a space for the development of alternative masculinities and the much-desired personal transformations that may allow these former combatants to forge una nueva vida” (p. 446).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, NGOs, Post-Conflict, Religion Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

Holding African States to Task on Gender and Violence: Domesticating UNSCR 1325 in the Sierra Leone National Action Plan

Citation:

Beoku-Betts, Josephine. 2016. “Holding African States to Task on Gender and Violence: Domesticating UNSCR 1325 in the Sierra Leone National Action Plan.” Current Sociology Monograph 64 (4): 654–70.

Author: Josephine Beoku-Betts

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
This article assesses efforts to combat sexual violence in Sierra Leone through its National Action Plan (SILNAP) passed in 2010 to implement UN Resolution 1325. The article examines specifically pillars two and three, which address protection of women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence and prevention of violence against women through strengthening women’s legal rights and supporting women’s local peace initiatives. In spite of legislative measures and sustained activism by women’s NGOs, efforts to promote gender equality and reduce institutionalized violence affecting women’s daily lives are limited. Failure to account for structural inequalities such as poverty, illiteracy, income disparities, violence against women in private and public spheres, and limited budget allocation to implement the plan are contributing factors. The article is informed by feminist scholarship on sexual violence and implementation of UNSCR 1325 in national action plans. Implementation mechanisms, monitoring, evaluation, and enforcement measures, and accomplishments and shortfalls are discussed.
 
FRENCH ABSTRACT:
Cet article examine les efforts déployés par la Sierra Léone pour lutter contre les violences sexuelles dans le cadre de son plan d’action national (SILNAP), instauré en 2010 et visant à mettre en œuvre la résolution 1325 de l’ONU. Il examine deux éléments du triptyque portant sur la protection des femmes et des petites filles contre les violences sexuelles et sexistes et la prévention de la violence sexuelle par le renforcement des droits juridiques des femmes et le soutien aux initiatives de paix prises par des groupes locaux de femmes. En dépit des mesures législatives et de l’action militante des organisations non gouvernementales féminines, les efforts visant à promouvoir l’égalité des sexes et à réduire les violences institutionnalisées affectant les femmes dans leur vie quotidienne restent limités. Les principaux facteurs expliquant cette situation sont la non-prise en compte des inégalités structurelles, telles que la pauvreté, l’analphabétisme, les disparités de revenus, la violence contre les femmes dans la sphère privée et publique, et le budget limité alloué à la mise en œuvre du plan. Cet article s’appuie sur des études féministes portant sur la violence sexuelle et la mise en œuvre de la résolution 1325 dans les plans d’action nationaux. Il examine les mécanismes d’application, de suivi, d’évaluation et de contrôle des mesures, ainsi que leurs réussites et leurs échecs.
 
SPANISH (CASTILIAN) ABSTRACT:
Este trabajo evalúa los esfuerzos para combatir la violencia sexual en Sierra Leona a través de su Plan de Acción Nacional (SILNAP) aprobado en 2010 para implementar la Resolución 1325 de la ONU. Examino los fundamentos dos y tres que se ocupan de la protección de las mujeres y niñas de la violencia sexual y de género y la prevención de la violencia contra las mujeres mediante el fortalecimiento de los derechos legales de las mujeres y el apoyo a las iniciativas de paz locales de las mujeres. A pesar de las medidas legislativas y el activismo sostenido por organizaciones no gubernamentales de mujeres, los esfuerzos para promover la igualdad de género y reducir la violencia institucionalizada afectando la vida cotidiana de las mujeres son limitadas. No tomar en cuenta las desigualdades estructurales, como la pobreza, el analfabetismo, las desigualdades de ingresos, la violencia contra las mujeres en los ámbitos público y privado, y la limitada asignación de presupuesto para implementar el plan son factores que contribuyen. El estudio es informado por estudios feministas sobre la violencia sexual y la aplicación de la Resolución 1325 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas en planes de acción nacionales. Discuto mecanismos de implementación, monitoreo, evaluación y medidas de ejecución, así como los logros y deficiencias.

Keywords: peace-building, sexual violence, Sierra Leone, UNSCR 1325, women's political activism, Militantisme politique féminin, promotion de la paix, RCSNU 1325, violence sexuelle, Activismo político de mujeres, consolidación de la paz, Resolución 1325 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, violencia sexual

Topics: Domestic Violence, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, International Organizations, NGOs, Rights, Women's Rights, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Sexual Violence, SV against women Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2016

Gendered Access to Formal and Informal Resources in Postdisaster Development in the Ecuadorian Andes

Citation:

Faas, A. J., Eric Jones, Linda Whiteford, Graham Tobin, and Arthur Murphy. 2014. “Gendered Access to Formal and Informal Resources in Postdisaster Development in the Ecuadorian Andes.” Mountain Research and Development 34 (3): 223–34.

Authors: A.J. Faas, Eric Jones, Linda Whiteford, Graham Tobin, Arthur Murphy

Abstract:

The devastating eruptions of Mount Tungurahua in the Ecuadorian highlands in 1999 and 2006 left many communities struggling to rebuild their homes and others permanently displaced to settlements built by state and nongovernmental organizations. For several years afterward, households diversified their economic strategies to compensate for losses, communities organized to promote local development, and the state and nongovernmental organizations sponsored many economic recovery programs in the affected communities. Our study examined the ways in which gender and gender roles were associated with different levels and paths of access to scarce resources in these communities. Specifically, this article contrasts the experiences of men and women in accessing household necessities and project assistance through formal institutions and informal networks. We found that women and men used different types of informal social support networks, with men receiving significantly more material, emotional, and informational support than women. We also found that men and women experienced different challenges and advantages when pursuing support through local and extralocal institutions and that these institutions often coordinated in ways that reified their biases. We present a methodology that is replicable in a wide variety of disaster, resettlement, and development settings, and we advocate an inductive, evidence-based approach to policy, built upon an understanding of local gender, class, and ethnic dynamics affecting access to formal and informal resources. This evidence should be used to build more robust local institutions that can resist wider social and cultural pressures for male dominance and gendered exclusion.

Keywords: disaster, resettlement, gender, social support, reciprocity, Andes

Topics: Class, Development, Displacement & Migration, Economies, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Households, NGOs Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Ecuador

Year: 2014

Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges

Citation:

Cornwall, Andrea, Elizabeth Harrison, and Ann Whitehead. 2007. Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges. Zed Books.

Authors: Andrea Cornwall, Elizabeth Harrison, Anna Whitehead

Annotation:

Summary:
The political project of reasserting feminist engagement with development has proceeded uneasily in recent years. This text examines how the arguments of feminist researchers have often become depoliticised by development institutions and offers accounts of the pitfalls and compromises of the politics of engagement (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Gender myths that instrumentalise women : a view from the Indian frontline
Srilatha Batliwala and Deepa Dhanraj
 
2. Dangerous equations? : how female-headed households became the poorest of the poor : causes, consequences and cautions
Sylvia Chant
 
3. Back to women? translations, re-significations, and myths of gender in policy and practice in Brazil
Cecilia Sardenberg
 
4. Battles over booklets : gender myths in the British aid programme
Rosalind Eyben
 
5. Not very poor, powerless or pregnant : the African woman forgotten by development
Everjoice Win
 
6. 'Streetwalkers show the way' : reframing the debate on trafficking from sex workers' perspective
Nandinee Bandyopadhyay with Swapna Gayen [and others]
 
7. Gender, myth and fable : the perils of mainstreaming in sector bureaucracies
Hilary Standing
 
8. Making sense of gender in shifting institutional contexts : some reflections on gender mainstreaming
Ramya Subrahmanian
 
9. Gender mainstreaming : what is it (about) and should we continue doing it?
Prudence Woodford-Berger
 
10. Mainstreaming gender or 'streaming' gender away : feminists marooned in the development business
Maitrayee Mukhopadhay
 
11. Critical connections : feminist studies in African contexts
Amina Mama
 
12. SWApping gender : from cross-cutting obscurity to sectoral security?
Anne Marie Goetz and Joanne Sandler
 
13. The NGO-ization of Arab Women's Movements
Islah Jad
 
14. Political fiction meets gender myth : post-conflict reconstruction, 'democratisation' and women's rights
Deniz Kandiyoti
 
15. Re-assessing paid work and women's empowerment : lessons from the global economy
Ruth Pearson
 
16. Announcing a new dawn prematurely? human rights feminists and the rights based approaches to development
Dzodzi Tsikata
 
17. The chimera of success : gender ennui and the changed international policy environment
Maxine Molyneux.
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, International Financial Institutions, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Brazil, India, United Kingdom

Year: 2007

Women and Floods in Bangladesh

Citation:

Khondker, Habibul Haque. 1996. “Women and Floods in Bangladesh.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 14 (3): 281-92.

Author: Habibul Haque Khondker

Annotation:

Summary:
This paper examines the consequences of a flood disaster on rural women in northern Bangladesh. Based on fieldwork, it is argued that floods affect rural women more adversely than rural men. Floods destroy the household resources undermining the economic well-being of rural women. Researchers and authorities in charge of rehabilitation have not paid enough attention to the uneven impact of flood disasters on gender groups. Women are rarely involved in the decision-making process regarding disaster response. The lack of participation of women in particular and the local community in general in the planning and execution of counterdisaster plans insure that such issues are not noticed. Bureaucratic disaster respondents to be short term in its scope and fails to link disaster response and rehabilitation with development activities. Various nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operating in rural Bangladesh seem to have closer ties with the local community and a better understanding of the linkage between rehabilitation and development. However, because of the limited scope of their operations and constraints of resources, the influence of these NGOs are not sustainable. The rural women cope on their own. The status quo time is achieved, a continuation of impoverished existence which makes them vulnerable to the next flooding or other such disasters. Successful counterdisaster-response and rehabilitation strategies to development initiatives. This would entail participation of women in counterdisaster plans and assuring the economic well-being of rural women.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Economies, Economic Inequality, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 1996

Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change

Citation:

Badayos-Jover, Mary Barby P. 2012. “Mainstreaming Gender in Philippine Institutional Responses to Climate Change.” PhD diss., College of Agricultural Sciences and College of the Liberal Arts, The Pennsylvania State University.

Author: Mary Barby P. Badayos-Jover

Abstract:

Global climate change has become a pressing environmental, social, political and economic problem in highly vulnerable developing countries like the Philippines. A number of socio-political institutions are thus now involved in climate change initiatives in Philippine locales. While these efforts are underway, there is also a parallel growing concern that institutional responses to climate change will reinforce gender inequalities or undermine the gains made towards gender equality. This apprehension is significant in the Philippines since it has long officially subscribed to gender mainstreaming and is ranked high in gender equity indices.

The study focused on analyzing the extent to which Philippine institutional climate change efforts integrate gender concerns. Data collection made use of feminist approaches and institutional ethnography to reveal the complex ruling relations that influence practices on the ground. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with representatives from international institutions working in the Philippines, national government agencies, local government units, civil society groups and grassroots communities.

Study results highlighted that institutional and community representatives acknowledge gender as a cross cutting issue yet associate it mainly with "women's participation". Gender mainstreaming has largely remained rhetoric in the face of organizational masculinism. Hence, there is minimal integration of gender concerns in Philippine institutional climate change initiatives, despite specific policy pronouncements and years of bureaucratic gender mainstreaming. These results have implications on gender equity within climate change institutional structures and processes. However, the results also provide entry points for developing gender-sensitive, equitable, efficient and effective on-the-ground climate change initiatives in vulnerable Philippine locales.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, NGOs, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Philippines

Year: 2012

Adapting to Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis of National Adaptation Programmes of Action Towards Women

Citation:

Anagnostou, Sotiria. 2015. “Adapting to Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis of National Adaptation Programmes of Action Towards Women.” PhD diss., Arizona State University.

Author: Sotiria Anagnostou

Abstract:

The most recent decision of the 2012 Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognizes that in order to create climate policies that respond to the different needs of men and women a more balanced representation of women from developed and developing countries is needed. National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to “identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to respond to impending threats from climate change.” Since 1997, the United Nations has agreed to gender mainstreaming- a globally accepted strategy for promoting gender equality by ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities in the all UN systems. Due to the gender division of labor climate change will affect men and women differently. Policies and programs that do not take into account the needs and capacities of both men and women will fail to be effective and may worsen preexisting conditions that historically favor men. My research investigates the UN’s commitment towards gender mainstreaming. More specifically my objective is to understand how and to what extent the NAPAs from 49 countries integrate a gender dimension into their national climate adaptation policy. For the purpose of this research, I consider three interrelated issues: whether gender-specific needs and vulnerabilities were identified by the NAPA; if these needs and vulnerabilities were addressed by proposed adaptation projects; and in what forms women participated in the formulation of the NAPA. The scope of this research begins with an overview assessment of 49 NAPAs followed by a comparative assessment of NAPAs from four countries- Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Niger, and an in-depth analysis of Nepal’s NAPA, which incorporates field study. Nepal was chosen as a focus country due to its identification as being both inclusive and gender sensitive. The method of inquiry consists of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, utilizing the quantitative measures of HDI and GII and the qualitative methods of content analysis and case study. The findings suggest that the response to the gender dimensions of climate change found in adaptation policies vary widely among the LDCs and the level of response is dependent upon social, cultural, economic, and political contexts within each LDC. Additionally, I find that gender mainstreaming techniques have not been fully integrated into the NAPA policy and processes, and have not been effective at promoting gender equality through adaptation strategies. Recommendations are provided in order to help mainstream gender in NAPAs as they continue to be developed, revised, and implemented.

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, NGOs Regions: Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Niger

Year: 2015

Building Gendered Approaches to Adaptation in the Pacific

Citation:

Lane, Ruth, and Rebecca McNaught. 2009. “Building Gendered Approaches to Adaptation in the Pacific.” Gender & Development 17 (1): 67–80. doi:10.1080/13552070802696920.

Authors: Ruth Lane, Rebecca McNaught

Abstract:

This article reflects upon how gendered approaches to climate-change adaptation can be strengthened in the Pacific region. The article looks at what has been learnt in the region, surveys some examples of best practice in gender-responsive programming, identifies the challenges we face on our journey, and suggests future directions. It is a collaborative effort, comprising input from a number of agencies who have been proactive in the areas of gender, climate change, and disaster risk-reduction in the Pacific Region, including: the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement in the Pacific region; the UNDP Pacific Centre; and World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) Fiji Country Programme.

Keywords: disaster, climate change, Pacific, gender, community, vulnerability, Risk reduction

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, International Organizations, NGOs Regions: Oceania

Year: 2009

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