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Masculinism

The ‘Unsaying’ of Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe: Mapping a Blindspot in an African Masculinity

Citation:

Epprecht, Marc. 1998. “The ‘Unsaying’ of Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe: Mapping a Blindspot in an African Masculinity.” Journal of Southern African Studies 24 (4): 631–51.

Author: Marc Epprecht

Abstract:

Many black Zimbabweans believe that homosexuality was introduced to the country by white settlers and is now mainly propagated by 'the West'. The denial of indigenous homosexual behaviours and identities is often so strong that critics have been quick with accusations of homophobia. Yet those critics unfairly impose a rather crude and ultimately unhelpful analysis. Without denying that violent forms of homophobia do exist in Zimbabwe, the invisibility of indigenous homosexualities has more complex origins. This article examines the many, overlapping discourses that are constructed into the dominant ideology of masculinity and that contrive to 'unsay' indigenous male-to-male sexualities. It seeks in that way to gain insight into the overdetermination of assertively masculinist behaviour among Zimbabwean men today. It also draws lessons for researchers on the importance of interrogating the silences around masculinity.

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, LGBTQ, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 1998

Black Skin, ‘cowboy’ Masculinity: A Genealogy of Homophobia in the African Nationalist Movement in Zimbabwe to 1983

Citation:

Epprecht, Marc. 2005. “Black Skin, ‘cowboy’ Masculinity: A Genealogy of Homophobia in the African Nationalist Movement in Zimbabwe to 1983.” Culture, Health & Sexuality 7 (3): 253–66. doi:10.1080/13691050410001730243.

Author: Marc Epprecht

Abstract:

This paper examines the intellectual and social origins of racialist homophobia in contemporary Zimbabwean political discourse, exemplified by President Robert Mugabe’s anti-homosexual speeches since the mid-1990s. It challenges the notions that such homophobia is either essential to African patriarchy or simple political opportunism. Tracing overt expressions of intolerance towards male-male sexuality back to the colonial period, it focuses on ways in which notions of appropriate, respectable, exclusive heterosexuality within the ‘cowboy’ culture of White Southern Rhodesia trickled into, or were interpreted in, the African nationalist movement. It concludes that understanding this history could improve efforts to address concerns around sexual health in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region, particularly silences around same-sex sexuality in HIV/AIDS education and prevention.

Keywords: homosexuality, homophobia, masculinity, nationalism, Zimbabwe, Rhodesia

Topics: Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, LGBTQ, Sexuality Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Zimbabwe

Year: 2005

En-Gendering the Police: Women’s Police Stations and Feminism in São Paulo

Citation:

Santos, Cecília MacDowell. 2004. “En-Gendering the Police: Women’s Police Stations and Feminism in São Paulo.” Latin American Research Review 39 (3): 29–55. 

Author: Cecília Macdowell Santos

Abstract:

This article contributes to feminist state theory and studies of women's police stations in Latin America by examining the processes shaping the multiple and changing positions of explicit alliance, opposition, and ambiguous alliance assumed by policewomen regarding feminists since the creation of the world's first women's police station in 1985 in São Paulo. While studies of women's police stations tend to overlook the political conjuncture, much of the literature on the state and gender explains the relationship between the state and women's movements as a function of the political regime. I argue for a more grounded feminist state theory, taking into account interactive macro and micro, local and international forces. As this case study demonstrates, policewoman-feminist relations evolve due to interactions between the political conjuncture, the hegemonic masculinist police culture, developments in the feminist discourse on violence against women, and the impact of the contact policewomen sustain with women clients.

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Security, Security Sector Reform Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Brazil

Year: 2004

Redefining and Feminising Security: Making a Difference in Security Policies

Citation:

Manchanda, Rita. 2001. "Redefining and Feminising Security: Making a Difference in Security Policies." Economic and Political Weekly 36 (22): 4100-4107. 

Author: Rita Manchanda

Abstract:

Issues of security have all too often focused on military aspects, emphasising elements of 'masculinisation'. But for long lasting solutions, it is necessary to involve groups that have remained 'marginal' so far - in particular the women's movements and action forums. A gender-based perspective could offer radical solutions, as women's viewpoints, attitudes and 'coping strategies' - as seen in Northern Ireland and South Africa, could bring in far-reaching, positive and provide durable security in the long run.

Keywords: security, feminist perspectives, gender-based perspectives, masculinisation

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Security

Year: 2001

Refugee and Returnee Women: Skills Acquired in Exile and their Application in Peacetime

Citation:

Vázquez, Norma. 1999. Refugee and Returnee Women: Skills Acquired in Exile and their Application in Peacetime. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women.

Author: Norma Vázquez

Abstract:

The large number of displaced and refugee women in El Salvador is a direct result of the government's indiscriminate repression of the country's poor, peasant population during the 1970s and 1980s. During this period, many people who feared for their lives were forced to flee the country. The women who spent most of the war in the Colomoncagua and Mesa Grande refugee camps in Honduras recall their experience as a catalyst for important life changes. The refugee camps, established in response to a humanitarian disaster, turned women's lives upside down, lives that had been characterized by isolation, exclusive dedication to household chores and care of the family, and strict compliance with a moral code based on obedience to masculine authority. Besieged by both the Honduran and the Salvadoran armies, but supported by a number of international and national organizations, refugee women developed abilities in the public realm that they had never before needed for their survival. Despite these advances, the women never questioned their traditional role in the home during their time in the camps, or during repatriation. New activities were simply integrated with old responsibilities. Somewhat paradoxically, the women have come to view the changes that occurred during the time of exile in a positive light, and to think of the return to El Salvador and onset of peace as events that--while important and desirable--made them take a step backward on the road to empowerment. The experience of women throughout the war-asylum-repatriation-peace cycle forms a kind of kaleidoscope, characterized by nostalgia for what they learned and experienced while in the camps, and by simultaneous recognition that peace and freedom are basic rights that are inherent to any long-term of social transformation.

Annotation:

Quotes:

“On their return to El Salvador...the women took with them the communal systems of education, medical care, and production that had enabled them to be self-sufficient in the resettlement camps. This process of adopting new systems was critical because, upon returning to El Salvador, the women no longer had the support of the international organizations that had guaranteed their survival in the refugee camps.” (6)

“It became clear that following repatriation, women had lost their new roles and reverted to traditionally submissive lives.” (6)

Topics: Class, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Refugee/IDP Camps, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Households, International Organizations, Livelihoods, Post-Conflict, Post-Conflict Reconstruction Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: El Salvador

Year: 1999

Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots

Citation:

Puar, Jasbir K., and Amit Rai. 2002. "Monster, Terrorist, Fag: The War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots." Social Text 20 (3): 117-48.

Authors: Jasbir K. Puar, Amit Rai

Keywords: war on terror, terrorism, heterosexuality, patriotism

Topics: Gender, Patriarchy, Masculinism, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarism, Nationalism, Security, Sexuality, Terrorism Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2002

Victims and Vamps, Madonnas and Whores: The Construction of Female Drug Couriers and the Practices of the US Security State

Citation:

Schemenauer, Ellie. 2012. "Victims and Vamps, Madonnas and Whores: The Construction of Female Drug Couriers and the Practices of the US Security State." International Feminist Journal of Politics 14 (1): 83-102.

Author: Ellie Schemenauer

Abstract:

This article explores how the US "war on drugs" depends on certain notions of femininity and womanhood. In particular, I examine how female couriers from the Americas are constructed at US border sites of international airports in the 1990s. I find that female drug couriers are described in terms of victims and vamps - a take off of the madonna/whore dichotomy. The victim and vamp discourses, I argue, are the performative enactments of a security state that operates according to a racialized logic of masculinist protection. I hold in tension the circulation of the victim/vamp discourses with the story of Paula, a Colombian woman who was caught trafficking heroin in hidden compartments of her suitcase. I use Paula's story to call attention to the political work in dismissing women as agents in the international drug trade.

Keywords: war on drugs, feminist perspectives, race, masculinity

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Security, Trafficking, Drug Trafficking Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Gender Against Men

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