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Men

Unemployment and Fatherhood: Gender, Culture and National Context

Citation:

Strier, Roni. 2014. “Unemployment and Fatherhood: Gender, Culture and National Context.” Gender, Work & Organization 21 (5): 395–410. doi:10.1111/gwao.12044.

Abstract:

Hegemonic representations of masculinity and dominant images of fatherhood have usually been linked to the domain of work. This article explores the experiences of men under the hardship of unemployment and the impact of these experiences on the construction of their gender identities, specifically on the construction of their fatherhood identity. In addition, the article examines how culture and national context affect the interrelationship between unemployment and fatherhood. Drawing on a post-structural constructivist theoretical perspective, the article describes a qualitative study of low-income unemployed Palestinian fathers in Israel. The study examines three areas of interest: perceptions of fatherhood, the experience of unemployment and the impact of unemployment on the construction of fatherhood. On the theoretical level, the article proposes a conceptualization of the relationship between unemployment and fatherhood. It argues that in order to generalize the impact of unemployment on fatherhood, we must first examine the context in which gendered and cultural perceptions of fatherhood are embedded. On a policy level, the article offers some recommendations for developing more contextualized, gender- and cultural-sensitive policies for unemployed fathers.

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Political Economies Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories

Year: 2014

New Big Men: Refugee Emasculation as a Human Security Issue: New Big Men.

Citation:

Lukunka, Barbra. 2012. “New Big Men: Refugee Emasculation as a Human Security Issue: New Big Men.” International Migration 50 (5): 130–41. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00670.x.

Author: Barbra Lukunka

Abstract:

Academics and policymakers have conducted a significant amount of research on the physical security and integrity of refugee populations, especially of refugee women and children. That on refugee women has focused on gender-based violence. This study expands on previous research by employing a human security approach to analyse not only the physical security and integrity of refugees, but also their socio-psychological well-being. Specifically, I argue that poor socio-psychological well-being actually explains the manifestations of violence against women in refugee camps. To make this argument, I document and explain the emasculation of Burundian refugee men living in Kanembwa camp in western Tanzania.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Security, Human Security Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2012

Military Sexual Assault, Gender, and PTSD Treatment Outcomes of U.S. Veterans

Citation:

Tiet, Quyen Q., Yani E. Leyva, Kathy Blau, Jessica A. Turchik, and Craig S. Rosen. 2015. “Military Sexual Assault, Gender, and PTSD Treatment Outcomes of U.S. Veterans.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 28 (2): 92–101. doi:10.1002/jts.21992.

Authors: Kathy Blau, Yani E. Leyva, Craig S. Rosen, Quyen Q. Tiet, Jessica A. Turchik

Abstract:

This study examined whether gender and military sexual assault (MSA) were associated with psychiatric severity differences at initiation of treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and whether MSA and gender predicted psychiatric treatment outcomes. Male (n = 726) and female (n = 111) patients were recruited from 7 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD specialty intensive treatment programs and completed an intake survey; 69% (n = 574) of the participants completed a 4-month postdischarge follow-up survey. Measures included current PTSD and depressive symptoms, aggressive/violent behaviors, alcohol and drug use severity, and quality of life. Multilevel multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the main and interaction effects of gender and MSA on psychiatric treatment outcomes at 4-month follow-up, including demographics, baseline severity, hostile fire, and treatment length of stay. Baseline PTSD severity did not differ by gender or MSA status, but women had more severe depressive symptoms (d = 0.40) and less aggressive/violent symptoms (d = −0.46) than men. Gender, MSA status, and the interaction between gender and MSA did not predict treatment outcomes as hypothesized. Male and female veterans with and without MSA responded equally well to treatment in VA PTSD intensive treatment programs.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Women, Men, Gender Analysis, Mental Health, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2015

Sexual Trauma and Adverse Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Men Serving in the U.S. Military

Citation:

Millegan, Jeffrey, Lawrence Wang, Cynthia A. LeardMann, Derek Miletich, and Amy E. Street. 2016. “Sexual Trauma and Adverse Health and Occupational Outcomes Among Men Serving in the U.S. Military.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 29 (2): 132–40. doi:10.1002/jts.22081.

Authors: Cynthia A. LeardMann, Derek Miletich, Jeffrey Millegan, Amy E. Street, Lawrence Wang

Annotation:

Although absolute counts of U.S. service men who experience sexual trauma are comparable to service women, little is known about the impact of sexual trauma on men. The association of recent sexual trauma (last 3 years) with health and occupational outcomes was investigated using longitudinal data (2004–2013) from the Millennium Cohort Study. Of 37,711 service men, 391 (1.0%) reported recent sexual harassment and 76 (0.2%) sexual assault. In multivariable models, sexual harassment or assault, respectively, was associated with poorer mental health: AOR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.22, 2.12], AOR = 4.39, 95% CI [2.40, 8.05]; posttraumatic stress disorder: AOR = 2.50, 95% CI [1.87, 3.33], AOR = 6.63, 95% CI [3.65, 12.06]; depression: AOR = 2.37, 95% CI [1.69, 3.33], AOR = 5.60, 95% CI [2.83, 11.09]; and multiple physical symptoms: AOR = 2.22, 95% CI [1.69, 2.92]; AOR = 3.57, 95% CI [1.98, 6.42], after adjustment for relevant covariates. Sexual harassment was also associated with poorer physical health: AOR = 1.68, 95% CI [1.27, 2.22]. Men who reported sexual trauma were more likely to have left military service: AOR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.14, 2.24], and be disabled/unemployed postservice: AOR = 1.76, 95% CI [1.02, 3.02]. Results suggest that sexual trauma was significantly associated with adverse health and functionality extending to postmilitary life. Findings support the need for developing better prevention strategies and services to reduce the burden of sexual trauma on service men.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Male Combatants, Men, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups, SV against men Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2016

Long-Term Gendered Consequences of Permanent Disabilities Caused by the 2005 Pakistan Earthquake

Citation:

Irshad, Humaira, Zubia Mumtaz, and Adrienne Levay. 2012. “Long-Term Gendered Consequences of Permanent Disabilities Caused by the 2005 Pakistan Earthquake.” Disasters 36 (3): 452–64. 

Authors: Humaira Irshad, Zubia Mumtaz, Adrienne Levay

Abstract:

This study documents the long-term gendered impact of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake on women and men who were rendered paraplegic as a result of spinal cord injuries sustained during the disaster. Coping mechanisms are also mapped. The findings show that three years after the disaster, paraplegic women are socially, emotionally, and financially isolated. The small stipend they receive is a significant source of income, but it has also led to marital distrust, violence, and abuse. In contrast, men receive full social and emotional support. Their key concern is that the government is not providing them with opportunities to be economically productive. Contemporary discourse and post-disaster policies, while acknowledging the importance of incorporating a gender perspective in the immediate post-disaster period, have failed to acknowledge and address the longer-term gendered impact of disasters, in terms of the different types of impact and strategies adopted by women and men.

Keywords: disability, Disasters, earthquake, gender, Pakistan, paraplegia

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Gender-Based Violence, Health Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2012

For Richer, for Poorer: Marriage and Casualized Sex in East African Artisanal Mining Settlements

Citation:

Bryceson, Deborah Fahy, Jesper Bosse Jønsson, and Hannelore Verbrugge. 2014. “For Richer, for Poorer: Marriage and Casualized Sex in East African Artisanal Mining Settlements.” Development and Change 45 (1): 79–104. doi:10.1111/dech.12067.

Authors: Deborah Fahy Bryceson, Jesper Bosse Jønsson, Hannelore Verbrugge

Abstract:

Migrants to Tanzania’s artisanal gold mining sites seek mineral wealth, which is accompanied by high risks of occupational hazards, economic failure, AIDS and social censure from their home communities. Male miners in these settlements compete to attract newly arrived young women who are perceived to be diverting male material support from older women and children’s economic survival. This article explores the dynamics of monogamy, polygamy and promiscuity in the context of rapid occupational change. It shows how a wide spectrum of productive and welfare outcomes is generated through sexual experimentation, which calls into question conventional concepts of prostitution, marriage and gender power relations.

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Health, Sexuality Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2014

I Can Do Women’s Work’: Reflections on Engaging Men as Allies in Women’s Economic Empowerment in Rwanda

Citation:

Slegh, Henny, Gary Barker, Augustin Kimonyo, Prudence Ndolimana, and Matt Bannerman. 2013. “‘I Can Do Women’s Work’: Reflections on Engaging Men as Allies in Women’s Economic Empowerment in Rwanda.” Gender & Development 21 (1): 15–30.

Authors: Henny Slegh, Gary Baker, Augustin Kimonyo, Prudence Ndolimana, Matt Bannerman

Abstract:

The benefits of women's economic empowerment are well-known and documented in the development literature. Few studies and interventions, however, have explored how men react or can be engaged to enhance such interventions. This article presents an evaluation of a pilot project in Rwanda in collaboration with CARE Rwanda's Village Savings and Loan (VSL) programme that deliberately engaged men as partners of women beneficiaries of the micro-credit programme. Preliminary results affirm the importance of engaging men in a deliberate questioning of gender norms and power dynamics, so that they can embrace better co-operation and sharing of activities at the household level; and that a ‘do-no-harm’ approach to women's economic empowerment should involve activities to engage men at the community level in questioning and ending gender-based violence – building on those interventions that have shown evidence of changes in men's attitudes and behaviours related to gender-based violence.

Keywords: women's economic empowerment, household gender dynamics, engaging men, Rwanda

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Men, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Households Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2013

Transforming Gender Roles in Domestic and Caregiving Work: Preliminary Findings from Engaging Fathers in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Rwanda

Citation:

Doyle, Kate, Jane Kato-Wallace, Shamsi Kazimbaya, and Gary Barker. 2014. “Transforming Gender Roles in Domestic and Caregiving Work: Preliminary Findings from Engaging Fathers in Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Rwanda.” Gender & Development 22 (3): 515–31.

Authors: Kate Doyle, Jane Kato-Wallace, Shamsi Kazimbaya, Gary Baker

Abstract:

This article draws on Promundo and RWAMREC's programmatic experiences in Rwanda of implementing MenCare+, a gender transformative approach to engaging young and adult men (ages 15–35) in caregiving, maternal, newborn, and child health, and sexual and reproductive health and rights. We present initial results from fathers' groups with more than 600 men, including the impact of participation in these groups on men's participation in care work. The results confirm the importance for practitioners' planning strategies to engage fathers to think beyond men's token participation in care work, to use father participation as an entry point to truly transform gender dynamics within the home. The article provides practical lessons learnt to guide other organisations interested in working with men to transform norms around fatherhood and care work.

Keywords: caregiving, engaging men, Rwanda, maternal, newborn and child health, household gender dynamics

Topics: Gender, Women, Men, Gender Roles, Health, Households Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2014

Gender, Dissenting Subjectivity and the Contemporary Military Peace Movement in Body of War

Citation:

Tidy, Joanna. 2015. “Gender, Dissenting Subjectivity and the Contemporary Military Peace Movement in Body of War.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 17 (3): 454–72. doi:10.1080/14616742.2014.967128.

Author: Joanna Tidy

Abstract:

This article considers the gendered dynamics of the contemporary military peace movement in the United States, interrogating the way in which masculine privilege produces hierarchies within experiences, truth claims and dissenting subjecthoods. The analysis focuses on a text of the movement, the 2007 documentary film Body of War, which portrays the antiwar activism of paralyzed Iraq veteran Tomas Young, his mother Cathy and wife Brie. Conceptualizing the military peace movement as a potentially counter-performative reiteration of military masculinity, drawing on Butler's account of gender, subjectivity formation and contestation, and on Derrida's notion of spectrality (the disruptive productivity of the “present absence”), the article makes visible ways in which men and women who comprise the military peace movement perform their dissent as gendered subjects. Claims to dissenting subjecthood are unevenly accorded within the productive duality that constitutes the military peace movement, along gendered lines that can reproduce the privileges and subordinations that underpin militarism.

Keywords: dissent, performativity, Body of War, masculinity, injured veterans

Topics: Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarism, Nonviolence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2015

May Real Men Cry in Court? Masculinity, Equality and the South African Constitutional Court

Citation:

Pieterse, Marius. 2014. “May Real Men Cry in Court? Masculinity, Equality and the South African Constitutional Court.” Journal of Southern African Studies 40 (2): 361–79. doi:10.1080/03057070.2014.901641.

Author: Marius Pieterse

Abstract:

This article takes issue with depictions of masculinity and male gender identity in the South African Constitutional Court's judgements on gender equality and sexuality. It argues that, while the Court rightly acknowledges that male gender identity is problematic and that societal norms and expectations relating to masculinity are core causes of the subordination of women, many of its judgements uphold and reinforce outdated, essentialist, hetero-normative and restrictive conceptions of masculinity. These notions appear to leave little room for men to transcend conventional gender stereotypes, to form and adapt their identities freely and to participate in the transformation of gendered norms.

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2014

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