Printer-friendly version Send by email PDF version

Health

Women and Private Military and Security Companies

Citation:

Vrdoljack, Ana F. 2010. “Women and Private Military and Security Companies.” In War By Contract: Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law and the Regulation of Private Military and Security Companies, edited by Francesco Francioni and Natalino Ronzitti, 1-25. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Author: Ana F. Vrdoljack

Abstract:

Lack of clarity about the application of international law norms and inadequacies of existing regulatory regimes covering private military and security companies have reinforced concerns about transparency and accountability in respect of gender-related violence, harassment and discrimination. This chapter focuses on the main issues and legal concerns raised by the impact of the privatisation of war on women, both as PMSC employees and civilians. Part I highlights how armed conflict, civil unrest, occupation and transition have a detrimental effect upon the lives of women with particular reference to safety, displacement, health and economic disadvantage. Part II provides a summary of existing international humanitarian law and human rights provisions relating to women. Part III examines recent developments within the United Nations, the work of the ICRC, and international criminal law jurisprudence shaping these legal norms. Part IV considers the key recommendations of recent international and international initiatives covering PMSCs and women.

Keywords: women, private military and security companies, gender, sexual assault, forced prostitution, human trafficking, sexual harassment, discrimination, international law, International Humanitarian Law, human rights

Topics: Armed Conflict, Occupation, Displacement & Migration, Gender, Women, Gender-Based Violence, Health, International Law, International Criminal Law, International Human Rights, International Humanitarian Law IHL, International Organizations, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Privatization, Rights, Human Rights, Violence

Year: 2010

Depressive Symptoms among Arab Bedouin Women Under Threat of House Demolition in Southern Israel

Citation:

Daoud, Nihaya, and Yousef Jabareen. 2014. “Depressive Symptoms among Arab Bedouin Women Under Threat of House Demolition in Southern Israel.” Health and Human Rights 16 (1): 170–91.

Authors: Nihaya Daoud , Yousef Jabareen

Abstract:

Housing is a fundamental human right and a social determinant of health. According to international law, indigenous peoples are entitled to special housing and health rights and protections. In Israel, land disputes between the government and Arab Bedouins, an indigenous minority, have resulted in ongoing demolitions of Arab Bedouin homes, with thousands more homes threatened. While demolitions could expose this population to mental health problems, research linking house demolition and health is scarce. In this paper, we draw on a human rights perspective to describe this housing instability and examine the association between the threat of house demolition and depressive symptoms (DS) among 464 Arab Bedouin women. We conclude that having their house under threat of demolition is an important determinant of poor mental health among Bedouin women. Any efforts to decrease DS among these women will have to take place alongside efforts to stop this practice.

Topics: Gender, Women, Health, Mental Health, Rights, Human Rights, Land Rights Regions: MENA, Asia, Middle East Countries: Israel

Year: 2014

Effects of Rural-Urban Return Migration on Women's Family Planning and Reproductive Health Attitudes and Behavior in Rural China

Citation:

Chen, Jiajian, Hongyan Liu, and Zhenming Xie. 2010. “Effects of Rural-Urban Return Migration on Women’s Family Planning and Reproductive Health Attitudes and Behavior in Rural China.” Studies in Family Planning 41 (1): 31-44.

Authors: Jiajian Chen , Hongyan Liu, Zhenming Xie

Abstract:

This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Health, Reproductive Health Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: China

Year: 2010

Woman's Role in Economic Development

Citation:

Boserup, Ester, Nazneen Kanji, Su Fei Tan, and Camilla Toulmin. 2007. Woman's Role in Economic Development. London: Earthscan.

Authors: Ester Boserup, Nazneen Kanji, Su Fei Tan, Camilla Toulmin

Annotation:

Summary:
This classic text by Ester Boserup was the first investigation ever undertaken into what happens to women in the process of economic and social growth throughout the developing world, thereby serving as an international benchmark. In the context of the ongoing struggle for women's rights, massive urbanization and international efforts to reduce poverty, this book continues to be a vital text for economists, sociologists, development workers, activists and all those who take an active interest in women's social and economic circumstances and problems throughout the world. A substantial new Introduction by Nazneen Kanji, Su Fei Tan and Camilla Toulmin reflects on Boserup's legacy as a scholar and activist, and the continuing relevance of her work. This highlights the key issue of how the role of women in economic development has or has not changed over the past four decades in developing countries, and covers crucial current topics including: women and inequality, international and national migration, conflict, HIV and AIDS, markets and employment, urbanization, leadership, property rights, global processes, including the Millennium Development Goals, and barriers to change. (Summary from Taylor and Francis Group)
 

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Part I: In the Village

1. Male and Female Farming Systems

2. The Economics of Polygamy

3. Loss of Status Under European Rule

4. The Casual Worker

Part II: In the Town

5. Women in a Men's World

6. Industry: From the Hut to the Factory

7. The Educated Woman

8. Women in the Urban Hierarchy

Part III: From Village to Town

9. The Lure of the Towns

10. Urban Job Opportunities for Women

11. The Unemployment Scare

12. The Design of Female Education

Topics: Armed Conflict, Development, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Economies, Education, Gender, Health, HIV/AIDS, Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2007

Women Beneficiaries or Women Bearing the Cost? A Gendered Analysis of the Red de Protección Social in Nicaragua

Citation:

Bradshaw, Sarah, and Ana Quirós Víquez. 2008. “Women Beneficiaries or Women Bearing the Cost? A Gendered Analysis of the Red de Protección Social in Nicaragua.” Development and Change 39 (5): 823–44. 
 

Authors: Sarah Bradshaw, Ana Quirós Víquez

Abstract:

Conditional Cash Transfer programmes aim to alleviate short-term poverty through cash transfers to poor households, and to reduce longer-term poverty through making these transfers conditional on household investment in the health and education of children. These programmes have become increasingly popular with institutions such as the World Bank. However, the need for conditionalities has been questioned on a number of levels, including its necessity: it has been suggested that the cash transfer in itself may be sufficient to secure most of the programme's wider aims. The example of Nicaragua supports this contention, demonstrating that only a small incentive is needed to bring the desired changes in the uptake of education, since this is something prized by the poor themselves. In health, the Nicaraguan case suggests that demand-side initiatives might not be as important as supply-side changes that improve the affordability and accessibility of services. The Nicaragua case also highlights the long-term limitations of applying such programmes in countries with high levels of poverty and low economic growth. A gendered analysis of the programme highlights the fact that women ‘beneficiaries’ bear the economic and social cost of the programme without apparent benefit to themselves or even necessarily to the household in the short or longer term. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Health, International Financial Institutions Regions: Americas, Central America Countries: Nicaragua

Year: 2008

Local Industrial Shocks and Endogenous Gender Norms

Citation:

Tolonen, Anja. 2016. “Local Industrial Shocks and Endogenous Gender Norms.” University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. June 26. 

Author: Anja Tolonen

Abstract:

Does industrial development change gender norms? This is the first paper to explore the causal local effects of a continent-wide exogenous expansion of an industry on the formation of gender norms. The paper uses the recent rapid increase in industrial gold mining—plausibly exogenous to local characteristics—in Africa as a quasi-experiment. The identification strategy relies on temporal and spatial variation in a difference-in-difference analysis. Using a large sample of women living within 100 km of a gold mine, I show that the establishment of an industrial-scale mine bringing local economic growth changes gender norms: justification of domestic violence decreases by 19%, women have better access to healthcare are 31% more likely to work in the service sector. I exclude that the effects are driven by increased schooling attainment but women access more information through media. The findings are robust to different assumptions about trends, distance, and migration, and withstand a novel spatial randomization test. The results support the idea that entrenched norms regarding gender can change rapidly in the presence of economic development (Abstract from original).

Keywords: gender norms, local industrial development, gold mining, africa

Annotation:

This paper was previously circulated with the title “Local Industrial Shocks, Female Empowerment and Infant Health: Evidence from Africa’s Gold Mining Industry”.
 

Topics: Development, Domestic Violence, Extractive Industries, Gender, Gender Roles, Health Regions: Africa

Year: 2016

The Gender-Energy Nexus in Eastern and Southern Africa

Citation:

Mihyo, Paschal B, and Truphena E Mukuna. 2015. The Gender-Energy Nexus in Eastern and Southern Africa. Addis Ababa: The Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA).

Authors: Paschal B Mihyo, Truphena E Mukuna

Annotation:

“The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in Eastern and Southern Africa have been at the forefront to developing new energy policies and programmes aimed at reaching the UN goal of Ensuring Access to Clean Energy for All by 2030. In the year 2006, the East African Community passed the EAC Strategy to Scale Up Access to Modern Energy Services, committing its Member States to reach the UN goal of "access to all" by 2030. The Inter-governmental Authority for Development adopted its Environmental and Natural Resources Policy in 2007 which includes issues of renewable energy. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa launched its Model Energy Programme in 2012, followed the same year by its comprehensive baselines database on renewable resources covering all its Member States. In the year 2009, the African Union General Assembly at its 12th Ordinary Session adopted the Policy on "Scaling Up Renewable Energy in Africa". The regional policies have been domesticated by Member Sates of the RECs. Although their targets are very ambitious, implementation programmes launched at national level are robust and producing results. Both in the policies and implementation programmes, gender issues have, however, not featured prominently. Noting this deficit, the Organisation for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa called for researchers to assess the extent to which energy policies in Eastern and Southern Africa have taken gender issues on board.
 
“This book is the product of that project. It has ten chapters that investigated the gender-energy nexus in Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Swaziland, Sudan and Kenya. The book will prove useful to all policy makers, researchers and analysts who may be interested in strengthening the gender content of the programmes as we move towards 2030. We believe it triggers and helps policy makers and researchers to create platforms to use its findings, and those of others, to see how in gender terms those at the bottom of the energy access pyramid can be factored into these programmes, to make sure they are not left behind.” (Summary from African Books Collective)

 

Table of Contents:
Introduction
Paschal B. Mihyo

1. The Gender-Energy Nexus in Zimbabwe
Charles Mutasa

2. Gender-Energy Nexus in Ethiopia: An Analytical Review
Alemu Tolemariam and Dejene Mamo

3. The Gender-Energy Nexus in Tanzania: Assessing Rural Electrification in the Context of Gender Mainstreaming among Women
Henry M. Kigodi and Japhace Poncian

4. Towards a Gender Transformative Agenda? A Critique of Gender Mainstreaming in Energy Policy in Kenya
Moses A. Osiro

5. Community Perspectives on the Demand, Availability and Accessibility of Energy Resources in Swaziland: A Case Study of Sinceni on Deforestation
Londiwe D. Hlophe and Musa M.A. Dube

6. Gender Equity and Household Decision-Making in Alternative Energy Technologies Adoption: A Case of Access to Biogas Technology in Central Tanzania
Anna Wawa

7. Cooking Fuel in Sudan: Utilisation Patterns, Health Hazards and Cleaner Fuel Adoption
Yahia O. Adam

8. Turning Challenges into Opportunities in Household Energy Demand: Women Tiftif Makers in Yeka Sub-city Addis Ababa
Betelhem Ephrem

9. Gender-Sensitive Clean Energy Technologies for Sustainable Development amongst Pastorialist Maasai Communities, Kenya
Truphena E. Mukuma

10. Bridging the Gender Gap in Access to Energy in East Africa: A Needs-Based Approach
Paschal B Mihyo

11. Conclusions and Recommendations
Truphena E. Mukuma

 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe

Year: 2015

Harnessing Energy Crisis and Gender Empowerment: Impacts of Household Energy Consumption Pattern on Women’s Welfare and Education

Citation:

Babalola, Folaranmi Dapo. 2010. "Harnessing Energy Crisis and Gender Empowerment: Impacts of Household Energy Consumption Pattern on Women's Welfare and Education." Paper presented at the International Conference organized by United Nations Girls' Education Initiative (UNGEI), Dakar, May 3-7.

Author: Folaranmi Dapo Babalola

Annotation:

“Energy and women are linked in many diverse ways, particularly through the nature of the (predominantly biomass) energy resource base, the characteristics of the household and community economy, the features of energy policy, and the position of women in families and communities. Energy can be a vital entry point for improving the position of women in households and societies. To realise this potential, energy must be brought to centre stage and given the same importance as the other major global issues. In developing countries, especially in rural areas, 7% of world primary energy demand rely on biomass, such as fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural waste and animal dung, to meet their energy needs for cooking (IEA, 2006). The use of these traditional fuels in open fires or with simple stoves is not only less efficient and more polluting than modern energy options, but they are also unreliable, not easily controllable, and subject to various supply constraints (Heruela, and Wickramasinghe, 2008). The poor in developing countries therefore pay much more in terms of health impacts, collection time, and energy quality for the equivalent level of energy services as their counterparts in the developed world" (Babalola, 2010, p. 2).
 
“The significance of the energy sector within the broader poverty-energy-environment-nexus is well established (Adelekan and Jerome, 2006). Reliance on traditional biomass energy is particularly high in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting in some countries for 70 to 90% of primary energy supply and up to 95% of the total consumption" (p. 2).
 
“African countries continue to rely on biomass energy to meet the bulk of their household energy requirements. In Nigeria, it is estimated that about 91% of the household energy needs are met by biomass (Karekezi, 1999). An important step to finding lasting solutions to gender disparity in household energy problems might be a better understanding of the household sector i.e. accessibility and affordability of the various energy sources, household consumption pattern and impacts of fuel shortages; all these will help to fast track possible solution and plan for engendering gender empowerment. The study was therefore conducted in selected rural and urban areas of southwest Nigeria with the view to evaluating the households’ energy consumption pattern and the impacts on the welfare and standard of living of women and girl child in particular” (p. 3).

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Education, Gender, Women, Health, Households, Infrastructure, Energy Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Nigeria

Year: 2010

Women’s Well-Being and Reproductive Health in Indian Mining Community: Need for Empowerment

Citation:

D’Souza, Melba Sheila, Subrahmanya Nairy Karkada, Ganesha Somayaji, and Ramesh Venkatesaperumal. 2013. “Women’s Well-Being and Reproductive Health in Indian Mining Community: Need for Empowerment.” Reproductive Health Matters 10 (1): 24.

Authors: Melba Sheila D’Souza, Subrahmanya Nairy Karkada, Ganesha Somayaji, Ramesh Venkatesaperumal

Abstract:

This paper is a qualitative study of women’s well-being and reproductive health status among married women in mining communities in India. An exploratory qualitative research design was conducted using purposive sampling among 40 selected married women in a rural Indian mining community. Ethical permission was obtained from Goa University. A semi-structured indepth interview guide was used to gather women’s experiences and perceptions regarding well-being and reproductive health in 2010. These interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, verified, coded and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Early marriage, increased fertility, less birth intervals, son preference and lack of decision-making regarding reproductive health choices were found to affect women’s reproductive health. Domestic violence, gender preference, husbands drinking behaviors, and low spousal communication were common experiences considered by women as factors leading to poor quality of marital relationship. Four main themes in confronting women’s well-being are poor literacy and mobility, low employment and income generating opportunities, poor reproductive health choices and preferences and poor quality of martial relationships and communication. These determinants of physical, psychological and cultural well-being should be an essential part of nursing assessment in the primary care settings for informed actions. Nursing interventions should be directed towards participatory approach, informed decision making and empowering women towards better health and well-being in the mining community.

Keywords: well-being, reproductive health status, gender preference, domestic violence, marital relationship, qualitative design, nursing

Topics: Domestic Violence, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Health, Mental Health, Reproductive Health, Households Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2013

Working Conditions of Male and Female Artisanal and Small-Scale Goldminers in Ghana: Examining Existing Disparities

Citation:

Armah, Frederick Ato, Sheila A. Boamah, Reginald Quansah, Samuel Obiri, and Isaac Luginaah. 2016. “Working Conditions of Male and Female Artisanal and Small-Scale Goldminers in Ghana: Examining Existing Disparities.” The Extractive Industries and Society 3 (2): 464–74. doi:10.1016/j.exis.2015.12.010.

Authors: Frederick Ato Armah, Sheila A. Boamah, Reginald Quansah, Samuel Obiri, Isaac Luginaah

Abstract:

Artisanal and small scale mining (ASM) provides a livelihood to more than 100 million men and women worldwide, mostly in the global south. Although the sector is male-dominated, the number of women engaged in its activities has increased dramatically in recent years, underscoring the need for critical assessment of their environmental, health and safety working conditions. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 482 male and 106 female artisanal and small-scale goldminers in Ghana, this study examines the disparities in the mean scores of the environment, health, safety and economic working conditions between male and female goldminers. Using four counterfactual decomposition techniques, inequality in working conditions was disaggregated according to group differences in the magnitudes of the determinants and group differences in the effects of the determinants. The difference in the mean values of the estimated coefficients accounts for much of the difference in environment, health, safety, and economic working conditions between the male and female artisanal and small-scale goldminers. This implies that the gap in working conditions between the two groups may be attributed to discrimination, but it may also emanate from the influence of unobserved variables. Gender-specific differences exist for the artisanal and small-scale goldminers surveyed: age and years of experience are salient for men, whereas education and number of years lived in the community are more important for women.

Topics: Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Men, Health, Livelihoods Regions: Africa, West Africa Countries: Ghana

Year: 2016

Pages

© 2018 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Health