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Masculinity/ies

Men, Masculinities and Disaster

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine, and Bob Pease, eds. 2016. Men, Masculinities and Disaster. Abingdon: Routledge.

Authors: Elaine Enarson, Bob Pease

Annotation:

Summary:
In the examination of gender as a driving force in disasters, too little attention has been paid to how women’s or men’s disaster experiences relate to the wider context of gender inequality, or how gender-just practice can help prevent disasters or address climate change at a structural level.
 
With a foreword from Kenneth Hewitt, an afterword from Raewyn Connell and contributions from renowned international experts, this book helps address the gap. It explores disasters in diverse environmental, hazard, political and cultural contexts through original research and theoretical reflection, building on the under-utilized orientation of critical men’s studies. This body of thought, not previously applied in disaster contexts, explores how men gain, maintain and use power to assert control over women. Contributing authors examine the gender terrain of disasters 'through men's eyes,' considering how diverse forms of masculinities shape men’s efforts to respond to and recover from disasters and other climate challenges. The book highlights both the high costs paid by many men in disasters and the consequences of dominant masculinity practices for women and marginalized men. It concludes by examining how disaster risk can be reduced through men's diverse efforts to challenge hierarchies around gender, sexuality, disability, age and culture. (Summary from Routledge)
 
 
Table of Contents:
Foreword
Kenneth Hewitt
 
Section 1: Critical men’s studies and disaster
 
1.The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Thinking About Men and Masculinities
Elaine Enarson and Bob Pease
 
2. Masculinism, Climate Change and ‘Man-Made’ Disasters: Towards an Environmental Profeminist Response
Bob Pease
 
3. Men and Masculinities in the Social Movement for a Just Reconstruction After Hurricane Katrina
Rachel E. Luft
 
4. Hyper-Masculinity and Disaster: The Reconstruction of Hegemonic Masculinity in the Wake of Calamity
Duke W. Austin
 
5. Re-Reading Gender and Patriarchy Through a ‘Lens of Masculinity:’ The ‘Known’ Story and New Narratives From Post-Mitch Nicaragua
Sarah Bradshaw
 
Section 2: The high cost of disaster for men: Coping with loss and change
 
6. Men, Masculinities and Wildfire: Embodied Resistance and Rupture
Christine Eriksen and Gordon Waitt
 
7. Emotional and Personal Costs for Men of the Black Saturday Bushfires in Victoria, Australia
Debra Parkinson and Claire Zara
 
8. The Tsunami's Wake: Mourning and Masculinity in Eastern Sri Lanka
Malathi de Alwis
 
9. Japanese Families Decoupling Following the Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster: Men’s Choice between Economic Stability and Radiation Exposure
Rika Morioka
 
Section 3: Diversity of impact and response among men in the aftermath of disaster
 
10. Disabled Masculinities and Disasters
Mark Sherry
 
11. Masculinity, Sexuality and Disaster: Unpacking Gendered LGBT Experiences in the 2011 Brisbane Floods, Queensland, Australia
Andrew Gorman-Murray, Scott McKinnon and Dale Dominey-Howes
 
12. Indigenous Masculinities in a Changing Climate: Vulnerability and Resilience In the United States
Kirsten Vinyeta, Kyle Powys Whyte, and Kathy Lynn
 
13. Youth Creating Disaster Recovery and Resilience in Canada and the United States: Dimensions of the Male Youth Experience
Jennifer Tobin-Gurley, Robin Cox, Lori Peek, Kylie Pybus, Dmitriy Maslenitsyn and Cheryl Heykoop
 
Section 4: Transforming masculinity in disaster management
 
14. Firefighters, Technology and Masculinity in the Micro-management of Disasters: Swedish Examples
Mathias Ericson and Ulf Mellström
 
15. Resisting and Accommodating the Masculinist Gender Regimein Firefighting: An Insider View from the United Kingdom
Dave Baigent
 
16. Using a Gendered Lens to Reduce Disaster and Climate Risk in Southern Africa: The Potential Leadership of Men’s Organizations
Kylah Genade
 
17. Training Pacific Male Managers for Gender Equality in Disaster Response and Management
Stephen Fisher
 
18. Integrating Men and Masculinities in Caribbean Disaster Risk Management
Leith Dunn
 
19. Men, Masculinities and Disaster: An Action Research Agenda
Elaine Enarson
 
20. Afterword
Raewyn Connell

Topics: Age, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2016

Human Security and Disasters: What a Gender Lens Offers

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine. 2014. “Human Security and Disasters: What a Gender Lens Offers.” In Human Security and Natural Disasters, edited by Christopher Hobson, Paul Bacon, and Robin Cameron. London: Routledge.

Author: Elaine Enarson

Abstract:

Like sustainability and resilience, human security is a powerful discourse despite its elusive and contested quality. Is it also a useful rubric for guiding efforts to reduce the risk of disaster? In this chapter, I suggest it is but only to the extent that a gender lens informs our thinking about the interface between human security and disasters-natural, technological, or human-induced. Gender comes into play across all dimensions of disaster prevention, response, and recovery. 
 
Parsing these (non-linear) phase distinctions is a daunting, and perhaps distracting, task. But sustainable and holistic recovery is the center beam upon which vulnerability reduction, hazard mitigation, capacity building, and hence prevention ultimately rest, so my discussion focuses there: all efforts to respond to urgent human needs are undone if we don’t get recovery right. The discussion also privileges women and girls due to the overarching gender hierarchies that constrain the lives of girls and women, and due also to the empirical knowledge base of past gender and disaster research. Unquestionably, boys and men are also hurt in disasters (Grabska 2012; Mishra 2009). They may be subject to gender-based violence; the environmental resources sustaining them may be contaminated, diminished, or destroyed, forcing relocation and new threats to personal security. Dominant masculinity norms (including pressure to provide) rob too many men of identity, livelihood, and well-being, putting them at risk of self-harm, too. A gender lens also brings these vital concerns to light as security threats.
 
I begin by explaining the need for gender analysis in the ostensibly gender-neutral domains of human security, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation, emphasizing that gender is more than a “cross-cutting” concern and introducing the main outlines of the subfield of gender and disaster. In the second section, case material is used to illustrate the major “lessons (not) learned” that must be integrated into consideration of how to protect and enhance human security in disasters. A short third section on women’s grassroots mobilization after disasters foreshadows my conclusion. When the stars align, the brief postdisaster “window of opportunity” offers a critical moment for transformative adaptation-but only when women and men are fully and equally engaged. The chapter ends with reflections about how to move gender from the margins to the center of our thinking about human security. (Taylor & Francis)

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Health, Mental Health, Livelihoods, Security, Human Security

Year: 2014

Begging the Question: What Would a Men, Peace and Security Agenda Look Like?

Citation:

Watson, Callum. 2015. “Begging the Question: What Would a Men, Peace and Security Agenda Look Like?” Connections 14 (3): 45–60.

Author: Callum Watson

Annotation:

Summary:
"The starting point for much of the scholarship examining gender in International Relations and security studies can be neatly summarized in a question that Cynthia Enloe asked in 1989, namely “Where are the women?” The following decade was marked by several milestones in the inclusion of women in the international security agenda such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action produced at the Fourth World Conference for Women in 1995 and the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in 2000. After fifteen years and six further resolutions, academics, practitioners, and policymakers alike have begun to ask a similar question, but this time of the gender equality and women’s empowerment agenda, namely “Where are the men?” In this article, I first examine the historical background of work conducted on men and masculinities in peace and security at the international level. Subsequently, I outline some of the reasons why a “Men, Peace and Security” agenda is yet to clearly develop in international policy circles. Finally, I offer some suggestions on what a Men, Peace and Security agenda would look like by mirroring the four pillars of the Women, Peace and Security framework, namely protection, prevention, participation, and relief and recovery" (Watson 2015, 45).

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, peace and security, International Organizations, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325

Year: 2015

Rattling the Binary: Symbolic Power, Gender, and Embodied Colonial Legacies

Citation:

el-Malik, Shiera S. 2014. “Rattling the Binary: Symbolic Power, Gender, and Embodied Colonial Legacies.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 2 (1): 1-16.

Author: Shiera S. el-Malik

Abstract:

In 2009, the 18-year-old South African runner Caster Semenya was accused of being male and forced to undergo gender testing. After much obfuscation and misreporting, Semenya was cleared to compete as a woman. Semenya’s experience exposes the problematic ways in which masculinity and femininity are harnessed to the categories of male and female as well as the ways in which they are embodied by men and women. This paper contemplates how binaries are mobilized and boundaries maintained – as is contemporarily evident in responses to Semenya’s gender troubles. It reads Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of symbolic power against an example of British Imperialism and illustrates how gender (and its uneasy mapping on to bodies) is implicated and imbricated in colonial historiography and knowledge practices. The paper concludes with Lois McNay’s suggestion that gender is a lived relation, which requires coming to terms with the relationship between agency and experience, and recognizes that gendered people are the subjects of social analysis. At stake in this examination of symbolic power, gender, and lived experience is the recognition of the consistency and resilience in binary manifestations of symbolic meaning and the insidious ways in which gender is mobilized, enacted, and layered onto other dualisms.
 

Keywords: colonialism, symbolic power, resistance, gender, experience

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations

Year: 2014

The (In)Security of Gender in Afghanistan’s Peacebuilding Project: Hybridity and Affect

Citation:

Partis-Jennings, Hannah. 2017. “The (In)Security of Gender in Afghanistan’s Peacebuilding Project: Hybridity and Affect.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 19 (4): 411-25.

Author: Hannah Partis-Jennings

Abstract:

In this article I draw on a feminist approach to hybridity to explore interview data and observations from my field research in Afghanistan. I argue that there is a logic of masculinist protection influencing the affective environment of the peacebuilding project there. The combination of a perceived patriarchal context in Afghanistan and security routines protecting civilian internationals (and Afghan elites), which rely on hypermasculine signifiers, help to create and perpetuate the conditions in which the female (for both internationals and Afghans) is marked with insecurity. I point to hybridity between the foreign and female experience, as well as resistance and reflexivity within my research. Throughout I explore fragments of power hierarchies that cut through the meaning of gender, rendering the female state a disempowering one, always referenced in some uncertain, hybrid way as protected or in need of protection.

Keywords: peacebuilding, Afghanistan, hybridity, Affect, masculinist protection

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Peacebuilding Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Afghanistan

Year: 2017

From Guns to God: Mobilizing Evangelical Christianity in Urabá, Colombia

Citation:

Theidon, Kimberly. 2015. “From Guns to God: Mobilizing Evangelical Christianity in Urabá, Colombia.” In Religious Responses to Violence: Human Rights in Latin America Past and Present, edited by Alexander Wilde, 443–76. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Author: Kimberly Theidon

Annotation:

Summary:
“This chapter draws on field research with former combatants from the paramilitaries Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) and Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN). Since January 2005 I have been conducting anthropological research on the individual and collective demobilization programs. To date my Colombian colleague Paola Andrea Betancourt and I have interviewed 236 male and 53 female former combatants. In addition, we have interviewed representatives of state entities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as well as the military, the Catholic and Evangelical churches, and various sectors of the 'host communities' to which former combatants are sent or to which they return. I sought to understand the local dynamics between victims and victimizers and the experiences of those individuals and communities the UNDPKO rightly describes as lying somewhere in between" (Theidon 2015, p. 445). 
 
“I begin with an overview of Colombia’s current DDR program and its impact on Urabá, located in the region with the highest concentration of demobilized combatants. I then explore how evangelical pastors manage memory and the past, issues of great relevance in the lives of former combatants and those around them. This leads to a discussion of repertoires of justice and the elaboration of local theologies of redemption and reconciliation. I conclude by analyzing the role these churches play in providing a space for the development of alternative masculinities and the much-desired personal transformations that may allow these former combatants to forge una nueva vida” (p. 446).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, DDR, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Justice, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, NGOs, Post-Conflict, Religion Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2015

Private Security and Gender

Citation:

Eichler, Maya. 2015. “Private Security and Gender.” In Routledge Handbook of Private Security Studies, edited by Rita Abrahamsen and Anna Leander, 158-67. London: Routledge.

Author: Maya Eichler

Abstract:

In recent years, a new set of scholarship that focuses on gender and private security in global politics has emerged. This feminist and feminist-informed critical gender scholarship examines private security processes, practices, and actors through the lens of gender. It uncovers how private security shapes and is shaped by masculinities, femininities, and gendered relations of power. While gender has become established as analytical category in the study of private security, the treatment of gender in industry and policy discourses continues to be problematic. It is therefore necessary to distinguish critical from problem-solving approaches to gender and private security. A problem-solving approach frames gender issues as problems which can be solved by adding more female employees or including language on gender-based violence into regulatory frameworks. But such an approach underestimates the extent to which gender matters in private security.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security

Year: 2015

The Reconstruction of Masculinities in Global Politics: Gendering Strategies in the Field of Private Security

Citation:

Stachowitsch, Saskia. 2015. “The Reconstruction of Masculinities in Global Politics: Gendering Strategies in the Field of Private Security.” Men and Masculinities 18(2): 363-386.

Author: Saskia Stachowitsch

Abstract:

The concept of masculinities has been central to the analysis of private security as a gendered phenomenon. This research has either focused on the identity constructions and practices of security contractors as men or on masculinity as a theoretical and ideological framework for making sense of security outsourcing. This article aims to overcome this dualism by developing a relational, strategic, and discursive understanding of masculinities and focusing on the gendering strategies that create them. These strategies are identified as masculinization of the market and feminization of the state, feminization and racialization of (some) security work, hypermasculinization as a critical or affirmative discourse, romanticizing the autonomous male bond, and militarization of private security. It is argued that private security as well as critical discourses on it integrate business, humanitarian, and militarized masculinities in a way that ultimately legitimizes masculinism and reconstructs masculinity as a privileged category in international politics.

Keywords: private security, feminist international relations, PMSCs, gendering strategies, masculinism

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Militarization, Security Regions: Americas, North America, Europe, Northern Europe Countries: United Kingdom, United States of America

Year: 2015

Love and Money in an Age of Neoliberalism: Gender, Work, and Single Motherhood in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua

Citation:

Cupples, Julie. 2005. “Love and Money in an Age of Neoliberalism: Gender, Work, and Single Motherhood in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua.” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 37 (2): 305–22.

Author: Julie Cupples

Abstract:

Based on qualitative research conducted in 1999 and 2001 with a group of single mothers in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, this paper examines the contradictory impacts of neoliberalism on work, based on the understanding that economic restructuring can generate both crisis and a space for changes in gender identities. By focusing on the broader picture of women's work and on the intersections between paid and unpaid work, it discusses what happens to these intersections in times of intense political and economic change. Despite the hardships caused by neoliberalism, it appears that work is a site in which gender ideologies can be challenged. The paper has four main sections. First, it explores the ways in which certain cultural processes are intensified under neoliberalism which affects the relationship between constructions of masculinity and femininity. Second, it assesses the impact of neoliberalism on domestic work and the implications of this for GAD (gender and development) understandings of the double burden and of how the balance of women's paid and unpaid work changes under neoliberalism. Third, it examines the ways in which hegemonic understandings of femininities and motherhood and revolutionary legacies can be resistant to the neoliberal present. Finally, it discusses how work under neoliberalism can be a site of female empowerment or self-esteem.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2005

Putin, Erdoğan and Politicized Masculinity in a Global Context

Elizabeth Wood

March 27, 2018

Campus Center, 3rd floor, Room 3540, UMass Boston

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