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Masculinism

Gender Apparatus: Torture and National Manhood in the U.S. War on Terror

Citation:

Mann, Bonnie. 2012. “Gender Apparatus: Torture and National Manhood in the U.S. War on Terror.” Radical Philosophy: A Journal of Socialist and Feminist Philosophy 168 (2). 

Author: Bonnie Mann

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Terrorism, Torture Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2012

Toward an Understanding of Gendered Agency in Contemporary Russia

Citation:

Holmgren, Beth. 2013. “Toward an Understanding of Gendered Agency in Contemporary Russia.” Signs 38 (3): 535-542. 

Author: Beth Holmgren

Abstract:

Assessments of Russian women’s current social and political status must take into account the complicated legacy of Soviet women’s “emancipation.” Although the Soviet government enforced women’s access to higher education and a broad array of professional opportunities, it never challenged traditional notions of masculinity and femininity, or the double burden tacitly assigned women. It did not invest in products and services that would have eased “women’s work” as homemakers and caretakers, nor did it protect women from sexual harassment on the job. The transition years have bared, glorified, and globalized the patriarchal state that lay just beneath the socialist veneer of the Soviet Union. Indeed, the Putin government has repackaged that patriarchy as conventionally and commercially masculinist. Women do exercise some power as consumers and mothers; they seek other-than-material fulfillment in facilitating positions rather than face opprobrium as public leaders. Some are attempting to scout new forms of agency as managers and business entrepreneurs. Yet there is no straightforward upward ladder for women in work and no generally acceptable movement toward lobbying for women’s rights. The women who wield the greatest sociopolitical influence in Russia today are media pundits, writers of serious literature, and journalists who combine writing with general social and political activism. In order to bridge the great divide in historical conditioning and contemporary circumstance that separates us from Russian women, we must work toward a better understanding of their complex forms of agency.

Topics: Citizenship, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, Masculinism, Governance, Livelihoods, Political Participation Regions: Asia, Europe Countries: Russian Federation

Year: 2013

The Impact of Japanese Corporate Transnationalism on Men’s Involvement in Family Life and Relationships

Citation:

Yasuike, Akiko. 2011. “The Impact of Japanese Corporate Transnationalism on Men’s Involvement in Family Life and Relationships.” Journal of Family Issues 32 (12): 1700–25.

Author: Akiko Yasuike

Abstract:

This study examines the ways in which Japanese corporate transnationalism affects husbands’ involvement in family life and marital relationships primarily from a perspective of wives. It is based on interviews with 22 Japanese wives and 4 husbands. Studies of Japanese corporate transnationalism treat men as mere supervisors to local workers or representatives of corporations and pay little attention to their family relations. The study found that corporate transnationalism weakens the Japanese masculine corporate culture (which creates absent husbands and fathers) and consequently provides Japanese men an opportunity to consolidate family bonds and integrate themselves into family life, though not all men take advantage of this opportunity. Inasmuch as transnational corporate families are isolated from their friends and relatives in Japan, the degree and willingness of husbands’ involvement in family life has a substantial effect on the quality of marital relationships.

Keywords: gender, family, corporate transnationalism, Japanese

Topics: Economies, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Households, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: Japan

Year: 2011

Judi Bari and ‘The Feminization of Earth First!’: The Convergence of Class, Gender and Radical Environmentalism

Citation:

Shantz, Jeffrey. 2002. “Judi Bari and ‘The Feminization of Earth First!’: The Convergence of Class, Gender and Radical Environmentalism.” Feminist Review, no. 70, 105–22.

Author: Jeffrey Shantz

Abstract:

This paper addresses feminist materialism as political practice through a case study of IWW-Earth First! Local 1, the late Judi Bari's organization of a radical ecology/timber workers' union in the ancient redwood forests of Northern California. Rejecting the Earth First! mythology of timber workers as 'enemies' of nature, Bari sought to unite workers and environmentalists in pursuit of sustainable forestry practices against the devastating approaches favoured by multinational logging corporations. In so doing, she brought a working-class feminist perspective to the radical ecology of Earth First! Bari's work provided a significant instance of community organizing in opposition to the masculinist, exclusionary practices and misanthropic posturing of Earth First!'s self-proclaimed 'eco-warriors' and 'rednecks for nature'. What is perhaps most interesting about the deveelopment of Local 1 is the articulation of feminist, environmentalist and labour discourses through a series of political actions.

Keywords: ecofeminism, anarchism, syndicalism, Earth First!, industrial workers of the world, deep ecology

Topics: Civil Society, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Multi-national Corporations, Political Participation Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2002

Rape of the Congo: Understanding Sexual Violence in the Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Citation:

Meger, Sara. 2010. “Rape of the Congo: Understanding Sexual Violence in the Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 28 (2): 119-35.

Author: Sara Meger

Abstract:

Though the occurrence of rape in the conduct of war is by no means historically new, research into its causes and functions has only really begun in the past couple of decades. War rape is a difficult phenomenon about which to generalise, considering the variances in context and actors involved. This article, however, attempts to synthesise existing literature through the analysis of a case study that can enhance our understanding of rape as a weapon of war and the contextual conditions that facilitate its use. Applying this theoretical framework to the extreme war rape occurring in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), this article offers insight into understanding the function of sexual violence in the ongoing conflict in the DRC. In particular, this article argues that the use of rape as a weapon in the Congo's bloody war must be understood in relation to both social constructs of masculinity and the politics of exploitation that have shaped much of the country's history.

Keywords: sexual violence, conflict, women and war, rape, Congo

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Sexual Violence, Rape, Violence Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Year: 2010

"Once Intrepid Warriors": Modernity and the Production of Maasai Masculinities

Citation:

Hodgeson, Dorothy. 1999. ""Once Intrepid Warriors": Modernity and the Production of Maasai Masculinities." Ethnology 38 (2): 121-50.

Author: Dororthy Hodgeson

Keywords: tanzania, maasai, masculinity, gender, modernity

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, Masculinism Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Tanzania

Year: 1999

The Myths of Violence: Gender, Conflict, and Community in El Salvador

Citation:

Hume, Mo. 2008. “The Myths of Violence: Gender, Conflict, and Community in El Salvador.” Latin American Perspectives 35 (5): 59-76.

Author: Mo Hume

Abstract:

Emprirical data gathered in El Salvador indicate that knowledge about violence there is built upon an exclusionary and highly masculinist logic. Violence has come to be perceieved  as normal through a political  project that has actively employed terror to persure its ends. The process has been made possible by a legitimiation of violence as a key element of male gender identity. Political circumstances in El Salvador, principally in war, have both nourished and reinforced a sense of gender identity based on polarization, exclusion, and hegemony.

Keywords: El Salvador, masculinities, violence, gender, Subaltern

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: El Salvador

Year: 2008

Scripting the Macho Man: Hypermasculine Socialization and Enculturation

Citation:

Mosher, Donald L., and Silvan S. Tomkins. 1988. “Scripting the Macho Man: Hypermasculine Socialization and Enculturation.” The Journal of Sex Research 25 (1): 60–84.

Authors: Donald L. Mosher , Silvan S. Tomkins

Abstract:

Tomkins' (1979) script theory offers a coherent, heuristic, and elegant account of the macho personality constellation (Mosher & Sirkin, 1984), consisting of: (a) callous sexual attitudes, (b) violence as manly, and (c) danger as exciting. A script is a set of rules for interpreting, directing, defending, and creating the scenes making up the life of the macho man. The macho script organizes childhood scenes in which so-called "superior, masculine" affects–like excitement and anger–were socialized to be favored over so-called "inferior, feminine" affects–like distress and fear. Furthermore, both adolescent rites of passage in male youth social networks and processes of enculturation in the American culture and its mass media continue that hypermasculine socialization. The ideological script of machismo descends from the ideology of the warrior and the stratifications following warfare–victor and vanquished, master and slave, the head of the house and woman as his complement, the patriarch and his children. The personality script of the macho man and his ideology of machismo mutually amplify one another–simultaneously justifying his lifestyle and celebrating his world view. In his dangerous, adversarial world of scarce resources, his violent, sexually callous, and dangerous physical acts express his "manly" essence.

Keywords: Macho, hypermasculinity, Script, Affect, Socialization

Topics: Gender, Men, Boys, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Hierarchies, Masculinism, Sexuality Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 1988

Putting ‘Mercenary Masculinities’ on the Research Agenda

Citation:

Higate, Paul. 2009. “Putting ‘Mercenary Masculinities’ on the Research Agenda.” SPAIS Working Paper 03-09, School of Sociology, Politics, and International Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Author: Paul Higate

Abstract:

Private Military Security Companies (PMSC) have come increasingly to supplant the activities of regular, national militaries - most notably in such contexts as Iraq and Afghanistan. Though a wide scholarship has addressed questions of legitimacy, regulation and control of PMSCs, critical commentators on gender have almost entirely overlooked the masculinised cultures of these private firms, the majority of which employ former military personnel. This is surprising since masculine norms, values and cultures shape private contractors security practices and can be used to explain human rights abuses, as well as the everyday ways in which these men imagine security. In these terms, the key critical issue concerns what is missed when masculinity is ignored in analyses of PMSCs, a question that is taken up in this working paper within the context of a potential research agenda for this topic of research.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Power Relations, Masculinism, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Rights, Human Rights, Security, Violence, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2009

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