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Militaries

Perspectives on Private Security: The Myth, the Men and the Markets

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda. 2018. “Perspectives on Private Security: The Myth, the Men and the Markets.” In Handbook on the International Political Economy of Gender, edited by Juanita Elias and Adrienne Roberts, 196-210. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Author: Amanda Chisholm

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter seeks to broaden gender discussions on PMSCs and the Global Political Economy (GPE) of militaries/peacekeeping by asking what can be learned about security when seen through a feminist IPE lens – taking into account questions around the reproductive labour of the industry, how value and valuation are produced, and paying attention to the labour chains that underpin this global industry. Such a broadening allows us to see the security industry as both a security and political economy issue” (Chisholm 2018, 197). 

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militaries, Peacekeeping, Political Economies, Security

Year: 2018

Gender Perspectives and Military Effectiveness: Implementing UNSCR 1325 and the National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security

Citation:

Egnell, Robert. 2016. “Gender Perspectives and Military Effectiveness: Implementing UNSCR 1325 and the National Action Plan on Women, Peace, and Security.” Prism: A Journal of the Center for Complex Operations 6 (1): 73-89.

Author: Robert Egnell

Annotation:

Summary: 
"To further the discussion on gender in military affairs, this article discusses two questions: why should gender perspectives be introduced and implemented in military organizations? And how should this process be managed to do so successfully? Regardless of whether we agree that gender perspectives are important for military affairs or not, or if we simply obey the “orders” of the National Action Plan (NAP), we are facing the challenge of implementing UNSCR 1325 in a vast organization with a culture that has traditionally been unkind to these perspectives. The process of implementation must therefore be approached as an uphill battle that will involve substantial resistance. The article draws on a major study of a similar process in Sweden that will serve to highlight general tactical choices, organizational hurdles, and policy implications for an international audience" (Egnell 2016, 74).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, peace and security, Post-conflict Governance, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325, Security Sector Reform Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2016

Gender, Military Effectiveness, and Organizational Change: The Swedish Model

Citation:

Egnell, Robert, Petter Hojem, and Hannes Berts. 2014. Gender, Military Effectiveness, and Organizational Change: The Swedish Model. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Robert Egnell, Petter Hojem, Hannes Berts

Annotation:

Summary: 
Through extensive analysis of the Swedish Armed Forces this study explores the possibilities and pitfalls of implementing of a gender perspective in military organizations and operations. It established a number of important lessons for similar attempts in other countries and discusses the continued process of implementation in the Swedish military. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillan)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, conflict, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Sweden

Year: 2014

Gender and Post-War Relief: Support for War-Widowed Mothers in Occupied Japan (1945-52)

Citation:

Takenaka, Akiko. 2016. “Gender and Post-War Relief: Support for War-Widowed Mothers in Occupied Japan (1945-52).” Gender & History 28 (3): 775–93. 

Author: Akiko Takenaka

Abstract:

This article analyses the gender implications that emerged through welfare support for the war‐bereaved in post‐Asia‐Pacific War Japan. It follows the foundation, activities and dissolution of the Federation of Bereaved War Victims, the first support group for the war‐bereaved that initially began as an organisation for military widows. After its dissolution, members of the Federation went on to create two separate groups – the Victims’ Federation and Widows’ Federation – whose members, scope and objectives presented stark gendered divisions. By examining this divide, and by analysing the earlier histories of the organisations, this article explores the relationships among gender, military, death and bereavement, and post‐war relief. The article pays particular attention to the tensions and negotiations among various interest groups, including military widows, women widowed from other causes, feminist activists, male lawmakers, bereaved fathers and the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. I place the dissolution of the Federation in its social and political contexts and analyse its relationship to the contemporaneous discussions on female citizenship. In particular, I focus on two areas mobilised by Japanese feminist activists since the early twentieth century: suffrage and motherhood. The short history of the Federation provides a means to examine the reconfiguration of the connection between gender and citizenship during the demilitarisation and democratisation processes that occurred in occupied Japan.

Topics: Citizenship, Democracy / Democratization, Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Post-Conflict Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2016

Beyond the Hegemonic in the Study of Militaries, Masculinities, and War

Citation:

Chisholm, Amanda, and Joanna Tidy. 2017. “Beyond the Hegemonic in the Study of Militaries, Masculinities, and War.” Critical Military Studies 3 (2): 99-102.

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Joanna Tidy

Annotation:

Summary:
"This special issue advances what we identify as an emerging curiosity within accounts of military masculinities. This curiosity concerns the silences within and disruptions to our well-established and perhaps too comfortable understandings of and empirical focal points for military masculinities, gender, and war. The special issue is situated within emerging critiques of military masculinities. Scholars such as Stachowitsch (2015), Richter-Montpetit (2007), Howell (2007), and Belkin (2012) all expand where we locate gendered militarist logics of war and its various contestations. In common with these scholars, the contributors to this special issue trouble the ease with which we might be tempted to synonymize militaries, war, and a neat, ‘hegemonic’ masculinity. Taking the disruptions, the asides, and the silences seriously, we claim, challenges the common wisdoms of military masculinities, gender, and war in productive and necessary ways" (Chishom and Tidy 2017, 99).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, conflict, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism

Year: 2017

Coming out in camouflage: A Queer Theory Perspective on the Strength, Resilience, and Resistance of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Service Members and Veterans

Citation:

Ramirez, M. Heliana, and Paul R. Sterzing. 2017. “Coming out in Camouflage: A Queer Theory Perspective on the Strength, Resilience, and Resistance of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Service Members and Veterans.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services 29 (1): 68–86. 

Authors: M. Heliana Ramirez, Paul R. Sterzing

Abstract:

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members have made profound contributions to the U. S. military despite serving under anti-LGBT military policies. Little is known about their everyday acts of strength and resistance, which is vital information for developing strengths-based services. This article utilizes a queer theory framework to (a) discuss LGBT military contributions and anti-LGBT military policies, (b) explore three LGBT-specific military minority stressors, and (c) identify four strategies of strength and resistance used to manage an antiLGBT military environment. Clinical suggestions are proposed for integrating military and LGBT identities and designing interventions that blend military and LGBT cultures.

Keywords: LGBT, military, Veteran, strengths-based, Resilience, queer theory

Topics: Combatants, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence, Rape Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Aging LGBT Military Service Members and Veterans

Citation:

Mankowski, Mariann. 2017. “Aging LGBT Military Service Members and Veterans.” Annual Review of Gerontology & Geriatrics 37 (1): 111–25. 

Author: Mariann Mankowski

Abstract:

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the experiences and needs of aging sexual and gender minority (SGM) veterans. Significant demographic changes in the composition of aging military veterans have taken place. Most notice- ably since the repeal of "don't ask, don't tell" attention has been drawn to this population of older veterans and their specific mental, physical, and psycho-social health care needs. Recent policy, program, and research initiatives have begun to address the significant health disparities of this population of older adults. SGM veterans are more likely to report higher rates of sexual harassment and sexual assault, and are more vulnerable to homelessness and unemployment when compared to the general population of older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults. Aging SGM veterans may also carry a heavy burden as a result of their experiences as service members and may be reticent to disclose their sexual identity with formal veteran service programs. Access to and utilization of social care networks and social support for SGM aging veterans is a serious concern. Isolation, poorer health outcomes, and increased chronic health conditions may exacerbate the marginalization this older adult population has experienced. A majority of SGM veterans will utilize community-based services, and it is essential that all health care professionals understand the unique needs of this cohort of older adults. Future directions for research, policy, education, and service delivery are explored.

Topics: Age, Combatants, Health, Mental Health, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2017

Mental Health of Transgender Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts Who Experienced Military Sexual Trauma: MST and Mental Health of Transgender Veterans

Citation:

Lindsay, Jan A., Colt Keo-Meier, Sonora Hudson, Annette Walder, Lindsey A. Martin, and Michael R. Kauth. 2016. “Mental Health of Transgender Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Conflicts Who Experienced Military Sexual Trauma: MST and Mental Health of Transgender Veterans.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 29 (6): 563–67.

Authors: Jan A. Lindsay, Colt Keo-Meier, Sonora Hudson, Annette Walder, Lindsey A. Martin, Michael R. Kauth

Abstract:

Little is known about military sexual trauma (MST) in transgender veterans. To address this gap, we examined archival data regarding transgender veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. There were 332 transgender veterans treated at the Veterans Health Administration between 2000 and 2013 (78 men, 254 women; mean age 33.86 years), with most being non-Hispanic White. Transgender status and mental health conditions were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9; World Health Organization, 1980) codes and chart review. Men and women were analyzed separately, using contingency tables and χ2 testing for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Likelihood of having a mental health condition and MST were examined using logistic regression. Among the 15% of participants who experienced MST, MST was associated with the likelihood of posttraumatic stress disorder, adjusted OR = 6.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.22, 30.44] and personality disorder, OR = 3.86, 95% CI [1.05, 14.22] for men and with depressive, OR = 3.33, 95% CI [1.12, 9.93], bipolar, OR = 2.87, 95% CI [1.12, 7.44], posttraumatic stress, OR = 2.42, [1.11, 5.24], and personality disorder, OR = 4.61, 95% CI [2.02, 10.52] for women. Implications include that medical forms should include gender identity and biological gender and that MST treatment should be culturally competent.

Topics: Combatants, Gender, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence Regions: MENA, Americas, North America, Asia, Middle East, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan, Iraq, United States of America

Year: 2016

The Psychologist's Role in Transgender-Specific Care with U.S. Veterans

Citation:

Johnson, Laura, Jillian Shipherd, and Heather M. Walton. 2016. “The Psychologist’s Role in Transgender-Specific Care with U.S. Veterans.” Psychological Services 13 (1): 69–76.

Authors: Laura Johnson, Jillian Shipherd, Heather M. Walton

Abstract:

Psychologists are integral to the care of transgender individuals. This article details the many roles for psychologists in transgender-specific care, including diagnosing and treating gender dysphoria; providing treatment for comorbid conditions; referring to medical services such as gender confirmation surgeries, voice modification, and cross-sex hormone therapies; serving as consultants within health care systems; and advocating for addressing barriers in systems in which transgender individuals live and work. Transgender veterans have unique experiences and vulnerabilities related to their military service that are detailed from a review of the literature, and we make the case that Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and community psychologists are well-positioned to provide care to transgender veterans (trans-vets). In this article, the authors describe the experiences that many trans-vets have faced, identify the importance of treatment for gender dysphoria (and draw the distinction between gender identity disorder and gender dysphoria) as well as psychologists’ roles, and clarify which transgender-related services are available to eligible veterans though VHA per policy and how VHA providers have access to training to provide that care. In addition, we describe how veterans can connect to the VHA, even if they have (and want to continue working with) non-VHA psychologists or other community providers.

Topics: Combatants, Health, Mental Health, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell

Citation:

Goldbach, Jeremy T., and Carl Andrew Castro. 2016. “Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Service Members: Life After Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.” Current Psychiatry Reports 18 (6): 56.

Authors: Jeremy T. Goldbach, Carl Andrew Castro

Abstract:

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual service members can serve openly in the military with the repeal of the Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell policy. The fate of transgender service members remains uncertain as the policy preventing them from serving in the military remains under review. The health care needs of these populations remain for the most part unknown, with total acceptance and integration in the military yet to be achieved. In this paper, we review the literature on the health care needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members, relying heavily on what is known about LGBT civilian and veteran populations. Significant research gaps about the health care needs of LGBT service members are identified, along with recommendations for closing those gaps. In addition, recommendations for improving LGBT acceptance and integration within the military are provided.

Keywords: gay, lesbian, Transgender, Bisexual, military, Veteran, mental health, Physical health, policy, LGBT acceptance and integration

Topics: Combatants, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

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