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Militaries

Of "Manly Valor" and "German Honor": Nation, War, and Masculinity in the Age of the Prussian Uprising against Napoleon

Citation:

Hagemann, Karen. 1997. “Of ‘Manly Valor’ and ‘German Honor’: Nation War and Masculinity in the Age of the Prussian Uprising Against Napoleon.” Central European History 30 (2): 187–220.

Author: Karen Hagemann

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Nationalism, Violence Regions: Europe, Central Europe Countries: France, Germany

Year: 1997

Gender Integration in Israeli Officer Training: Degendering and Regendering the Military

Citation:

Sasson-Levy, Orna, and Sarit Amram-Katz. 2007. “Gender Integration in Israeli Officer Training: Degendering and Regendering the Military.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 33 (1): 105–33.

Authors: Orna Sasson‐Levy, Sarit Amram‐Katz

Abstract:

This article examines the nature and meaning of gender integration in an officer training course in the Israeli military, in light of the hegemonic status of combat masculinity. The above quote is taken from an interview with Lieutenant Colonel Yoav Golan, a male battalion commander in the newly gender‐integrated course. The quote starts by recognizing gender differences as legitimate: women’s crying no longer frightens him. However, in the same breath, Yoav recreates the gendered hierarchy: the women’s crying bothers the male cadets, and “legitimate” tears quickly turn into hysterics. This discursive multiplicity is indicative of the simultaneous degendering and regendering processes that take place in the course. Though the Israeli military has restructured officer training in order to degender its route for promotion, it nonetheless goes on to reconstruct and reify hierarchical gender differences. Since military service is a sine qua non of full citizenship in Israel, the simultaneous processes of degendering and regendering expose the countless barricades that Israeli women have to overcome in order to be considered full citizens.

Topics: Citizenship, Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Militarization, Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2007

Constructing Identities at the Margins: Masculinities and Citizenship in the Israeli Army

Citation:

Sasson-Levy, Orna. 2002. “Constructing Identities at the Margins: Masculinities and Citizenship in the Israeli Army.” The Sociological Quarterly 43 (3): 357–83.

Author: Orna Sasson-Levy

Abstract:

This article examines the construction of multiple gendered and national identities in the Israeli army. In Israel, hegemonic masculinity is identified with the masculinity of the Jewish combat soldier and is perceived as the emblem of good citizenship. This identity. I argue, assumes a central role in shaping a hierarchal order of gendered and civic identities that reflects and reproduces social stratification and reconstructs differential modes of participation in, and belonging to, the Israeli state. In-depth interviews with two marginalized groups in the Israeli army—women in “masculine” roles and male soldiers in blue-collar jobs—suggest two discernible practices of identity. While women in “masculine” roles structure their gender and national identities according to the masculinity of the combat soldier, the identity practices of male soldiers in blue-collar jobs challenge this hegemonic masculinity and its close link with citizenship in Israel. However, while both identity practices are empowering for the groups in question, neither undermines the hegemonic order, for the military's practice of “limited inclusion” prohibits the development of a collective consciousness that would challenge the differentiated structure of citizenship.

Topics: Citizenship, Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Militarization Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2002

Individual Bodies, Collective State Interests: The Case of Israeli Combat Soldiers

Citation:

Sasson-Levy, Orna. 2007. “Individual Bodies, Collective State Interests: The Case of Israeli Combat Soldiers.” Men and Masculinities 10 (3): 296–321.

Author: Orna Sasson-Levy

Abstract:

The primary question this article raises is how democratic societies, whose liberal values seem to contradict the coercive values of the military, persuade men to enlist and participate in fighting. The author argues that part of the answer lies in alternative interpretation of transformative bodily and emotional practices. Drawing on in-depth interviews with Israeli combat soldiers, the author claims that the warrior's bodily and emotional practices are constituted through two opposing discursive regimes: self-control and thrill. The nexus of these two themes promotes an individualized interpretation frame of militarized practices, which blurs the boundaries between choice and coercion, presents mandatory military service as a fulfilling self-actualization, and enables soldiers to ignore the political and moral meanings of their actions. Thus, the individualized body and emotion management of the combat soldier serves the symbolic and pragmatic interests of the state, as it reinforces the cooperation between hegemonic masculinity and Israeli militarism.

Keywords: hegemonic masculinity, body and emotion management, military, combat soldiers, individualism, collectivism, Israeli society

Topics: Citizenship, Combatants, Male Combatants, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2007

Military Culture: Change and Continuity

Citation:

Dunivin, Karen O. 1994. "Military Culture: Change and Continuity." Armed Forces & Society 20 (4): 531--47.

Author: Karen O. Dunivin

Abstract:

Social scientists commonly use three interrelated concepts--ideal types, models, and paradigms--to study and explain social phenomena (e.g., poverty, crime, culture, and change). This article uses these theoretical concepts to examine both change and continuity in the American military culture. At the risk of oversimplification, the article 1) briefly describes the three concepts; 2) applies each to the current American military culture; and 3) examines how the military's dominant "paradigm" conflicts with its evolving "model" of culture. First, it is important to establish the conceptual framework or analysis.

Topics: Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1994

The Organizational Construction of Hegemonic Masculinity: The Case of the U.S. Navy

Citation:

Barrett, Frank. 1996. "The Organizational Construction of Hegemonic Masculinity: The Case of the U.S. Navy." Gender, Work & Organization 3 (3): 129-42. 

Author: Frank J. Barrett

Abstract:

This article examines the construction of hegemonic masculinity within the US Navy. Based on life history interviews with 27 male officers, this study explores alternative discourses and identities of officers from three different communities in the Navy: aviation, surface warfare, and the supply corps. Definitions of masculinity are relationally constructed through associations of difference: aviators tend to draw upon themes of autonomy and risk taking; surface warfare officers draw upon themes of perseverance and endurance; and supply officers draw upon themes of technical rationality. Further, these masculinities depend upon various contrasting definitions of femininity. Finally, this article explores a series of contradictions that threaten the secure construction of masculinity within this military culture.

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1996

Women and the Military: Implications for Demilitarization in the 1990s in South Africa

Citation:

Cock, Jacklyn. 1994. "Women and the Military: Implications for Demilitarization in the 1990s in South Africa." Gender & Society 8 (2): 152-69.

Author: Jacklyn Cock

Abstract:

Militarization--the mobilization of resources for war--is a gendering process. It both uses and maintains the ideological construction of gender in the definitions of masculinity and femininity. This article draws on material from contemporary South Africa to illustrate the relation between gender and militarization in four respects: how women actively contribute toward the process of militarization; the similarities in the position of women in both conventional and guerrilla armies; the durability of patriarchy and the fragility of the gains made for women during periods of war; and, finally, how the South African experience sharpens the debate about the relation between equal rights and women's participation in armies. The article concludes that there is no necessary relation between demilitarization and gender equality.

Topics: DDR, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization, Non-state Armed Groups, Rights Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1994

Globalizing Sexual Humiliation

Citation:

Myerson, Marilyn, and Susan S. Northcutt. 2005. "Globalizing Sexual Humiliation". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Honolulu, March 1-5.

Authors: Marilyn Myerson, Susan S. Northcutt

Abstract:

The article addresses important questions about sexuality and war bearing on the revelations of sexual humiliation at Abu Ghraib prison and Iraq. It argues that sexual humiliation and sexual violence are not an aberration in war in as much as rape of girls and women is commonplace. It presents a discursive study of sexual humiliation as manifested in the images from Abu Ghraib prison. It also discusses the concept of sexual humiliation.

Topics: Gender, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse Regions: Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq

Year: 2005

Transgender Military Personnel in the Post-DADT Repeal Era: A Phenomenological Study

Citation:

Parco, James E., David A. Levy, and Sarah R. Spears. 2014. “Transgender Military Personnel in the Post-DADT Repeal Era A Phenomenological Study.” Armed Forces & Society (April): 1-22.

Authors: James E. Parco, David A. Levy, Sarah R. Spears

Abstract:

This study is the first to systematically inquire into the lives of transgender men and women currently serving across the branches of the US military in the post-“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” (DADT) repeal era. We employed an interview protocol from a stratified convenience sample (n = 14) of clandestinely serving active duty, guard and reserve military members from the US Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps who self-identified as transgender or transsexual. Using phenomenology as a methodological foundation, we present a revelatory case study based on lived experiences from firsthand accounts furthering the collective understanding of gender dysphoria in a contemporary military context.

Keywords: Transgender, LGBT, gender dysphoria, phenomenology, military

Topics: Combatants, Gender, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2014

Gays In the Military: Texts and Subtexts

Citation:

Cohn, Carol. 1997. “Gays In the Military: Texts and Subtexts.” In The “Man Question” in International Relations, edited by Marysia Zalewski and Jane Parpart, 129–49. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Author: Carol Cohn

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries

Year: 1997

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