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National Liberation Wars

Women, Violence, and Social Change in Northern Ireland and Chiapas: Societies Between Tradition and Transition

Citation:

Hoewer, Melanie. 2013. “Women, Violence, and Social Change in Northern Ireland and Chiapas: Societies Between Tradition and Transition.” International Journal of Conflict and Violence 7 (2): 216–31.

Author: Melanie Hoewer

Abstract:

Violence against women occurs in peacetime, intensifies during wartime, and continues in the aftermath of armed conflict. Women sometimes make gains during conflict and their efforts to break the pattern of violence have led to a greater awareness of gender-based violence. However, a lack of acknowledgement of transformations in gender identity at the macro-level during peace processes may create conflict in intimate partnerships. This study brings to light the complexity of changes occurring during peace processes in a multi-level analysis of women’s perceptions and positioning towards the state, their community, and their intimate partnership. This comparative analysis of fifty-seven female activists’ narratives from Chiapas and Northern Ireland demonstrates how a one-dimensional peace process (Northern Ireland) can limit the space for addressing women’s concerns, while peace processes that transcend the ethno- national dimension of conflict (Chiapas) can open a dialogue on issues of contention in male-female relationships.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnic/Communal Wars, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Domestic Violence, Ethnicity, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Paramilitaries, Non-state armed groups, Peacebuilding, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Violence Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: Mexico, United Kingdom

Year: 2013

Between Complicity and Subversion: Body Politics in Palestinian National Narrative

Citation:

Amireh, Amal. 2003. “Between Complicity and Subversion: Body Politics in Palestinian National Narrative.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 102 (4): 747-72.

Author: Amal Amireh

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2003

Postcolonial Subjectivity: Masculinity, Shame, and Memory

Citation:

Treacher, Amal. 2007. “Postcolonial Subjectivity: Masculinity, Shame, and Memory.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 (2): 281–99.

Author: Amal Treacher

Abstract:

Egypt in 1952 was poised to overthrow the past and make a fresh and vigorous future. The revolutionary coup instigated and led by a group of Army Officers succeeded in overthrowing the monarchy and severely undermining British rule and influence. The hopes following this dramatic event were not borne out as the early successes did not lead to a more dynamic future. Instead, corruption continued, the economy declined, industry did not flourish, and an adequate welfare system was not put in place. There are various explanations for this state of affairs, and while these are valid and provide answers, they do not adequately address postcolonial subjectivity. Postcolonial masculine subjectivity is fraught, endures and has to be endured. This article will focus on shame and remembering/forgetting as states of mind, and silence as a response, in order to explore how a colonized past led to the wish for a different future while simultaneously inhibiting a different future to be made.

Keywords: Egypt, memory, postcolonial masculine subjectivity, shame, silence

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Egypt

Year: 2007

Palestinian Prison Ontologies

Citation:

Bornstein, Avram. 2010.“Palestinian Prison Ontologies.” Dialectical Anthropology 34 (4): 459-72.

Author: Avram Bornstein

Abstract:

During the first intifada uprising (1987–1993), thousands of Palestinians were arrested annually, and mass incarceration affected as many as 100,000 families. Relying on several recent ethnographies, and other published research including some of my own, this article describes the contests over Palestinian prison ontology as organized by (a) the jailers, (b) the prisoners, (c) the families of prisoners, and (d) a service agency in the emerging Palestinian Authority. What becomes evident is that mass incarceration involves ontological struggles over the framing of justice, agency, and gender. The conclusion asks how these ontological struggles may be part of other modern prisons.

Keywords: political prisoners, Israel-Palestine, justice, gender, agency

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Justice, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2010

Gender in Crisis: Women and the Palestinian Resistance Movement

Citation:

Peteet, Julie. 1991. Gender in Crisis: Women and the Palestinian Resistance Movement. New York: Columbia University Press. 

Author: Julie Peteet

Annotation:

TAB:E OF CONTENTS

Contents

Introduction pg. 1

Research and Ethnography pg. 8

Women's Lives as Text pg. 15

Gender and Culture in Exile pg. 19

1948-1969 pg. 22

Althawrah the Revolution and Community Self-Reliance 1969-1982 pg. 27

Women in Exile pg. 33

The Palestinian Women's Movement Organization and Representation pg. 38

Nationalist Roots pg. 42

Striking Out on Their Own pg. 43

1936-1939 pg. 52

1948-1960 pg. 58

The 1950s pg. 60

Integration and Transformation pg. 63

Ideas and Action Political Consciousness pg. 67

The Multiplicity of Experience pg. 72

National Consciousness pg. 76

Class Consciousness pg. 81

Female and Feminist pg. 88

Mobilizing Women pg. 100

Step by Step pg. 104

Channels of Mobilization pg. 111

Mobilization and Crisis pg. 124

Ambiguous Status and the Life Cycle pg. 132

Obstacles to Mobilization pg. 134

Action Ideology and Gender in the National Movement pg. 142

Members and Friends pg. 143

Activism pg. 147

Militancy Femininity and Status pg. 152

Mechanisms of Control pg. 156

The National Movement on Gender pg. 158

Activism and Domesticity pg. 175

The Organization of Reproduction pg. 176

Domesticity and Activism pg. 183

Domesticating the Workplace pg. 200

The Loss of Autonomy and the Transforming of Gender pg. 204

The End of an Era pg. 210

The Aftermath pg. 214

Notes pg. 219

References pg. 231

Index pg. 239 

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1991

Palestinian Women in the Intifada: Fighting on Two Fronts

Citation:

Kuttab, Eileen. 1993. “Palestinian Women in the Intifada: Fighting on Two Fronts.” Arab Studies Quarterly 15 (2): 1-69.

Author: Eileen Kuttab

Abstract:

"Focuses on the role of Palestinian women in the Intifada, the first Palestinian mass mobilization and culmination of resistance to the Israeli occupation. Historical overview of Palestinian women's participation in the national struggle; Democratization of the women's movement; Comparative perspective between the `old' and `new' women's movement; Platforms and agendas of the women's committees" (EBSCOhost).

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Nationalism Regions: Africa, MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1993

Daughters of Palestine: Leading Women of the Palestinian National Movement

Citation:

Kawar, Amal. 1996. Daughters of Palestine: Leading Women of the Palestinian National Movement. New York: SUNY Press.

Author: Amal Kawar

Annotation:

SUMMARY

"Based on interviews of the PLO's top women leaders in the Palestinian diaspora and the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Daughters of Palestine provides the first examination of the full history of women's involvement in the Palestinian National Movement from the revolution in the mid-1960s to the Palestinian-Israeli peace process in the early 1990s. Going beyond media imagery, Amal Kawar reviews the women's social and political backgrounds to explain how they overcame the traditional gender roles pervasive in Arab societies and became involved in politics. She then focuses on particular periods in the history of the Palestinian movement, as it moved from Jordan to Lebanon, Tunisia, and the Occupied Territories. Issues covered include women's nationalist activities, their relationship to the male leadership, the impact of crises, and the upsurge of the Islamist movement. A consistent theme of this investigation is how conflicts and crises, inside and outside the Palestinian arena, challenge and frame the success of women's nationalist work. Daughters of Palestine highlights the dilemma of national liberation struggles that both promote and co-opt women's liberation aspirations" (WorldCat). 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Figures

Prologue

Acknowledgments

1. Three Generations of Women Leaders

2. AMMAN Early Years of Revolutionary Struggle

3. BEIRUT National Mobilization and Civil War

4. TUNIS Decline of Mobilization in the Palestinian Diaspora

5. JERUSALEM Women's Committees in the Occupied Territories

Epilogue

Appendix: Interview List

Notes

References

Index

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Occupation, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Nationalism, Peace Processes Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East Countries: Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Tunisia

Year: 1996

Algeria at a Crossroads: National Liberation, Islamization and Women

Citation:

Cherifati-Merabtine, D. 1994. “Algeria at a Crossroads: National Liberation, Islamization and Women.” in Gender and National Identity, 192. London: Zed Books. 

Author: Doria Cherifati-Merabtine

Abstract:

"Gender politics exist inevitably in all Islamist movements that expect women to assume the burden of a largely male-defined tradition. Even in secular political movements in the Muslim world - notably those anti-colonial national liberation movements where women were actively involved- women have experiences since independence a general reversal of the gains made. This collection written by women from the countries concerned explores the gender dynamics of a variety of political movements with very different trajectories to reveal how nationalism, revolution and Islamization are all gendered processes. The authors explore women's experiences in the Algerian national liberation movement and more recently the fundamentalist FIS; similarly their involvement in the struggle to construct a Bengali national identity and independent Bangladeshi state; the events leading to the overthrow of the Shah and subsequent Islamization of Iran; revolution and civil war in Afghanistan; and the Palestinian Intifada. This book argues that in periods of rapid political change, women in Muslim societies are in reality central to efforts to construct a national identity" (University of Chicago Press). 

Annotation:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Glossary Note on Transliteration

Preface and Acknowledgements

1. Introduction and overview - Valentine M Moghadam

2. Feminine Militancy: Moudjahidates during and after the Algerian War - Cherifa Bouatta

3. Algeria at a crossroads: national liberation, Islamization and women - Doria Cherifati - Merabtine

4. National identity, fundamentalism and the women's movement in Bangladesh - Salma Sobhan

5. Reform, revolution and reaction: the trajectory of the 'Woman Question' in Afghanistan - Valentine M Moghadam

6. Modernity, Islamization, and women in Iran - Nayereh Tohidi

7. Nationalism and feminism: Palestinian women and the Intifada - No Going Back? - Nahla Abdo

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Women, Nationalism, Political Participation Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa Countries: Algeria

Year: 1994

Feminine Militancy: Moudjahidates During and After the Algerian War

Citation:

Bouatta, C. 1994. “Feminine Militancy: Moudjahidates During and After the Algerian War.” In Gender and National Identity, edited by Valentine Moghadam, 192. London: Zed Books.

Author: C. Bouatta

Abstract:

Gender politics exist inevitably in all Islamist movements that expect women to assume the burden of a largely male-defined tradition. Even in secular political movements in the Muslim world - notably those anti-colonial national liberation movements where women were actively involved- women have experiences since independence a general reversal of the gains made. This collection written by women from the countries concerned explores the gender dynamics of a variety of political movements with very different trajectories to reveal how nationalism, revolution and Islamization are all gendered processes.  The authors explore women's experiences in the Algerian national liberation movement and more recently the fundamentalist FIS; similarly their involvement in the struggle to construct a Bengali national identity and independent Bangladeshi state; the events leading to the overthrow of the Shah and subsequent Islamization of Iran; revolution and civil war in Afghanistan; and the Palestinian Intifada.  This book argues that in periods of rapid political change, women in Muslim societies are in reality central to efforts to construct a national identity. (Zed Books)

Topics: Armed Conflict, National Liberation Wars, Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Violence Regions: Africa, MENA, North Africa, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Iran, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 1994

The Front Line Runs Through Every Woman: Women and Local Resistance in the Zimbabwean Liberation War

Citation:

O’Gorman, Eleanor. 2011. The Front Line Runs Through Every Woman: Women & Local Resistance in the Zimbabwean Liberation War. Woodbridge; Zimbabwe; Rochester, N.Y.: James Currey ; Weaver Press ; Boydell & Brewer.

Author: Eleanor O'Gorman

Abstract:

A Zimbabwe-specific study, focusing on the lives of women in a small locale (Chiweshe) during the anti-colonial insurgency, this book is also a challenge to established and still current modes of thought and research orientations which over-simplify the complex realities women face in the full range of violent conflicts, both past and present. By contextualizing the voices of women of Chiweshe, not only is an important and under-developed aspect of Zimbabwean and African history revealed, but a new approach to comprehending the highly-tensioned lives of women in war is presented, which is characterized here as Gendered Localised Resistance. This is examined through the prism of life in the Protected Villages in Chiweshe experienced in everyday social relations, revolutionary roles, and food security. It traces how women forged strategies of survival and resistance in the middle of guerrilla warfare pitted between the forces of the state and the revolutionary resistance movements. The book can be read as a unique and richly detailed account of the lives of women during the Zimbabwe civil war and liberation struggle; as a wider argument about how researchers can approach and incorporate lived experience into accounts of larger dynamics (war/revolution); and as a substantial and important contribution to feminist historiography and writings on women and war. (Abstract from Publisher)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, National Liberation Wars, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2011

Pages

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