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International Organizations

Women participants in Conflict

Economies of Violence: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Trafficking

Citation:

Suchland, Jennifer. 2015. Economies of Violence: Transnational Feminism, Postsocialism, and the Politics of Sex Trafficking. Durham: Duke University Press.

Author: Jennifer Suchland

Annotation:

Summary:
Recent human rights campaigns against sex trafficking have focused on individual victims, treating trafficking as a criminal aberration in an otherwise just economic order. In Economies of Violence Jennifer Suchland directly critiques these explanations and approaches, as they obscure the reality that trafficking is symptomatic of complex economic and social dynamics and the economies of violence that sustain them. Examining United Nations proceedings on women's rights issues, government and NGO anti-trafficking policies, and campaigns by feminist activists, Suchland contends that trafficking must be understood not solely as a criminal, gendered, and sexualized phenomenon, but as operating within global systems of precarious labor, neoliberalism, and the transition from socialist to capitalist economies in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. In shifting the focus away from individual victims, and by underscoring trafficking's economic and social causes, Suchland provides a foundation for building more robust methods for combatting human trafficking. (Summary from Duke University Press) 
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Sex Trafficking and the Making of a Feminist Subject of Analysis
 
2. The Natasha Trade and the Post-Cold War Reframing of Precarity
 
3. Second World/ Second Sex: Alternative Genealogies in Feminist Homogenous Empty Time
 
4. Lost in Transition: Postsocialist Trafficking and the Erasure of Systemic Violence
 
5. Freedom as Choice and the Neoliberal Economism of Trafficking Discourse
 
6. Conclusion: Antitrafficking Beyond the Carceral State

 

Topics: Economies, Feminisms, Feminist Political Economy, Gender, Women, International Organizations, NGOs, Political Economies, Rights, Human Rights, Women's Rights, Trafficking, Sex Trafficking

Year: 2015

Addressing Women in Climate Change Policies: A Focus on Selected East and Southern African Countries

Citation:

Nhamo, Godwell. 2014. “Addressing Women in Climate Change Policies: A Focus on Selected East and Southern African Countries.” Agenda 28 (3): 156-67.

Author: Godwell Nhamo

Abstract:

This Article responds to claims in the literature that gender mainstreaming is lacking in international and national climate change policy regimes. A scan of climate change policies from selected east and southern African countries was conducted to assess whether climate change policies include gender and women. The focus on women is deliberate given women’s greater vulnerability to climate change impacts than men. The research analysis used a framework modified from the United Nations Environment Programme’s (2011) recommendations on women’s needs in climate change. The main finding is that although the national policies reviewed are in their infancy, with the oldest, the National Policy on Climate Change for Namibia having been put in place only in 2010, the mainstreaming of women’s needs in climate change has gained momentum. However, the empowerment of women by climate change policy varies significantly from country to country.

Keywords: women, gender, mainstreaming, climate change policy, East and Southern Africa

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa

Year: 2014

Earth Mother Myths and Other Ecofeminist Fables: How a Strategic Notion Rose and Fell

Citation:

Leach, Melissa. 2007. “Earth Mother Myths and Other Ecofeminist Fables: How a Strategic Notion Rose and Fell.” Development and Change 38 (1): 67–85.

Author: Melissa Leach

Abstract:

The notion that women are ‘closer to nature’, naturally caring for land, water, forests and other aspects of the environment, has held powerful sway in certain development circles since the 1980s. Along with the rise in global environmental concern, ‘women, environment and development’ (WED) perspectives gained ground among many donor agencies and NGOs, complementing and sharing core assumptions with earlier-established ‘women in development’ (WID) discourses. The materialist dimensions of WED were bolstered by fables about women’s natural, cultural or ideological closeness to nature grounded in varieties of ecofeminist analysis. This proved a seductive mix for agencies wishing simultaneously to promote environmental protection and WID, as well as for certain forms of feminist activism and sisterhood-construction, such as those around the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. This contribution revisits these narratives and the politics of this strategic fix in the development of international environmentalism and explores the sustained critiques of these ecofeminist fables by feminist scholars and activists from the early 1990s onwards. It provides a critical review of the approach to gender and the environment in some current donor, NGO and other policy documents, which draw little from the feminist critiques of the 1990s. The author reflects on how, and for whom, women–nature links might have practical or strategic value today.

Topics: Development, Environment, Feminisms, Ecofeminism, Gender, International Organizations, NGOs

Year: 2007

Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development

Citation:

Everett, Jana, and Sue Ellen M. Charlton. 2014. Women Navigating Globalization: Feminist Approaches to Development. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Authors: Jana Everett, Sue Ellen M. Charlton

Annotation:

Summary:
This up-to-date text offers a clear and cogent introduction to women in development. Exploring the global structures and processes that impede or support the empowerment of women, Jana Everett and Sue Ellen M. Charlton use a feminist lens to understand contemporary gender roles. Without such a lens, they argue, our understanding of globalization and development is incomplete, resulting in flawed policies that fail to improve the lives of millions of people around the globe. After a set of introductory chapters that conceptually frame the issues, the authors then investigate women’s struggles within and against globalization and development through powerful case studies of sex trafficking, water, work, and health. These chapters, by using specific examples, develop the concepts of structure and agency, levels of analysis, and feminist approaches as tools to help students understand the complexities of development and alternative strategies.
 
Through rich interdisciplinary analysis, Everett and Charlton explore the individual and collective strategies women have used to improve their lives under globalization and weigh how effective they have been. Their book will be an essential resource in women’s studies, political science, political economy, anthropology, sociology, and development studies. (Summary from Google Books)

Topics: Development, Economies, Environment, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Globalization, Infrastructure, International Organizations, Political Economies

Year: 2014

Digging for Rights: How Can International Human Rights Law Better Protect Indigenous Women from Extractive Industries?

Citation:

Morales, Sarah. 2019. "Digging for Rights: How Can International Human Rights Law Better Protect Indigenous Women from Extractive Industries?" Canadian Journal of Women and the Law 31 (1): 58-90.

Author: Sarah Morales

Abstract:

FRENCH ABSTRACT:
L’expansion des industries extractives dans les territoires des peuples autochtones a été et continue d’être un processus éprouvant pour les gouvernements, l’industrie et les peuples autochtones du monde entier. Bien que les avantages économiques liés au développement des ressources soient substantiels, on donne trop souvent priorité à ces considérations au lieu de voir les effets profonds et durables des répercussions pour les collectivités, sur le plan social et culturel, en particulier pour les nations autochtones. La recherche a démontré que ces répercussions sont aggravées quand les personnes se trouvent à la croisée de plusieurs collectivités, comme c’est le cas pour les femmes autochtones. Dans le présent article, on se demandera si les lois internationales concernant les droits de la personne peuvent ou non protéger efficacement les femmes et les filles autochtones contre les effets négatifs du développement de l’industrie extractive. En réfléchissant au droit à l’autodétermination, tel qu’il est présenté dans la Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones, l’auteure soutient qu’à notre époque d’extraction croissante, la meilleure façon pour faire en sorte que les lois internationales protègent les droits des femmes autochtones est de prévoir un mécanisme qui rendra opérationnelles les lois et les coutumes autochtones. Pour cela, il faut faire de la place aux femmes autochtones dans les processus de consultation afin qu’elles y partagent leur savoir et qu’elles puissent en influencer réellement le cours. La promotion des droits procéduraux des femmes autochtones est la meilleure façon d’assurer la protection de leurs droits substantiels corolaires.
 
ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
The expansion of extractive industries into the territories of Indigenous peoples has been, and continues to be, a challenging process for governments, industry, and Indigenous peoples all over the world. While the economic benefits of resource development are important, too often these considerations are emphasized at the expense of appreciating the deep and lasting social and cultural effects of these impacts on communities, in particular, Indigenous communities. Research has illustrated that these impacts are compounded when one considers those individuals at the intersection of these communities, such as Indigenous women. This article will examine whether or not international human rights law can effectively protect Indigenous women and girls from the negative effects of extractive industry development. By focusing on the right to self-determination, as captured by the United Nations Declaration on the Right of Indigenous Peoples, it argues that the most effective way international law can work to protect Indigenous women in this period of increased extractive development is by providing a mechanism through which Indigenous laws and practices can be operationalized. This means creating space during consultative processes for Indigenous women to share their knowledge and influence the process in a meaningful way. The promotion of the procedural rights of Indigenous women is the best way to ensure the protection of their correlating substantive rights.

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Indigenous Knowledge Systems, International Law, International Humanitarian Law IHL, International Organizations, Political Economies, Rights, Indigenous Rights

Year: 2019

Defining World Hunger

Citation:

Jarosz, Lucy. 2011. “Defining World Hunger.” Food, Culture & Society 14 (1): 117-39.

Author: Lucy Jarosz

Abstract:

Through a reading of policy texts centering upon food security published by the World Bank and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, I problematize the concept of food security by showing how its definition and its scale have changed over time. I use scale as an analytic frame to highlight how changing definitions of food security serve neoliberal ideology. The scaled definitions of food security move from an early emphasis upon the attainment of food security at the international and national levels to a micro-level focus upon households and gendered individuals. The most recent changes link individuals to global modalities of governance with an emphasis upon the instrumentality of agricultural productivity in economic development strategies. Considering the contested and dynamic construction of scale in relation to the changing definitions of international food security reveals the political and ideological dimensions of these dynamics and their contradictions with the material history of hunger over the last thirty years.

Keywords: scale, food security, development, discourse

Topics: Development, Economies, Food Security, Gender, Households, International Organizations

Year: 2011

Saying All the Right Things? Gendered Discourse in Climate-Smart Agriculture

Citation:

Collins, Andrea. 2018. “Saying All the Right Things? Gendered Discourse in Climate-Smart Agriculture.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 45 (1): 175-91. 

Author: Andrea Collins

Abstract:

Amidst debates about the role of ‘climate-smart agriculture’ (CSA), the intersection of concerns about climate change and agriculture offer an opportunity to consider how gender is considered in global policymaking. The latest module in the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, World Bank and International Fund for Agricultural Development Gender and Agriculture Sourcebook – ‘Gender and Climate Smart Agriculture’ – offers an opportunity to reassess how gender factors into these global recommendations. This contribution argues that the module makes strides toward more gender-aware policymaking, but the version of CSA discussed in the module sidesteps the market-led and productivity-oriented practices often associated with CSA. As a result, though the module pushes a more feminist agenda in many respects, it does not fully consider the gendered implications of corporate-led and trade-driven CSA. 

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, gender, FAO, global governance

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Households, International Organizations, Livelihoods

Year: 2018

Ensuring Women Follow the Money: Gender Barriers in Extractive Industry Revenue Accountability in the Dominican Republic and Zambia

Citation:

Jayasinghe, Namalie, and Maria Ezpeleta. 2019. "Ensuring Women Follow the Money: Gender Barriers in Extractive Industry Revenue Accountability in the Dominican Republic and Zambia." The Extractive Industries and Society, April 15, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2019.04.003

Authors: Namalie Jasyasinghe, Maria Ezpeleta

Abstract:

Social accountability initiatives (SAIs) can be important to help push for oil, gas, and mining revenues to go to communities impacted by extractive industries (EI). Local investments in targeted services and programs can improve development outcomes and address negative impacts caused by EI. Ensuring that women and women’s rights organizations (WROs) are part of SAIs is likewise crucial, without which investments financed by EI revenues may not reflect the needs and interests of women, missing an opportunity to advance women’s rights and gender equality. This article shares preliminary results from a project that involves: (1) research exploring a women’s rights approach to SAIs on EI revenue transparency; and (2) program activities intended to foster joint agenda-setting between WROs and EI revenue transparency civil society organizations (EITCSOs) that distinctly focus on advancing women’s rights. Initial findings suggest that addressing structural barriers to women’s participation, such as socio-cultural norms, women’s lack of ownership of land and resources, gender-insensitive consultation processes, inaccessibility of information, and women’s lack of awareness of their rights, in SAIs related to EI revenue transparency could improve women’s agency. Through this project, WROs and EITCSOs are building advocacy agendas that respond to these barriers to promote women’s rights.

Keywords: gender, women's rights organizations, social accountability, revenue, extractive industries, Dominican Republic, Zambia, transparency

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, International Organizations, Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries Countries: Dominican Republic, Zambia

Year: 2019

Connecting Women, Connecting Men: How Communities and Organizations Interact to Strengthen Adaptive Capacity and Food Security in the Face of Climate Change

Citation:

Cramer, Laura, Wiebke Förch, Ianetta Mutie, and Philip K. Thornton. 2016. “Connecting Women, Connecting Men: How Communities and Organizations Interact to Strengthen Adaptive Capacity and Food Security in the Face of Climate Change.” Gender, Technology and Development 20 (2): 169-99.

Authors: Laura Cramer, Wiebke Förch, Ianetta Mutie, Philip K. Thornton

Abstract:

Given the different roles that women and men play in households and communities, strategies to improve food security and build adaptive capacity need to take gender differences into account. In many developing countries, local organizations have a role to play in it. However, the degree to which there is an overlap among the priorities of men, women, and organizations (including non-governmental bodies, local government offices, and other agencies working in the community) is not generally known, nor do we know whether organizations are strengthening the adaptive capacity of both men and women effectively and equally. Using gender-disaggregated data arising from community- level participatory research and organizational-level interviews from 15 sites across West Africa, East Africa, and South Asia, we conduct a cross-regional analysis of local organizational landscapes as they relate to livelihoods and food security. We find that in all regions, women tend to value local organizations more highly and thus appear to be less connected to external organizations than men. Additionally, women’s perception of food security is broader than men’s, going beyond a production focus. Most of the local organizations with food security as a stated objective focus on production, which can marginalize/alienate women. Given the effects that climate change is predicted to have on food security, development organizations should consider the differing priorities of men and women, and use a gendered perspective when building adaptive capacity to respond to climate change, and to maintain/ improve food security. Such work can, perhaps, most effectively be implemented through existing community groups.

Keywords: adaptive capacity, food security, gender roles, climate change, organizations

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Food Security, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations, Livelihoods, NGOs, Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Asia, South Asia

Year: 2016

Safe Access to Safe Water in Low Income Countries: Water Fetching in Current Times

Citation:

Sorenson, Susan B., Christiaan Morssink, and Paola Abril Campos. 2011. “Safe Access to Safe Water in Low Income Countries: Water Fetching in Current Times.” Social Science & Medicine 72 (9): 1522–6. 

Authors: Susan B. Sorenson, Christiaan Morssink, Paola Abril Campos

Abstract:

A substantial portion of the world's population does not have ready access to safe water. Moreover, obtaining water may involve great expense of time and energy for those who have no water sources in or near home. From an historical perspective, with the invention of piped water, fetching water has only recently become largely irrelevant in many locales. In addition, in most instances, wells and clean surface water were so close by that fetching was not considered a problem. However, population growth, weather fluctuations and social upheavals have made the daily chore of carrying water highly problematic and a public health problem of great magnitude for many, especially women, in the poor regions and classes of the world. In this paper, we consider gender differences in water carrying and summarize data about water access and carrying from 44 countries that participated in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) program. Women and children are the most common water carriers, and they spend considerable time (many trips take more than an hour) supplying water to their households. Time is but one measure of the cost of fetching water; caloric expenditures, particularly during droughts, and other measures that affect health and quality of life must be considered. The full costs of fetching water must be considered when measuring progress toward two Millennium Development Goals--increasing access to safe drinking water and seeking an end to poverty.

Keywords: economic development, gender, Low-income countries, public health, sex differences, water, water carrying, women's health

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, International Organizations, Livelihoods

Year: 2011

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