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Masculinity/ies

Martial Races and Enforcement Masculinities of the Global South: Weaponising Fijian, Chilean, and Salvadoran Postcoloniality in the Mercenary Sector

Citation:

Higate, Paul. 2012. "Martial Races and Enforcement Masculinities of the Global South: Weaponising Fijian, Chilean, and Salvadoran Postcoloniality in the Mercenary Sector." Globalizations 9 (1): 35-52.

Author: Paul Higate

Abstract:

Set against the backdrop of the occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan, the private militarised security industry has grown rapidly over the last decade. Its growth into a multi-billion dollar enterprise has attracted the interest of scholars in international relations, legal studies, political science, and security studies who have debated questions of regulation and accountability, alongside the state's control on the monopoly of violence. While these contributions are to be welcomed, the absence of critical sociological approaches to the industry and its predominantly male security contracting workforce has served to occlude the gendered and racialised face of the private security sphere. These dimensions are important since the industry has come increasingly to rely on masculine bodies from the global South in the form of so-called third country and local national men. The involvement of these men is constituted in and through the articulation of historical, neocolonial, neoliberal, and militarising processes. These processes represent the focus of the current article in respect of Fijian and Latin American security contractors. Their trajectories into the industry are considered in respect of both "push" and "pull" factors, the likes of which differ in marked ways for each group. Specifically, states and social groups in Fiji, Chile, and El Salvador are appropriating what is described in the article as an ethnic bargain as one way in which to make a contribution to the global security sector, or "in direct regard to the Latin American context” to banish its more dangerous legacies from the domestic space. In conclusion, it is argued that the use of these contractors by the industry represents a hitherto unacknowledged gendered and racialised instance of the contemporary imperial moment.

Keywords: masculinities, security industry, mercenary, global security sector

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Livelihoods, Militarized livelihoods, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Security Regions: Americas, Central America, South America, Oceania Countries: Chile, El Salvador, Fiji

Year: 2012

War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa

Citation:

Goldstein, Joshua S. 2001. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Author: Joshua S. Goldstein

Abstract:

Gender roles are nowhere more prominent than in war. Yet contentious debates, and the scattering of scholarship across academic disciplines, have obscured understanding of how gender affects war and vice versa. In this authoritative review of our state of knowledge, Joshua Goldstein assesses the possible explanations for the near-total exclusion of women from combat forces, through history and cross cultures. Topics covered include the history of women who did fight and fought well, the complex role of testosterone in men's social behaviors, and the construction of masculinity and femininity in the shadow of war. Goldstein concludes that killing in war does not come naturally for either gender, and that gender norms often shape men, women, and children to the needs of the war system. Illustrated with photographs, drawings, and graphics, and drawing from scholarship spanning six academic disciplines, War and Gender translates and synthesizes our latest understanding of gender roles in war. (WorldCat)

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Male Combatants, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies

Year: 2001

Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women's Lives

Citation:

Enloe, Cynthia. 2000. Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women's Lives. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Author: Cynthia Enloe

Abstract:

Maneuvers takes readers on a global tour of the sprawling process called "militarization." Cynthia Enloe shows that the people who become militarized are not just the obvious ones—executives and factory floor workers who make fighter planes, land mines, and intercontinental missiles. They are also the employees of food companies, toy companies, clothing companies, film studios, stock brokerages, and advertising agencies. Militarization is never gender-neutral, Enloe claims: It is a personal and political transformation that relies on ideas about femininity and masculinity. Films that equate action with war, condoms that are designed with a camouflage pattern, fashions that celebrate brass buttons and epaulettes, tomato soup that contains pasta shaped like Star Wars weapons—all of these contribute to militaristic values that mold our culture in both war and peace.

Maneuvers takes an international look at the politics of masculinity, nationalism, and globalization. Enloe ranges widely from Japan to Korea, Serbia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Britain, Israel, the United States, and many points in between. She covers a broad variety of subjects: gays in the military, the history of "camp followers," the politics of women who have sexually serviced male soldiers, married life in the military, military nurses, and the recruitment of women into the military. One chapter titled "When Soldiers Rape" explores the many facets of the issue in countries such as Chile, the Philippines, Okinawa, Rwanda, and the United States. Enloe outlines the dilemmas feminists around the globe face in trying to craft theories and strategies that support militarized women, locally and internationally, without unwittingly being militarized themselves. She explores the complicated militarized experiences of women as prostitutes, as rape victims, as mothers, as wives, as nurses, and as feminist activists, and she uncovers the "maneuvers" that military officials and their civilian supporters have made in order to ensure that each of these groups of women feel special and separate. 

Keywords: militarization, masculinity, nationalism, globalization

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Globalization, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism

Year: 2000

Collapsing Masculinities and Weak States - A Case Study of Northern Uganda

Citation:

Dolan, Chris. 2002. "Collapsing Masculinities and Weak States - A Case Study of Northern Uganda." In Masculinities matter!: Men, Gender, and Development,  edited by Frances Cleaver, 57-84. New York: Zed Books.

Author: Chris Dolan

Keywords: masculinity, violence

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Violence Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Uganda

Year: 2002

Sexual Violence Against Men in Armed Conflict

Citation:

Sivakumaran, Sandesh. 2007. "Sexual Violence Against Men in Armed Conflict." European Journal of International Law 18 (2): 253-76.

Author: Sandesh Sivakumaran

Abstract:

Reports of sexual violence by men against men emerge from numerous conflicts, ranging in time from Ancient Persia and the Crusades to the conflicts in Iraq and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Despite these accounts, relatively little material exists on the subject and the issue tends to be relegated to a footnote. This article ascertains the extent to which male sexual violence is committed in armed conflict. It considers factors that explain under-reporting by victims and lack of detection on the part of others. The particular forms of male sexual violence are also examined: namely rape, enforced sterilization and other forms of sexual violence, including enforced nudity, enforced masturbation and genital violence. The dynamics present in these offences are explored, with issues of power and dominance, expressed through emasculation, considered. Thus, attention is paid to ideas of feminization, homosexualization and the prevention of procreation. The symbolic construction of male and female bodies in armed conflict is also explored.

Keywords: conflict, military sexual assault, war rape

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Health, Reproductive Health, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, SV against men, Sexuality Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2007

Securitization and Desecuritization: Female Soldiers and the Reconstruction of Women in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone

Citation:

Mackenzie, Megan. 2009. "Securitization and Desecuritization: Female Soldiers and the Reconstruction of Women in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone." Security Studies 18 (2): 241-61.

Author: Megan Mackenzie

Abstract:

This article focuses on the construction of "soldier" and "victim" by post-conflict programs in Sierra Leone. Focusing on the absence of individual testimonies and interviews that inform representations of women and girls post-conflict, this article demonstrates that the ideal of the female war victim has limited the ways in which female combatants are addressed by disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programs in Sierra Leone. It is argued that titles given to female soldiers such as "females associated with the war," "dependents," or "camp followers" reveal the reluctance of reintegration agencies to identify females who participated in war as soldiers. In addition, I argue that men and masculinity are securitized post-conflict while women—even when they act in highly securitized roles such as soldiers—are desecuritized and, in effect, de-emphasized in post-conflict policy making. The impact of this categorization has been that the reintegration process for men has been securitized, or emphasized as an essential element of the transition from war to peace. In contrast, the reintegration process for females has been deemed a social concern and has been moralized as a return to normal.

Keywords: female combatants, reconstruction, recovery, security, insecurity

Topics: Combatants, Female Combatants, DDR, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Sierra Leone

Year: 2009

Creating Citizens, Making Men: The Military and Masculinity in Bolivia

Citation:

Gill, Lesley. 1997. "Creating Citizens, Making Men: The Military and Masculinity in Bolivia." Cultural Anthropology 12 (4): 527-50.

Author: Lesley Gill

Keywords: militarization, masculinity, male soldiers

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Militarization Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Bolivia

Year: 1997

Rape as a Weapon of War: Advancing Human Rights for Women at the U.S.-Mexico Border

Citation:

Falcón, Sylvanna. 2001. "Rape as a Weapon of War: Advancing Human Rights for Women at the U.S.-Mexico Border." Social Justice 28 (2): 31-50.

Author: Sylvanna Falcon

Abstract:

Falcón examines the gendered effects of militarization on women at the U.S.- Mexico border, particularly in the form of "militarized border rape" and sexual assault. For Falcón, militarization ideology is embedded with issues of hyper-masculinity, patriarchy, and threats to national security. She maintains that violence against women has escalated to the serial, multiple, and mass murders of Mexican women (e.g., in the border city of Ciudad Juárez).

Keywords: war on drugs, militarization, rape, national security

Topics: Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Security, Sexual Violence, Male Perpetrators, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Mexico, United States of America

Year: 2001

Fathers, Sons, and Vietnam: Masculinity and Betrayal in the Life Narratives of Vietnam Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Citation:

Karner, Tracy. 1996. "Fathers, Sons, and Vietnam: Masculinity and Betrayal in the Life Narratives of Vietnam Veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." American Studies 37 (1): 63-94.

Author: Tracy Karner

Keywords: masculinity, posttraumatic stress disorder, mental health

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Health, Mental Health, PTSD, Trauma, Military Forces & Armed Groups Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1996

Male Sexuality and Psychological Trauma: Soldiers and Sexual Disorder in World War I and Weimar Germany

Citation:

Crouthamel, Jason. 2008. "Male Sexuality and Psychological Trauma: Soldiers and Sexual Disorder in World War I and Weimar Germany." Journal of the History of Sexuality 17 (1): 60-84.

Author: Jason Crouthamel

Keywords: masculinity, trauma, mental health, male soldiers

Topics: Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Health, Mental Health, Trauma, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militaries, Sexuality Regions: Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2008

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