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Masculinity/ies

Money, Migration, and Masculinity among Artisanal Miners in Katanga (DR Congo)

Citation:

Cuvelier, Jeroen. 2017. “Money, Migration, and Masculinity among Artisanal Miners in Katanga (DR Congo).” Review of African Political Economy 44 (152): 204–19. doi:10.1080/03056244.2016.1172061.

Author: Jeroen Cuvelier

Abstract:

The Katangese artisanal mining sector has grown spectacularly since the late 1990s. Faced with political instability and economic crisis, tens of thousands of men have moved to the mining areas in order to find new sources of income. This article offers a detailed ethnographic description of how male migrant workers experience and cope with the challenging realities of life on the mines against the backdrop of recent changes in Katanga’s political economy. More specifically, it examines the relationship between money, migration and masculinity through an extended case study of a money dispute among a group of artisanal miners working in the Kalabi mine near Lwambo, a small town situated 20 kilometres north of Likasi. It is found that the conspicuous consumption of money plays a vital role in the mining subculture; that credit and debt dominate life on the mines; and that artisanal mining has given rise to significant changes in gender relations and household organisation.

Keywords: artisanal and small-scale mining, gender, Democratic Republic of Congo, informal economy, subculture, monetary practices, extended case method

Topics: Migration, Extractive Industries, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Households, Political Economies Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2017

Frontier Masculinity in the Oil Industry: The Experience of Women Engineers

Citation:

Miller, Gloria E. 2004. “Frontier Masculinity in the Oil Industry: The Experience of Women Engineers.” Gender, Work & Organization 11 (1): 47–73.

Author: Gloria E. Miller

Abstract:

This study contributes to the empirical evidence in the area of gendered organizations (Martin and Collinson, 2002) and their effects on the women who work in them through an interpretive, ethnographic analysis of the oil industry in Canada, specifically Alberta. The study combines data from interviews with women professionals who have extensive employment experience in the industry, a historical analysis of the industry’s development in the area and the personal contextual experience of the author. It is suggested that there are three primary processes which structure the masculinity of the industry: everyday interactions which exclude women; values and beliefs specific to the dominant occupation of engineering which reinforce gender divisions; and a consciousness derived from the powerful symbols of the frontier myth and the romanticized cowboy hero. In this dense cultural web of masculinities, the strategies that the women developed to survive, and, up to a point, to thrive, are double-edged in that they also reinforced the masculine system, resulting in short-term individual gains and an apparently long-term failure to change the masculine values of the industry.

Keywords: organizational culture, gendered organization, barriers to women managers, women engineers, petroleum industry

Topics: Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2004

'I Acted like a Man’: Exploring Female Ex-Insurgents’ Narratives on Nigeria’s Oil Insurgency

Citation:

Oriola, Temitope. 2016. “‘I Acted like a Man’: Exploring Female Ex-Insurgents’ Narratives on Nigeria’s Oil Insurgency.” Review of African Political Economy 43 (149): 451–69. doi:10.1080/03056244.2016.1182013.

Author: Temitope Oriola

Abstract:

English Abstract:
This paper explores how a small sample of female ex-insurgents make sense of their engagement in Nigeria’s oil insurgency. The study is informed by three key questions: How did Delta women join the insurgency? Why did they join? How do they frame their participation? The paper analyses the prevalence of a masculinising rhetoric among participants. The majority of participants view their roles in the insurgency as antithetical to their gender. The implications of these findings are explored. Overall, the paper contributes to the growing body of work on women’s engagement in armed conflict as perpetrators rather than victims of violence.
 
French Abstract:
[« J’ai agi comme un homme » : l’étude des histoires des ex-insurgées sur l’insurrection liée au pétrole au Nigeria.] Cet article examine comment quelques ex-insurgées donnent du sens à leur engagement dans l’insurrection liée au pétrole au Nigéria. Cette étude tente de répondre à trois questions clés : Comment est-ce que les femmes du Delta ont rejoint l’insurrection? Pourquoi l’ont-elles rejoint? Comment est-ce qu’elles formulent leur participation? L’article analyse la prévalence d’une rhétorique masculinisante parmi les participants. La majorité des participants voit son rôle dans l’insurrection comme opposé à son genre. Les implications de ces résultats sont examinées. Dans l’ensemble, l’article contribue à la masse croissante de travail sur l’engagement des femmes dans les conflits armés, où elles sont considérées comme des responsables de la violence plutôt que comme des victimes.

Keywords: Niger Women, women and political violence, oil insurgency, Nigeria

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Female Combatants, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Female Perpetrators Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2016

Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005

Citation:

Mercier, L., and J. Gier-Viskovatoff. 2006. Mining Women: Gender in the Development of a Global Industry, 1670 to 2005. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: L. Mercier, J. Gier-Viskovatoff

Abstract:

This book explores gender relations and women's work and activism in different parts of the world. It also explores the subject from multiple perspectives and links each of these not only to cultural and domestic arrangements but also to an emerging industrial and capitalist system from the Eighteenth through the Twentieth centuries. (Abstract from Palgrave Macmillan)

Annotation:

Table of Contents:
1. Introduction
Mercier, Laurie et al.
 
2. Mining Women, Royal Slaves: Copper Mining in Colonial Cuba, 1670–1780
Díaz, María Elena
 
3. Making a Difference in Colonial Interventionism in Gold Mining in Wassa Fiase, Gold Coast (Ghana): The Activism of Two Women, 1874–1893
Akurang-Parry, Kwabena O.
 
4. Lifting the Layers of the Mountain’s Petticoats: Mining and Gender in Potosí’s Pachamama
Absi, Pascale
 
5. Kamins Building the Empire: Class, Caste, and Gender Interface in Indian Collieries
Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala
 
6. Sociability, Solidarity, and Social Exclusion: Women’s Activism in the South Wales Coalfield, ca. 1830 to 1939
Jones, Rosemary
 
7. Gender Relations in Iron Mining Communities in Sweden, 1900–1940
Blomberg, Eva
 
8. Invisible Labor: A Comparative Oral History of Women in Coal Mining Communities of Hokkaido, Japan, and Montana, USA, 1890–1940
Yoshida, Kayoko (et al.)
 
9. Coal Mining Women Speak Out: Economic Change and Women Miners of Chikuho, Japan
Sone, Sachiko
 
10. “I’m a Johnny Mitchell Man”: Gender and Labor Protest in the Pennsylvania Hard Coal Uprising, 1900–1902
Stepenoff, Bonnie
 
11. Violence and the Colorado National Guard: Masculinity, Race, Class, and Identity in the 1913–1914 Southern Colorado Coal Strike
DeStefanis, Anthony
 
12. “I Hate to Be Calling Her a Wife Now”: Women and Men in the Salt of the Earth Strike, 1950–1952
Baker, Ellen
 
13. Godless Communists and Faithful Wives, Gender Relations and the Cold War: Mine Mill and the 1958 Strike against the International Nickel Company
Steedman, Mercedes
 
14. Just a Housewife? Miners’ Wives between Household and Work in Postwar Germany
Jung, Yong-Sook
 
15. Women into Mining Jobs at Inco: Challenging the Gender Division of Labor
Keck, Jennifer (et al.)
 
16. From Ludlow to Camp Solidarity: Women, Men, and Cultures of Solidarity in U.S. Coal Communities, 1912–1990
Guerin-Gonzales, Camille
 
17. Epilogue
Gier, Jaclyn J.

Topics: Caste, Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, South America, Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Nordic states, Northern Europe Countries: Bolivia, Cuba, Ghana, India, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2006

Work and Masculinity in Katanga’s Artisanal Mines

Citation:

Cuvelier, Jeroen. 2014. “Work and Masculinity in Katanga’s Artisanal Mines.” Africa Spectrum 49 (2): 3–26.

Author: Jeroen Cuvelier

Abstract:

This article, based on 16 months of anthropological fieldwork between 2005 and 2012, examines the relationship between work and masculinity among artisanal miners, or creuseurs, in Katanga, the southeastern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It argues that men’s involvement in artisanal mining should be considered not only as an economic survival strategy but also as an attempt to experiment with new ways of being a man in a context of economic crisis and changing gender relations. Furthermore, the article criticizes the tendency to downplay or underestimate the complexity and diversity of processes of masculine identity construction in Africa’s artisanal-mining areas. In order to do justice to the intricacy of these processes, the article proposes using concepts and insights from the field of masculinity studies and distinguishing between a levelling and a differentiating trend in artisanal miners’ masculinity practices.

Keywords: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Katanga, artisanal mining, social change, gender roles, masculinity

Topics: Economies, Extractive Industries, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2014

The ‘Un-Womanly’ Attitudes of Women in Mining towards the Environment

Citation:

Laplonge, Dean. 2017. “The ‘Un-Womanly’ Attitudes of Women in Mining towards the Environment.” The Extractive Industries and Society 4 (2): 304–309. doi:10.1016/j.exis.2017.01.011.

Author: Dean Laplonge

Abstract:

In this paper I explore whether the employment of more women in mining will result in improved environmental management and practices in that industry. The debate about gender in mining regularly includes claims that the employment of more women will help change the industry. These claims rely on essentialist ideas about how women behave, and fail to consider the production of masculinity as the preferred gender for all mining employees. Drawing on the results of a survey which explores the attitudes of women who work in mining towards the environment, I conclude that the sex of employees is not the best indicator of possible change in environmental management and practices in the industry. Women who work in mining do not display a particularly strong or unique connection to the environment which would encourage them to drive change in their workplaces. In conclusion, I suggest that ecofeminism might offer better hope of improved environmental practices in mining; and call for more work to be done to explore how this might work in mining operations.

Keywords: gender, mining, evironment, management

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender Balance

Year: 2017

Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security

Citation:

 
Chisholm, Amanda, and Saskia Stachowitsch. 2016. “Everyday Matters in Global Private Security Supply Chains: A Feminist Global Political Economy Perspective on Gurkhas in Private Security.” Globalizations 13 (6): 815-29. 

Authors: Amanda Chisholm, Saskia Stachowitsch

Abstract:

In a case study of Nepalese Gurkhas working for Western private military and security companies (PMSCs), this article develops feminist global political economy understandings of global labour chains by exploring how the ‘global market’ and the ‘everyday’ interact in establishing private security as a gendered and racialised project. Current understandings of PMSCs, and global markets at large, tend to depoliticise these global and everyday interactions by conceptualising the ‘everyday’ as common, mundane, and subsequently banal. Such understandings, we argue, not only conceal the everyday within private security, but also reinforce a conceptual dualism that enables the security industry to function as a gendered and racialised project. To overcome this dualism, this article offers a theoretically informed notion of the everyday that dissolves the hegemonic separation into ‘everyday’ and ‘global’ levels of analysis. Drawing upon ethnography, semi- structured interviews, and discourse analysis of PMSCs’ websites, the analysis demonstrates how race, gender, and colonial histories constitute global supply chains for the security industry, rest upon and reinforce racialised and gendered migration patterns, and depend upon, as well as shape, the everyday lives and living of Gurkha men and women.

Keywords: Gurkhas, private security, feminist security studies, feminist global political economy, masculinity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Political Economies, Race, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Nepal

Year: 2016

Gender (Plays) in Tanjung Bara Mining Camp in Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia

Citation:

Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala. 2013. “Gender (Plays) in Tanjung Bara Mining Camp in Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 20 (8): 979–98. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2012.737770.

Author: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Abstract:

All mining settlements are heavily gendered, not only because of the masculinity that the industry cultivates and flaunts, but also as a result of the power of capital manifested in the gendered class stratification of labour and space. When global capital penetrates remote resource peripheries in poorer countries, it also ushers mining experts, who are usually expatriate men from older industrialised and/or richer nations, into these areas. The cauldron of race–gender–class within the relatively small geographical space of the mining camp is worth exploring through a postcolonial feminist geographical perspective. This article explores the articulation and enactments of race–gender–class within such a location, the Tanjung Bara mining camp in eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, where economic opportunities offered by the mining boom have blurred the insider–outsider dichotomy by attracting migrants from across Indonesia as well as from overseas. It analyses the performances of differential power enjoyed by women and men, foreigners and Indonesians within multiple sites in Tanjung Bara. In particular, it illuminates the sites of social interactions: the dining hall, the tennis ground, the golf course, the swimming pool and the poolside bar. The article suggests that place, and how each place is accessed by different actors, is central in shaping how individuals perform gender within mining contexts. But, at the same time it complicates the place-based binary performances of race by exploring how individuals continuously rewrite the strict but unwritten codes of behaviour.

Keywords: gender in mining, racial boundary maintenance, performing gender, feminist fieldwork, Indonesia and mining

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Men, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Race Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2013

Gendering Environmental Assessment: Women’s Participation and Employment Outcomes at Voisey’s Bay

Citation:

Cox, David, and Suzanne Mills. 2015. “Gendering Environmental Assessment: Women’s Participation and Employment Outcomes at Voisey’s Bay.” Arctic 68 (2): 246–60.

Authors: David Cox, Suzanne Mills

Abstract:

English Abstract:
This paper examines the effect of Inuit and Innu women's participation in environmental assessment (EA) processes on EA recommendations, impact benefit agreement (IBA) negotiations, and women's employment experiences at Voisey's Bay Mine, Labrador. The literature on Indigenous participation in EAs has been critiqued for being overly process oriented and for neglecting to examine how power influences EA decision making. In this regard, two issues have emerged as critical to participation in EAs: how EA processes are influenced by other institutions that may help or hinder participation and whether EAs enable marginalized groups within Indigenous communities to influence development outcomes. To address these issues we examine the case of the Voisey's Bay Nickel Mine in Labrador, in which Indigenous women's groups made several collective submissions pertaining to employment throughout the EA process. We compare the submissions that Inuit and Innu women's groups made to the EA panel in the late 1990s to the final EA recommendations and then compare these recommendations to employment-related provisions in the IBA. Finally we compare IBA provisions to workers' perceptions of gender relations at the mine in 2010. Semi-structured interviews revealed that, notwithstanding the recommendations by women's groups concerning employment throughout the EA process, women working at the site experienced gendered employment barriers similar to those experienced by women in mining elsewhere. We suggest that the ineffective translation of EA submissions into EA regulations and the IBA, coupled with persistent masculinity within the mining industry, weakened the effect of women's requests for a comprehensive program to hire and train Indigenous women. 
 
French Abstract:
Dans cet article, nous nous penchons sur la participation des femmes inuites et innues aux processus d'évaluations environnementales (EE) et sur l'effet de cette participation sur les recommandations des EE, les négociations relatives à l'entente sur les répercussions et les avantages (ERA) et les expériences de travail à la mine de la baie Voisey, au Labrador. La documentation portant sur la participation indigène aux fait l'objet de critiques, en ce sens qu'elle accorderait trop d'importance aux processus et pas suffisamment à l'examen de la manière dont le pouvoir influence les décisions prises dans le cadre des EE. Dans cette optique, deux questions critiques se posent par rapport à la participation aux EE: la manière dont les processus des EE sont influencés par d'autres institutions susceptibles de favoriser la participation ou de lui nuire, et à savoir si les EE permettent aux groupes marginalisés à l'intérieur des communautés indigènes d'influencer les résultats des projets d'exploitation. Pour approfondir ces questions, nous avons examiné le cas de la mine d'exploitation du nickel de la baie Voisey au Labrador, pour lequel des groupes de femmes indigènes ont présenté plusieurs mémoires collectifs se rapportant à l'emploi pendant l'EE. Nous comparons les mémoires présentés par les groupes de femmes inuites et innues à la commission de l'évaluation environnementale vers la fin des années 1990 aux recommandations finales de l'EEE, puis nous comparons ces recommandations aux dispositions relatives à l'emploi de l'ERA. Et enfin, nous comparons les dispositions de l'ERA aux perceptions des travailleurs en ce qui a trait aux relations entre les deux sexes à la mine en 2010. Des entrevues semi-structurées ont révélé que, nonobstant les recommandations des groupes de femmes en matière d'emploi dans le cadre du processus de l'EE, les femmes qui travaillent à la mine ont connu des obstacles en raison de leur sexe, à l'instar des obstacles que doivent surmonter les autres femmes du domaine de l'exploitation minière. Nous suggérons que la traduction inefficace des mémoires de l'EE en règlements de l'EE et de l'ERA, jumelée à la masculinité qui prévaut au sein de l'industrie minière, ont eu pour effet d'affaiblir les demandes des femmes préconisant un programme exhaustif d'embauché et de formation de femmes indigènes.

Keywords: EA, IBA, impact benefit agreement, resource development, women, aboriginal, environmental assessment, employment

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: Canada

Year: 2015

Challenging Masculinity in CSR Disclosures: Silencing of Women’s Voices in Tanzania’s Mining Industry

Citation:

Lauwo, Sarah. 2016. “Challenging Masculinity in CSR Disclosures: Silencing of Women’s Voices in Tanzania’s Mining Industry.” Journal of Business Ethics, 1–18. doi:10.1007/s10551-016-3047-4.

Author: Sarah Lauwo

Abstract:

This paper presents a feminist analysis of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a male-dominated industry within a developing country context. It seeks to raise awareness of the silencing of women’s voices in CSR reports produced by mining companies in Tanzania. Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in Africa, and women are often marginalised in employment and social policy considerations. Drawing on work by Hélène Cixous, a post-structuralist/radical feminist scholar, the paper challenges the masculinity of CSR discourses that have repeatedly masked the voices and concerns of ‘other’ marginalised social groups, notably women. Using interpretative ethnographic case studies, the paper provides much-needed empirical evidence to show how gender imbalances remain prevalent in the Tanzanian mining sector. This evidence draws attention to the dynamics faced by many women working in or living around mining areas in Tanzania. The paper argues that CSR, a discourse enmeshed with the patriarchal logic of the contemporary capitalist system, is entangled with tensions, class conflicts and struggles which need to be unpacked and acknowledged. The paper considers the possibility of policy reforms in order to promote gender balance in the Tanzanian mining sector and create a platform for women’s concerns to be voiced.

Keywords: masculinity, feminism, Cixous, corporate social responsibility, mining, tanzania

Topics: Class, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender Balance, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 2016

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