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Information & Communication Technologies

Pacific Regional Perspectives on Women and the Media: Making the Connection with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (Women, Peace, and Security) and Section J of the Beijing Platform for Action


Bhagwan-Rolls, Sharon. 2011. "Pacific Regional Perspectives on Women and the Media: Making the Connection with UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (Women, Peace, and Security) and Section J of the Beijing Platform for Action." Signs 36 (3): 570-77.

Author: Sharon Bhagwan-Rolls


If empowerment means challenging social norms, equalizing power relations, and enabling individuals and groups to actively claim their rights, then what does it mean for women in rural communities in the Pacific Island region, where the basic necessities of life remain unfulfilled? Where is the peace if there is poverty of information and communication? What does it mean for small Pacific Island states where national budgets for gender equality rely on bilateral support rather than real investment and equity in the allocation of national budgets? What does all this mean for women working to transform information and communication systems to ensure that women in our rural communities are not just informed but are also able to inform and influence both the security-sector-governance and truth-and-reconciliation processes as well as to articulate our economic security priorities, which are linked to our political security? These questions are critical when trying to decipher the implications of Section J of the Beijing Platform for Action for women of the Pacific region, which includes a diverse media environment ranging from a major global news hub in Australia to our mobile women’s radio station in Fiji. They are equally critical in our work of coordinating a regional women’s media network dedicated to advancing the implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325. (The University of Chicago Press Journals)


Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Gender Budgeting, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, peace and security, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Justice, TRCs, Peacebuilding, Security, UN Security Council Resolutions on WPS, UNSCR 1325 Regions: Oceania

Year: 2011

'SMART’ Photovoice Agricultural Consultation: Increasing Rwandan Women Farmers’ Active Participation in Development.


Gervais, Myriam, and Lysanne Rivard. 2013. “‘SMART’ Photovoice Agricultural Consultation: Increasing Rwandan Women Farmers’ Active Participation in Development.” Development in Practice 23 (4): 496–510. doi:10.1080/09614524.2013.790942.

Authors: Myriam Gervais, Lysanne Rivard


Through two case studies, this paper evaluates the value of the feminist visual methodology Photovoice as an interactive consultation tool with rural Rwandan women working in agriculture. This exploratory study suggests that it is possible, through an adapted Photovoice process, to engage and empower women in the production of information about what is most relevant to them, and reach and engage practitioners and officials through an exhibition of participants' photographs and captions. This confirmation of Photovoice's applicability with rural women in the generation of information that captures the attention of stakeholders demonstrates its potential for reproducibility in other development contexts. 

Keywords: Gender and Diversity, technology, environment, agriculture, Sub-Saharan Africa, methods

Topics: Development, Environment, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Post-Conflict Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2013

Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta


Anugwom, Edlyne. 2007. “Stuck in the Middle: Women and the Struggle for Survival in the Oil-Degraded Niger Delta.” Agenda: Empowering Women For Gender Equity, Biopolitics: New Technologies Trilogy, 1 (1): 58–68.

Author: Edlyne Anugwom


This focus examines the relevance of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) as economic and empowering mechanisms for women in the oil degraded Niger Delta region of Nigeria. While ICTs have become increasingly popular in the region and have provided economic niches for women, influence of ICTs has differed significantly between urban and rural women. Therefore, while urban women are now heavily engaged in various ICT businesses, like call centres and cyber cafés, the economic degeneration and underdevelopment of the rural enclaves have limited the commercial viability of ICTs for women. In spite of this, ICTs are important in both rural and urban areas in the region in terms of improving the knowledge base of women and enabling them to articulate their positions. Generally, the effective usage of ICTs, whether for leisure or commercial purposes, has been limited by structural constraints ranging from dearth of electricity to impoverished economic situations of women. However, the different impact of ICTs on women in urban and rural areas calls for a policy orientation that is conversant with the peculiar needs of women in both areas and the improvement of the general socio-economic situation of the rural enclaves.

Topics: Development, Economies, Education, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2007

Gender and (Un)Sustainability - Can Communication Solve a Conflict of Norms?


Franz-Balsen, Angela. 2014. “Gender and (Un)Sustainability - Can Communication Solve a Conflict of Norms?” Sustainability 6: 1973-91. doi: 10.3390/su6041973.

Author: Angela Franz-Balsen


In theory, and even more in the practice of sustainability communications, the gender dimension of sustainability has been neglected relative to other fields of the science. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of gender as an analytical category for research and the importance of gender competence as an indispensable skill for professional sustainability communicators. Understanding how gender norms have contributed to inhibiting sustainable development is key to well-targeted means to communicate visions of sustainable ways of life. Traditional norms of masculinity are clearly in tension with the ethical, ecological and social implications of Sustainable Development, whereas the norms of femininity work against empowerment and participation of women. Current changes in gender relations and gender identities in the western world do not automatically solve this conflict of norms. Therefore, sustainability communication must and can contribute to shaping the social construction of gender towards new “sustainable” norms and ideals for the various gender identities in western societies. In order to achieve this, gender mainstreaming (GM) needs to be implemented in the field of sustainability communication, from capacity building for communicators to project design and research. Gender and diversity competence is to become a professional requirement, assuring that traditional “doing gender” is avoided, cultural diversity respected and structural inequalities are made visible. Visions of sustainable societies should include changes in gender relations. The argument is based on sociological studies, gender theories, gender policies, and environmental and sustainability communication studies, empirically supported by biographical studies and media analyses over the last twenty years in Western Europe, mainly Germany.

Topics: Environment, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Analysis, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Infrastructure, Energy, Information & Communication Technologies Regions: Europe, Western Europe Countries: Germany

Year: 2014

Feminist Media Coverage of Women in War: 'You Are Our Eyes and Ears to the World'


Thompson, Margaret E, María Suárez Toro, and Katerina Anfossi Gómez. 2007. “Feminist Media Coverage of Women in War: ‘You Are Our Eyes and Ears to the World.’” Gender & Development 15 (3): 435–50.

Authors: Margaret E. Thompson, María Suárez Toro, Katerina Anfossi Gómez


Mainstream media coverage of war often distorts or ignores women's perspectives and experiences in armed conflict, and also their efforts to build peace. This article focuses on the work of FIRE (Feminist International Radio Endeavour/Radio Internacional Feminista), a women's international Internet radio initiative produced by Latin American and Caribbean women in Costa Rica, which "uses technologies, voices, and actions" to amplify the voices of women worldwide as they recount their experiences and perspectives of armed conflict. In doing so, FIRE helps promote an alternative vision of human existence that is based on social justice and human rights, and which serves to strengthen women's and other social and political movements that are based on these values.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Femininity/ies, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, International Organizations, Rights, Human Rights Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Costa Rica

Year: 2007

The Soldier and the Terrorist: Sexy Nationalism, Queer Violence


Kuntsman, Adi. 2008. “The Soldier and the Terrorist: Sexy Nationalism, Queer Violence.” Sexualities 11 (1-2): 142–70. doi:10.1177/1363460707085468.

Author: Adi Kuntsman


An Israeli soldier, praised for killing terrorists in their homes, and adored as a gay prince charming; a Palestinian gay man called either a lying terrorist or a cute Arab boy with an almond ass; an Abu-Ghraib prisoner, whose naked body, pornographically mediated and distributed by the media generates a homosexual rape fantasy of all Arabs in-the-name-of- Israeli-security. These images were collected during my ethnography of a Russian-Israeli GLBT community, in the community’s website. My analysis of the website’s publications and discussions focuses on the ways violence, sexuality and nationhood intertwine in immigrants’ sense of belonging to the country that is officially defined by the state policy – and indeed perceived by many immigrants themselves – as their home. I examine how masculinities become synecdoches of nation, and how homosexual fantasies work to create attachment to one’s national home and hatred towards those defined as its enemies.

Keywords: immigration, masculinities, nationalism, queer studies, violence

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Gender, Men, Masculinity/ies, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, LGBTQ, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Nationalism, Sexual Violence, Sexuality, Terrorism, Torture, Sexual Torture, Violence Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel, Palestine / Occupied Palestinian Territories, Russian Federation

Year: 2008

Economic Empowerment for Pastoralist Women: A Comparative Look at Program Experience in Uganda, Somaliland and Sudan


Livingstone, John, and Everse Ruhindi. 2011. Economic Empowerment for Pastoralist Women: A Comparative Look at Program Experience in Uganda, Somaliland and Sudan. Brighton, UK: Land Deals Politics Initiative.

Authors: John Livingstone, Everse Ruhindi


This paper seeks to draw lessons from program experience in the three countries. It points to the effectiveness of business skills training for women’s groups in pastoral areas, when combined with grants for rotating funds that enable women to acquire productive assets and expand their micro-enterprises. While, microcredit may be difficult to implement with partly mobile communities in which women do own land or assets that can be used as collateral, it is increasingly viable in the growing towns and trading centres in and around which pastoralists are living more settled lives. The value of support for women’s micro-enterprises is recognized, with significant social impacts through increased household spending on children’s health and education, as well as strengthened women’s groups that can support a wide variety of activities outside the home. But, the paper also points to the need for efforts at the “meso” level to promote small and medium sized enterprises that can employ significant numbers of women, as well as to work at the macro (policy) level to promote a more business-friendly environment, with supportive transport and communications infrastructure and regulatory frameworks.

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender, Women, Households, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, Transportation, Livelihoods, NGOs, Rights, Land Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, East Africa Countries: Somalia, Sudan, Uganda

Year: 2011



Dewey, Susan. 2012. “ONE: RETHINKING SURVIVAL SEX AND TRAFFICKING IN CONFLICT AND POST – CONFLICT ZONES: THE CASE OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINIA.” Wagadu: A Journal of Transnational Women’s & Gender Studies 10: 15-31.

Author: Susan Dewey


Using the example of Radovan Stanković, whose case was the first transferred from the ICTY to the Sarajevo War Crimes Chamber (and who escaped from prison just weeks into his sentence), this article describes how weaknesses in infrastructure and political will seriously inhibit efforts to localize the implementation of international law.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Women, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies, International Law, International Human Rights, International Organizations, Political Participation, Trafficking, Human Trafficking Regions: Europe, Balkans, Eastern Europe Countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina

Year: 2012

Gender and ICT


Thas, Angela M. Kuga, Chat Garcia Ramilo, and Cheekay Cinco. 2007. Gender and ICT. New Delhi: Elsevier & United Nations Development Programme – Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme (UNDP-APDIP).

Authors: Angela M. Kuga Thas, Chat Garcia Ramilo, Cheekay Cinco


This e-Primer looks at information and communications technology (ICT) for development through a gender lens. It provides a gender perspectives to issues of ICT policies; access and control; education, training and skill development; and content development, and introduces a framework to integrate gender in ICT for development and empower women. (UNDP-APDIP)

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies

Year: 2007

Gender and ICTs for Development: A Global Sourcebook


Odame, Helen Hambly, Guihuan Li, Minori Terada, Blythe McKay, Mercy Wambui, and Nancy Muturi. 2005. Gender and ICTs for Development: A Global Sourcebook. Amsterdam: KIT (Royal Tropical Institute); Oxfam GB.

Authors: Helen Hambly Odame, Guihuan Li, Minori Terada, Blythe McKay, Mercy Wambui, Nancy Muturi


Around the world information and communication technologies (ICTs) have changed the lives of individuals, organizations and indeed, entire nations. This book is a collection of case studies about women and their communities in developing countries, and how they have been influenced by ICTs. ICTs can have profound implications for women and men in terms of employment, education, health, environmental sustainability and community development.

Women want information and engage in communication that will improve their livelihoods and help them achieve their human rights. This represents a formidable challenge to all societies in today's world, and especially to developing countries. Due to systemic gender biases in ICTs and their applications, women are far more likely than men to experience discrimination in the information society. Women are not giving up on ICTs. On the contrary, even resource-poor and non-literate women and their organizations are aware of the power of information technologies and communication processes and, if given the opportunity to do so, will use them to advance their basic needs and strategic interests.

Five case studies illustrate the different contexts facing gender and ICTs for development, including e-commerce in Bhutan, entrepreneurship by women workers in China, post-war communication using radio and ICTs in Sierra Leone, sustainable fisheries production in Ghana, and information exchange related to HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. An extensive annotated bibliography of the international literature on Gender and ICTs for development, rural development in particular, and relevant web resources, complement the papers.

Topics: Development, Gender, Women, Infrastructure, Information & Communication Technologies Regions: Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, East Asia, South Asia Countries: Barbados, Bhutan, China, Ghana, Jamaica, Sierra Leone, Trinidad & Tobago

Year: 2005


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