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Engendering Government Budgets in the Context of Globalization(s)


Elson, Diane. 2004. “Engendering Government Budgets in the Context of Globalization(s).” International Feminist Journal of Politics 6(4): 623-42.

Author: Diane Elson


This article considers the strengths and weaknesses of attempts to ‘engender’ government budgets in the context of globalization, drawing on my own personal engagement in such attempts, and on the work of many gender budget initiatives (GBIs) all around the world. GBIs have sought to improve the distribution, adequacy and impact of government budgets at national, regional and local levels; and to secure greater transparency in the use of public money; and greater accountability to women as citizens. Their spread has itself been an example of globalization, in this case the globalization of action for gender justice; facilitated by e-mail, the Internet and air travel; supported by international foundations and international development cooperation funds. But, it may be argued, GBIs have begun to engage with government budgets just at the time when governments, especially in the South, have less and less control over public finance decisions, due to other aspects of globalization. This article considers whether there is any point in GBIs if economic power lies in international markets, rather than in the Ministry of Finance, and draws on examples from a wide variety of countries.


Topics: Gender, Gender Budgeting, Globalization

Year: 2004

The Globalisation of Mining and Its Impact and Challenges for Women


Tauli-Corpuz, Victoria. 1997. “The Globalisation of Mining and Its Impact and Challenges for Women.” International Conference on Women and Mining, Baguio City, Philippines.

Author: Victoria Tauli-Corpuz


In the following paper, which was delivered at the conclusion of an International Conference on Women and Mining held in Baguio City, in January 1997, Victoria Tauli-Corpuz considers the impact of large-scale mining with particular focus on its impact on women. As the dominant players in large-scale mining are transnational corporations, and in view of the role played by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization in facilitating the expansion of such mining, she argues that the local struggle against mining has to become an integral part of the national and world struggle against globalisation itself.


“The World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have played significant roles in facilitating the opening up of large-scale mining in our countries, through loans which are given to the governments to build the infrastructure needed to support the mining operations (roads, energy sources, etc.) or through direct loans to the mining companies themselves, and by helping draw up the blueprint for the economic development of our countries.” (Tauli-Corpuz, 1997, p. 1)
“Since the 1970s up to the present, the Third World have been under the Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) of the WB-IMF. The main elements of such programmes have been the privatisation of state-controlled corporations (e.g., mining corporations), removal of subsidies, tightening of government budgets, with cutbacks on social services, reforms in tax codes, liberalisation of the agricultural and mining sector, etc. to allow the entry of foreign mining corporations. This also means liberalisation of investment codes, mining codes and agrarian reform codes.” (p. 2)
“State violence against women is used to weaken the peoples' opposition to destructive mining operations and to the entry of mines.” (p. 3)
“We have come up with many recommendations and proposals on how we should address the problems which we have identified. The general recommendations are the following:
1. More systematic and widespread information dissemination and sharing of experiences on the different forms and levels of struggles on the mining issue.
2. Education campaigns to increase awareness of the communities on the global restructuring of the mining industry, globalisation in general and the relation of these to their local situation.
3. Alliance-building with the other sectors of society who are also marginalised and oppressed.
4. Networking among women and among communities affected by mining operations.
5. Joint campaigns on common issues and concerns. Pressuring governments not to sell out to foreign mining corporations and instead give priority to the interests of the majority population in the country.
6. Strengthening viable alternatives on the local levels which can be built up to the regional and national levels. (Third World Resurgence No. 93, May 1998).” (p. 4-5)

Topics: Development, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Globalization, International Financial Institutions

Year: 1997

Globalization and Women’s Work in the Mine Pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia


Lahiri-Dutt, Kuntala. 2006. “Globalization and Women’s Work in the Mine Pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia.” In Women Miners in Developing Countries: Pit Women and Others, edited by M Macintyre, 349-69. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

Author: Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt

Topics: Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Globalization, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Indonesia

Year: 2006

United States-India Nuclear Relations Post-9/11: Neo-Liberal Discourses, Masculinities and Orientalism in International Politics


Das, Runa. 2013. “United States-India Nuclear Relations Post-9/11: Neo-Liberal Discourses, Masculinities and Orientalism in International Politics.” Journal of Asian and African Studies. 

Author: Runa Das


In this article I explore how the post-9/11 neo-liberal climate of globalization has served as the context within which is articulated masculinist and orientalist forms of nuclear discourses between India and the United States (US). To this extent, I draw from feminist international relations (IR), that security is a gendered phenomenon, to explore the linkages between masculinities and nuclear weapons as underpinning the nuclear security discourses between India and the US. Yet considering issues of international hierarchy and power relations between India and the US, I also draw from Edward Said’s Orientalism to explore how assumptions of orientalism are also sustained in these masculinist nuclear discourses. My contribution lies in enriching feminist IR with a post-colonial angle by suggesting that feminist IR continue to engage with post-colonial feminist perspectives to comprehend the masculinist and orientalist forms of identity politics that underpin security relations/discourses between Western and post-colonial states.

Keywords: globalization, India, masculinity, nuclear security, orientalism, Pakistan, United States

Topics: Armed Conflict, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Globalization, Security, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, United States of America

Year: 2013

Power and Representation: The Case of South Korean Women Workers


Mee, K. H. 1998. “Power and Representation: The Case of South Korean Women Workers.” Asian Journal of Women's Studies 4 (3): 61–108.

Author: K. H. Mee


This article focuses on South Korean working class women's political and cultural negotiation in the contexts of the South Korean labor movement of the late 1980s and the ever-evolving international division of labor. Based on an in-depth case study of a labor dispute in a U.S.-owned multinational corporation, it raises issues about how women workers in the international circuit of global capitalism are represented. By looking at how a labor struggle, waged by women workers against a multinational company's (MNC) factory closure, is presented in the realm of media representation and other writings, this article attempts to show how their struggle became a ground of discourse formation, reflecting diverse political interests. This is done by looking at the process of their struggle in the national and transnational space. The workers' own narratives, the media's presentation of their struggle, and the workers' own perception of it, are examined. While this article shows how the Korean women worker's struggle becomes a ground of discourse formation, reflecting varied political interests, it also focuses on how the workers manipulate their own images in a sophisticated way in vying for support from a broader audience. I define this as a specific form of "subaltern" representation and argue that gender images operate as core symbols of labor activities and constitute an important symbolic framework for the international division of labor. Since this case highlights diverse aspects of the conditions of Korean women workers' struggle, cutting across divisions of gender, class, and nation, it offers an arena for understanding the female subject in the process of globalization, which involves a complicated nexus of power and representation.

Topics: Class, Economies, Gender, Women, Globalization, Livelihoods, Multi-national Corporations, Nationalism, Political Participation Regions: Asia, East Asia Countries: South Korea

Year: 1998

Making Sweatshops: The Globalization of the U.S. Apparel Industry


Rosen, Ellen Israel. 2002. Making Sweatshops: The Globalization of the U.S. Apparel Industry. Oakland, California: University of California Press.

Author: Ellen Israel Rosen


The only comprehensive historical analysis of the globalization of the U.S. apparel industry, this book focuses on the reemergence of sweatshops in the United States and the growth of new ones abroad. Ellen Israel Rosen, who has spent more than a decade investigating the problems of America's domestic apparel workers, now probes the shifts in trade policy and global economics that have spawned momentous changes in the international apparel and textile trade. "Making Sweatshops "asks whether the process of globalization can be promoted in ways that blend industrialization and economic development in both poor and rich countries with concerns for social and economic justice-especially for the women who toil in the industry's low-wage sites around the world. Rosen looks closely at the role trade policy has played in globalization in this industry. She traces the history of current policies toward the textile and apparel trade to cold war politics and the reconstruction of the Pacific Rim economies after World War II. Her narrative takes us through the rise of protectionism and the subsequent dismantling of trade protection during the Reagan era to the passage of NAFTA and the continued push for trade accords through the WTO. Going beyond purely economic factors, this valuable study elaborates the full historical and political context in which the globalization of textiles and apparel has taken place. Rosen takes a critical look at the promises of prosperity, both in the U.S. and in developing countries, made by advocates for the global expansion of these industries. She offers evidence to suggest that this process may inevitably create new and more extreme forms of poverty.

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender, Women, Globalization, Justice, Livelihoods, Political Economies Regions: Americas, North America Countries: United States of America

Year: 2002

Women Workers and Global Restructuring


Ward, Kathryn B. 1990. Women Workers and Global Restructuring. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

Author: Kathryn B. Ward

Topics: Economies, Gender, Women, Globalization

Year: 1990

Gender, Development, and Globalization: Economics as If All People Mattered


Benería, Lourdes, Berik Gunselli, and Maria Floro. 2003. Gender, Development, and Globalization: Economics as If All People Mattered. New York: Routledge.

Authors: Lourdes Benería, Berik Gunselli, Maria Floro


With Cold War politics lost as the organizing principle behind international politics, development has become the most import policy goal of every international organization. There is an underside (and a human side) to development, and feminism has made inroads into the highly technical debates and frothy prophecies by examining what the future really holds for the people who will live it. This book highlights the ways in which feminist analysis has contributed to a richer understanding of international development and globalization. By combining theoretical, empirical, and political perspectives and discussing cutting-edge debates around development, globalization, economic restructuring, and feminist economics, Gender, Development and Globalization presents the ultimate primer on global feminist economics.

Topics: Development, Economies, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Analysis, Globalization, International Organizations, Political Economies

Year: 2003


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