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Justice

Peace and Justice through a Feminist Lens: Gender Justice and the Women’s Court for the Former Yugoslavia

Citation:

O’Reilly, Maria. “Peace and Justice through a Feminist Lens: Gender Justice and the Women’s Court for the Former Yugoslavia.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 10, no. 3 (July 2, 2016): 419–445.

Author: Maria O'Reilly

Abstract:

Post-conflict interventions to ‘deal with’ violent pasts have moved from exception to global norm. Early efforts to achieve peace and justice were critiqued as ‘gender-blind’—for failing to address sexual and gender-based violence, and neglecting the gender-specific interests and needs of women in transitional settings. The advent of UN Security Council resolutions on ‘Women, Peace and Security’ provided a key policy framework for integrating both women and gender issues into transitional justice processes and mechanisms. Despite this, gender justice and equality in (post-)conflict settings remain largely unachieved. This article explores efforts to attain gender-just peace in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). It critically examines the significance of a recent ‘bottom-up’ truth-telling project—the Women’s Court for the former Yugoslavia—as a locally engaged approach to achieving justice and redress for women impacted by armed conflict. Drawing on participant observation, documentary analysis, and interviews with women activists, the article evaluates the successes and shortcomings of responding to gendered forms of wartime violence through truth-telling. Extending Nancy Fraser’s tripartite model of justice to peacebuilding contexts, the article advances notions of recognition, redistribution and representation as crucial components of gender-just peace. It argues that recognizing women as victims and survivors of conflict, achieving a gender-equitable distribution of material and symbolic resources, and enabling women to participate as agents of transitional justice processes are all essential for transforming the structural inequalities that enable gender violence and discrimination to materialize before, during, and after conflict. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: feminism, gender justice, international, local, Nancy Fraser, UNSCR 1325

Topics: Justice, Transitional Justice, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2016

Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana

Citation:

Glazebrook, Trish. 2011. “Women and Climate Change: A Case-Study from Northeast Ghana.” Hypatia 26 (4): 762–82.

Author: Trish Glazebrook

Abstract:

This paper argues that there is ethical and practical necessity for including women's needs, perspectives, and expertise in international climate change negotiations. I show that climate change contributes to women's hardships because of the conjunction of the feminization of poverty and environmental degradation caused by climate change. I then provide data I collected in Ghana to demonstrate effects of extreme weather events on women subsistence farmers and argue that women have knowledge to contribute to adaptation efforts. The final section surveys the international climate debate, assesses explanations for its gender blindness, and summarizes the progress on gender that was made at Copenhagen and Cancun in order to document and provoke movement toward climate justice for women.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, International Organizations, Justice, Political Participation Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2011

Gendering Extraction: Expectations and Identities in Women’s Motives for Shale Energy Opposition

Citation:

Willow, Anna J., and Samantha Keefer. 2015. “Gendering Extraction: Expectations and Identities in Women’s Motives for Shale Energy Opposition.” Journal of Research in Gender Studies 5 (2): 93–120.

Authors: Anna J. Willow, Samantha Keefer

Abstract:

Situated in the emerging social movement context of Ohio's shale energy opposition, this article considers how women's motives for grassroots environmental engagement simultaneously reflect and direct ongoing transitions in gendered expectations and identities. Drawing on in-depth ethnographic interviews with sixteen female activists, we argue that women understand the catalysts for their initial actions and the ultimate goals of their ongoing work in ways that both corroborate and challenge conventional gender roles. To determine whether the motives articulated by our research participants paralleled those documented in earlier grassroots contexts and cases, content analysis was undertaken to identify themes pertaining to motives for shale energy opposition. This process revealed close and complementary interrelationships between themes that are customarily associated with feminine expectations and identities (e.g., Health of Children; Concern for Community) and themes that are not (e.g., Power, Control, and Justice; Environment and Ecology). While Power, Control, and Justice (usually categorized as masculine, but also a classic feminist point of entry into the political field) was the most mentioned Gendering ExtrACTION theme, both the second and third most prominent themes - Health of Children and Concern for Community - substantiate the continuing salience of traditional feminine roles. We thus suggest that women who oppose shale energy are called to action by a dynamic constellation of concerns encompassing home and away, personal and political. The coexistence of established and innovative femininities apparent in this activist arena indicates that women's motives for grassroots environmental engagement cannot be reduced to any single agenda or any simple expression or refutation of traditionally gendered feminine expectations and identities.

Keywords: environmental activism, ethnography, femininities, Ohio, shale energy, women and social movements

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Femininity/ies, Health, Justice Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2015

A Postcolonial Feminist Critique of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: A South African Application

Citation:

Struckmann, Christiane. 2017. “A Postcolonial Feminist Critique of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: A South African Application.” Master's thesis, Stellenbosch University.

Author: Christiane Struckmann

Abstract:

The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, more commonly known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), was launched in September 2015. The SDGs are a global target-setting development agenda aimed at ending poverty, protecting the planet, and ensuring peace and prosperity for all by 2030. The SDGs have been lauded for vastly improving on their predecessor, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), by broadening the global development agenda to include environmental, social, economic and political concerns, and for, in the process of their formulation, engaging with member states and civil society groups. The SDGs can further be commended for broadening the scope of the targets under the goal on gender equality and women’s empowerment, and for recognizing that gender equality has social, economic, and political dimensions. This study employs a postcolonial feminist theoretical framework to critique the SDGs and to make recommendations on how these critiques can inform South Africa’s implementation of the SDGs, with the ultimate aim of achieving substantive gender equality and women’s empowerment in the country. The study argues that the MDGs and South Africa’s National Development Plan (NDP) have failed to guarantee gender justice because they are anchored in two cognate theoretical approaches – liberal feminism and economic neoliberalism – that prioritize economic growth over addressing the structural drivers of women’s subordination and oppression. In contrast to liberal feminism, postcolonial feminism recognizes that gender inequality has interconnected economic, political and social dimensions in which power inequalities and discriminatory norms are embedded. It consequently seeks fundamentally to challenge and transform dominant patriarchal, racial and economic power structures, both in the public and private domain. A postcolonial feminist critique of the SDGs highlights that corporate interests have taken precedence over feminist critiques demanding systemic transformation. It is up to the South African government to recognize and enlarge women’s freedom and agency, and to initiate truly transformative local strategies that address the systemic drivers of gender injustice. Given that Government has affirmed that its unreservedly gender-blind NDP will inform South Africa’s engagement with the SDGs, it is highly likely that the country’s 30 million women will be left behind.

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Development, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gender Analysis, Gendered Power Relations, Patriarchy, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Justice, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 2017

Desafíos para la reintegración: Enfoques de género, edad y etnia

Citation:

Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica. 2014. “Desafíos para la reintegración: Enfoques de género, edad y etnia". Bogotá, Colombia: Imprenta Nacional.

Author: Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica

Annotation:

Spanish Summary:

La Dirección de Acuerdos de la Verdad del Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica (CNMH) preparó esta publicación a partir de rescatar trabajos y elaboraciones realizados inicialmente por parte de las áreas de Desmovilización, Desarme y Reintegración y de Género y Poblaciones Específicas de la Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación (CNRR) referidos a los enfoques diferenciales necesarios de abordar con relación al género y las mujeres, las etnias con referencia a los pueblos indígenas y las comunidades afrodescendientes y la edad en lo relativo a las niñas, niños y adolescentes. 

En conformidad con el mandato legal y la misión institucional de dicha Comisión, tales esfuerzos se orientaron a garantizar los derechos de las víctimas de graves violaciones a los derechos humanos ocurridas en los contextos de violencia y conflicto armado registrados en Colombia durante las últimas décadas, a desarrollar iniciativas de reparación en beneficio de las víctimas y la sociedad y a conseguir garantías de no repetición de tales violaciones (Summary from original source​).

English Summary:

Challenges for Reintegration: Focus on Gender, Age, and Ethnicity 

The Direction of Truth Agreements of the National Center for Historical Memory (CNMH) prepared this publication from recovered works initially produced in the areas of DDR and Gender and Specific Populations of the National Commission for Reparation and Reconciliation (CNRR) referring to the differential focus necessary to address gender and women, ethnicities with reference to indigenous people and afro-descendant communities, and age with reference to girls, boys, and adolescents. 

In accordance with the legal mandate and institutional mission of said Commission, such efforts were oriented towards guaranteeing the rights of victims of serious human rights violations that occurred in contexts of violence and armed conflicts in Colombia over the last decades, to develop reparation initiatives benefitting the victims and wider society, and obtaining guarantees of non-repetition of such violations (Translation from original source​).

Topics: Armed Conflict, DDR, Gender, Women, Justice, Reparations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2014

Justicia de género y tierras en Colombia: Desafíos para la era del ‘pos-acuerdo’

Citation:

Meertens, Donny. 2016. "Justicia de género y tierras en Colombia: Desafíos para la era del ‘pos-acuerdo’." Revista Europea de Estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe 102: 89-100.

Author: Donny Meertens

Abstract:

Spanish Abstract:

Con la firma del Acuerdo de Paz entre FARC guerrilla y el Gobierno de Colombia, en Agosto de 2016, el país enfrenta un sinnúmero de desafíos para la implementación de lo pactado, no sólo en lo inmediato (desarme-desmovilización-reintegración de excombatientes y de justicia-verdad-reparación para las víctimas) sino frente a las transformaciones democráticas estipuladas para el pos-conflicto. En esta exploración reflexiono sobre la restitución de tierras como medida de reparación a víctimas y su alcance transformativo en términos de justicia de género. Colombia es el primer país en América Latina en el cual estos dos elementos, tierras y género, han sido incorporados explícitamente en un proceso de paz. Una de las conclusiones de esta reflexión es que se requiere un mayor impulso institucional a la organización de las mujeres rurales para consolidar los resultados de la restitución, articularlos a la reforma agraria pactada en el Acuerdo de Paz y contribuir así a una participación más democrática de hombres y mujeres en el desarrollo rural del pos-conflicto. 

English Abstract:

Gender and Land Justice in Colombia: Challenges for the Post-Peace Accords Era

With the signature of a Peace Accord between FARC guerrilla and the Colombian Government in August 2016, the country confronts a great number of challenges in terms of the implementation, not only of the immediate actions needed to carry out the DDR process for ex-combatants and the truth, justice and reparations measures for the victims, but also of the long-term democratic transformations agreed upon at the negotiations table. In this exploration I will reflect on the scope of land restitution as a measure of reparations, and its transformative potential in terms of gender justice. Colombia is the first country in Latin America in which these two elements, land and gender, have been explicitly included in the peace process. One of the conclusions of this reflection is that more institutional support is needed for rural women’s organizations in order to consolidate the results of a gender-just land restitution and link these to the rural reforms of the peace agenda, as a contribution to a more democratic participation of men and women in post-conflict rural development. 

Keywords: restitución de tierras, justicia, organizaciones de mujeres, proceso de paz, gênero, gender, land restitution, justice, women's organizations, peace process

Topics: Gender, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Justice, Land grabbing, Peace Processes, Post-Conflict Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2016

Sexual Minorities in Conflict Zones: A Review of the Literature

Citation:

Moore, Melinda W., and John R. Barner. 2017. “Sexual Minorities in Conflict Zones: A Review of the Literature.” Aggression and Violent Behavior 35: 33-37.

Authors: Melinda W. Moore, John R. Barner

Abstract:

In civil and ethnic conflict, sexual minorities experience a heightened risk for war crimes such as sexual violence, torture, and death. As a result, sexual minorities remain an invisible population in armed conflict out of a need for safety. Further study of sexual minorities in conflict zones confronts matters of human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war. This article reviews the existing research on sexual minorities in conflict zones, examines the findings on human rights, war crimes, and the psychosocial effects of war and violence on sexual minority populations, and reviews the barriers to effectiveness faced by intervention programs developed spe- cifically to aid post-conflict societies. The article concludes with a summary of findings within the literature and further considerations for research on aggression and violent behavior with sexual minority groups in conflict zones.

Keywords: violence, aggression, Sexual minorities, gender, war, armed conflict, human rights

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Ethnic/Communal Wars, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, International Human Rights, Justice, War Crimes, LGBTQ, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, SV against men, SV against women, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence

Year: 2017

The Just War Tradition: Translating the Ethics of Human Dignity into Political Practices

Citation:

Bergoffen, Debra B. 2008. "The Just War Tradition: Translating the Ethics of Human Dignity into Political Practices." Hypatia 23 (2): 72-94.

Author: Debra B. Bergoffen

Abstract:

This essay argues that the ambiguities of the just war tradition, sifted through a feminist critique, provides the best framework currently available for translating the ethical entitlement to human dignity into concrete feminist political practices. It offers a gendered critique of war that pursues the just war distinction between legitimate and illegitimate targets of wartime violence and provides a gendered analysis of the peace which the just war tradition obliges us to preserve and pursue.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Justice, Peace Processes, Security, Human Security, Violence, Weapons /Arms

Year: 2008

Prosecuting Gender-Based Persecution: the Islamic State at the ICC

Citation:

Chertoff, Emily. 2017. “Prosecuting Gender-Based Persecution: the Islamic State at the ICC." Yale Law Journal 126 (4): 1050-117.

Author: Emily Chertoff

Abstract:

Reports suggest that Islamic State, the terrorist "caliphate," has enslaved and brutalized thousands of women from the Yazidi ethnic minority of Syria and Northern Iraq. International criminal law has a name for what Islamic State has done to these women: gender-based persecution. This crime, which appears in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), has only been charged once, and unsuccessfully, in the Court's two decades of existence. The case of the Yazidi women presents a promising opportunity to charge it again--and, potentially, to shift the lately unpromising trajectory of the Court, which has been weakened in recent months by a wave of defections by former member states. This Note uses heretofore unexamined jurisprudence of the ICC's Pre-Trial Chamber to elaborate--element by element--how the Prosecutor of the Court could charge gender-based persecution against members of Islamic State. I argue that the prosecution of Islamic State would not just vindicate the rights of Yazidi survivors of Islamic State violence. It would help to consolidate an international norm against gender-based persecution in armed conflict--a norm that, until now, international law has only incompletely realized. This Note argues that only by prosecuting the crime of gender-based persecution can international criminal law cognize violence, like the attacks on Yazidi women, that is motivated not just by race, ethnicity, or gender, but by the victims' intersecting gender and ethnic or racial identities. I conclude by reflecting on the role that a series of prosecutions against perpetrators of gender-based persecution might have in restoring the legitimacy of the ailing ICC.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Ethnicity, Women, Gender-Based Violence, International Law, International Criminal Law, Justice, International Tribunals & Special Courts, Race, Sexual Violence, Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, Sexual Slavery, Terrorism, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Iraq, Syria

Year: 2017

"Subjects of Change": Feminist Geopolitics and Gendered Truth-Telling in Guatemala

Citation:

Patterson-Markowitz, Rebecca, Elizabeth Oglesby, and Sallie Marston. 2012. “‘ Subjects of Change’: Feminist Geopolitics and Gendered Truth-Telling in Guatemala.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 13 (4): 82.

Authors: Rebecca Patterson-Markowitz, Elizabeth Oglesby, Sallie Marston

Abstract:

This paper explores the often-undervalued role of gender in transitional justice mechanisms and the importance of women's struggles and agency in that regard. We focus on the efforts of the women's movement in Guatemala to address questions of justice and healing for survivors of gendered violence during Guatemala's 36-year internal armed conflict. We discuss how the initial transitional justice measures of documenting gendered war crimes in the context of a genocide were subsequently taken up by the women's movement and how their endeavors to further expose sexual violence have resulted in notable interventions. Interviews with key organizational activists as well as testimonies given by victims of sexual violence during the conflict suggest that transitional justice mechanisms, extended by women's movements' efforts, are creating conditions for the emergence of new practices and spaces that support the fragile cultivation of new subjectivities. Sujetas de cambio (subjects of change) are premised not on victimhood but survivorhood. The emergence of these new subjectivities and new claims, including greater personal security and freedom from everyday violence, must be approached with caution, however, as they are not born automatically out of the deeply emotional struggles that play out around historical memory. Still, their emergence suggests new ways for women to cope not only with the sexual violence of the past but also to work against the normative violence that is part of their present.

Keywords: gendered violence, historical memory, transitional justice

Topics: Armed Conflict, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Genocide, Justice, Transitional Justice, Rights, Human Rights, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women, Violence Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Guatemala

Year: 2012

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