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Men

I Can Do Women’s Work’: Reflections on Engaging Men as Allies in Women’s Economic Empowerment in Rwanda

Citation:

Slegh, Henny, Gary Barker, Augustin Kimonyo, Prudence Ndolimana, and Matt Bannerman. 2013. “‘I Can Do Women’s Work’: Reflections on Engaging Men as Allies in Women’s Economic Empowerment in Rwanda.” Gender & Development 21 (1): 15–30.

Authors: Henny Slegh, Gary Baker, Augustin Kimonyo, Prudence Ndolimana, Matt Bannerman

Abstract:

The benefits of women's economic empowerment are well-known and documented in the development literature. Few studies and interventions, however, have explored how men react or can be engaged to enhance such interventions. This article presents an evaluation of a pilot project in Rwanda in collaboration with CARE Rwanda's Village Savings and Loan (VSL) programme that deliberately engaged men as partners of women beneficiaries of the micro-credit programme. Preliminary results affirm the importance of engaging men in a deliberate questioning of gender norms and power dynamics, so that they can embrace better co-operation and sharing of activities at the household level; and that a ‘do-no-harm’ approach to women's economic empowerment should involve activities to engage men at the community level in questioning and ending gender-based violence – building on those interventions that have shown evidence of changes in men's attitudes and behaviours related to gender-based violence.

Keywords: women's economic empowerment, household gender dynamics, engaging men, Rwanda

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Households Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2013

Transforming Gender Roles in Domestic and Caregiving Work: Preliminary Findings from Engaging Fathers in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Rwanda

Citation:

Doyle, Kate, Jane Kato-Wallace, Shamsi Kazimbaya, and Gary Barker. 2014. “Transforming Gender Roles in Domestic and Caregiving Work: Preliminary Findings from Engaging Fathers in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Rwanda.” Gender & Development 22 (3): 515–31.

Authors: Kate Doyle, Jane Kato-Wallace, Shamsi Kazimbaya, Gary Baker

Abstract:

This article draws on Promundo and RWAMREC's programmatic experiences in Rwanda of implementing MenCare+, a gender transformative approach to engaging young and adult men (ages 15–35) in caregiving, maternal, newborn, and child health, and sexual and reproductive health and rights. We present initial results from fathers' groups with more than 600 men, including the impact of participation in these groups on men's participation in care work. The results confirm the importance for practitioners' planning strategies to engage fathers to think beyond men's token participation in care work, to use father participation as an entry point to truly transform gender dynamics within the home. The article provides practical lessons learnt to guide other organisations interested in working with men to transform norms around fatherhood and care work.

Keywords: caregiving, engaging men, Rwanda, maternal, newborn and child health, household gender dynamics

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Health, Households Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2014

Gender, Dissenting Subjectivity and the Contemporary Military Peace Movement in Body of War

Citation:

Tidy, Joanna. 2015. “Gender, Dissenting Subjectivity and the Contemporary Military Peace Movement in Body of War.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 17 (3): 454–72. doi:10.1080/14616742.2014.967128.

Author: Joanna Tidy

Abstract:

This article considers the gendered dynamics of the contemporary military peace movement in the United States, interrogating the way in which masculine privilege produces hierarchies within experiences, truth claims and dissenting subjecthoods. The analysis focuses on a text of the movement, the 2007 documentary film Body of War, which portrays the antiwar activism of paralyzed Iraq veteran Tomas Young, his mother Cathy and wife Brie. Conceptualizing the military peace movement as a potentially counter-performative reiteration of military masculinity, drawing on Butler's account of gender, subjectivity formation and contestation, and on Derrida's notion of spectrality (the disruptive productivity of the “present absence”), the article makes visible ways in which men and women who comprise the military peace movement perform their dissent as gendered subjects. Claims to dissenting subjecthood are unevenly accorded within the productive duality that constitutes the military peace movement, along gendered lines that can reproduce the privileges and subordinations that underpin militarism.

Keywords: dissent, performativity, Body of War, masculinity, injured veterans

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Nonviolence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2015

May Real Men Cry in Court? Masculinity, Equality and the South African Constitutional Court

Citation:

Pieterse, Marius. 2014. “May Real Men Cry in Court? Masculinity, Equality and the South African Constitutional Court.” Journal of Southern African Studies 40 (2): 361–79. doi:10.1080/03057070.2014.901641.

Author: Marius Pieterse

Abstract:

This article takes issue with depictions of masculinity and male gender identity in the South African Constitutional Court's judgements on gender equality and sexuality. It argues that, while the Court rightly acknowledges that male gender identity is problematic and that societal norms and expectations relating to masculinity are core causes of the subordination of women, many of its judgements uphold and reinforce outdated, essentialist, hetero-normative and restrictive conceptions of masculinity. These notions appear to leave little room for men to transcend conventional gender stereotypes, to form and adapt their identities freely and to participate in the transformation of gendered norms.

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2014

Sexy Money: The Hetero-Normative Politics of Global Finance

Citation:

Brassett, James, and Lena Rethel. 2015. “Sexy Money: The Hetero-Normative Politics of Global Finance.” Review of International Studies 41 (3): 429–49.

Authors: James Brassett, Lena Rethel

Abstract:

The article develops a critical analysis of gendered narratives of global finance. The post-subprime crisis equation of unfettered global finance with the excessive masculinity of individual bankers is read in line with a wider gender narrative. We discuss how hetero- normative relations between men and women underpin financial representations through three historical examples: war bond advertising, Hollywood films about bankers, and contemporary aesthetic representations of female politicians who advocate for austerity. A politics emerges whereby gender is used to encompass a/the spectrum between embedded and disembedded finance, approximate to the divide between oikonomia and chrematistics. The apparently desirable ‘marriage’ between the state and finance that ensues carries several ambiguities – precisely along gender lines – that point to a pervasive limit: the myth of embedded liberalism in the imagination of global finance. 

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2015

From Benevolent Patriarchy to Gender Transformation: A Case Study of Pakistan’s ‘We Can End Violence against Women’ Program.

Citation:

Wu, Joyce. 2011. “From Benevolent Patriarchy to Gender Transformation: A Case Study of Pakistan’s ‘We Can End Violence against Women’ Program.” In Men and Masculinities Around the World: Transforming Men’s Practices, 219–31. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Author: Joyce Wu

Annotation:

"Ending violence against women and promoting gender equality have long been on the agenda of Pakistani women and human rights activists. In Pakistan and many other developing countries, initiatives that engage with men from a profeminist framework is a relatively new concept, and more or less in sync with the shifting trend of the international development field, which has moved away from a Women in Development (WID) approach to a Gender and Development (GAD) (Lang 2003, 2; Flood 2004, 43-44). In summary, GAD focuses on institutional changes and the examination of gender roles and norms in relation to social divisions, as well as gender-mainstreaming in institutions, and a greater focus on men's role in contributing toward gender equality. In this context, the focus on engaging with men and boys to end violence against women (VAW) is becoming more readily accepted by international donors and partner organizations. Due to the security and humanitarian circumstances in Pakistan, international donors and NGOs have mainly prioritized disaster relief and reconstruction, though there has been an increase in projects that focus on men's behavioral change and ending violence against women [...] In this article, I will first examine the challenges faced by NGOs when engaging with local communities – especially men and boys – on the issue of violence against women in Pakistan. I will then provide the case study of Oxfam Great Britain's regional program, We Can End Violence against Women (referred as "We Can"), which engages with both men and women in local communities. Through We Can, I will illustrate the challenges of working with men and boys, as well as highlight the innovative approaches used to change the dominant norms at both personal and societal levels in Pakistan (Wu, 2011: 219-20)."

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Sexual Violence, SV against women, Violence Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2011

Masculinities and Social Intervention in Colombia

Citation:

Viveros Vigoya, Mara. 2011. “Masculinities and Social Intervention in Colombia.” In Men and Masculinities Around the World: Transforming Men’s Practices, 125–41. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Author: Mara Viveros Vigoya

Annotation:

"The topic of masculinities as a problem in need of social intervention has arisen in Colombia alongside the development of investigations and publications of books and articles about men and masculinities in many of the Latin American and Caribbean countries. On the other hand, in the institutional circle, both nongovernmental organizations and existing Gender Studies programs at some Latin American Universities have incorporated the topic of masculinity into their policies and actions and into their academic programs.

"This growing presence of masculinity in research, university programs, and social initiatives tells of the importance of the transformations in gender relations that we have been witnessing in Latin America for more than 30 years (Viveros 2002). Thus, this chapter attempts to offer a panorama of the social interventions that have been made directly or indirectly with men in Colombia over the past decade and a half, which seek to increase gender equality in the different areas of social life (Viveros, 2011: 125)."

Topics: Civil Society, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2011

Men and Masculinities Around the World: Transforming Men's Practices

Citation:

Ruspini, Elisabetta, Jeff Hearn, Bob Pease, and Keith Pringle, eds. 2011. Men and Masculinities Around the World: Transforming Men's Practices. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US. http://link.springer.com/10.1057/9780230338005.

Authors: Elisabetta Ruspini, Jeff Hearn, Bob Pease, Keith Pringle

Abstract:

This collection, with contributions on seventeen countries from social scientists from Africa, the Americas, Asia-Pacific, and Europe, analyzes the characteristics and potential of diverse educational, political and related initiatives towards progressive changes in gender relations to show how men are reacting to contemporary social change.

(Palgrave Macmillan)

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Globalization Regions: Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Oceania

Year: 2011

Poverty, Masculine Violence, and the Transformation of Men: Ethnographic Notes from Kenyan Slums

Citation:

Izugbara, Chimaraoke. 2011. “Poverty, Masculine Violence, and the Transformation of Men: Ethnographic Notes from Kenyan Slums.” In Men and Masculinities Around the World: Transforming Men’s Practices, 235–46. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Author: Chimaraoke Izugbara

Annotation:

"The intersections of violence and masculinity have been studied in a variety of social contexts (Bourgois 1996; Messerschmidt 2004; Mullins 2006). Missing in these studies, however, are grounded accounts of how a hazardous sense of threatened masculinity and notions of masculine dignity constructed around interpersonal violence become part of the everyday thinking of some men. Put differently, how does the belief that self-esteem, material worth, and possibilities for life improvement can only be realized through violence and ruthlessness become a key element of poor men's social and cultural outlook? Drawing on my fieldwork in the slums of Kenya, I link masculine violence to the dynamic association, which men make, between their private and shared marginalization and livelihood misfortunes and the everyday cruelty of others as well as the invasive belief that one has to both vigorously resist violence and deploy it in order to be safe. This disastrous sense of an inherently vicious world interacts dynamically with the lived reality of a constant state of emergency that interminably banishes men from dynamic access to public goods, to the realm of socioeconomic marginality, insecurity, and participation in drugs and other illicit economies that endorse aggression and brutality (Bourgois 1996; Groes-Green 2009, 2010). The current chapter is about the social production of violent slum men and the critical role of livelihoods in masculine violence as an everyday behavior deployed and suffered by poor slum men in Kenya. (Izugbara, 2011: 235)."

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Kenya

Year: 2011

Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Survey

Citation:

Randall, Amy E. 2015. Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century: A Comparative Survey. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Author: Amy E. Randall

Abstract:

Genocide and Gender in the Twentieth Century brings together a collection of some of the finest genocide studies scholars in North America and Europe to examine gendered discourses, practices and experiences of ethnic cleansing and genocide in the 20th century. It includes essays focusing on the genocide in Rwanda, the Armenian genocide in the Ottoman Empire, the Holocaust and ethnic cleansing and genocide in the former Yugoslavia.
 
The book looks at how historically- and culturally-specific ideas about reproduction, biology, and ethnic, national, racial and religious identity contributed to the possibility for and the unfolding of genocidal sexual violence, including mass rape. The book also considers how these ideas, in conjunction with discourses of femininity and masculinity, and understandings of female and male identities, contributed to perpetrators' tools and strategies for ethnic cleansing and genocide, as well as victims' experiences of these processes. This is an ideal text for any student looking to further understand the crucial topic of gender in genocide studies.
 
(Bloomsbury Academic)

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Genocide, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against men Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa, Europe, Balkans, South Caucasus Countries: Armenia, Rwanda, Yugoslavia (former)

Year: 2015

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