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Globalization

Women, Climate Change and Liberation in Africa

Citation:

Steady, Filomina Chioma. 2014. “Women, Climate Change and Liberation in Africa.” Race, Gender & Class 21 (1/2): 312–33.

Author: Filomina Chioma Steady

Abstract:

Women in Africa have been among the first to notice the impact of climate change and its effects on the agricultural cycle, human and animal life; food production and food security. As major custodians and consumers of natural resources, the lives of women in rural areas are profoundly affected by seasonal changes, making them among the most vulnerable to climate change. Their pivotal role in any measure aimed at mitigation and adaptation is indisputable. Despite Africa's minimal emission of green house gases, it is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change and climate variability and is prone to ecosystem degradation and complex natural disasters. (United Nations Environment Programme, 2006). This article examines women and climate change in Africa as an aspect of Africa's environmental problems. It is argued that the ideologies that drive the exploitation of the earth's resources are linked to the legacy of colonialism and its aftermath of economic globalization. Both have important implications for continuing oppression of the environment and people, with important implications for race, gender and class. Particular attention is given to women in rural areas in Africa, who are the main custodians of environmental conservation and sustainability and who are highly threatened by environmental degradation and climate change. Yet, they are often marginalized from the decision-making processes related to solving problems of Climate Change. The paper combines theoretical insights with empirical data to argue for more attention to women's important ecological and economic roles and comments on the policy implications for Climate Change. It calls for liberation that would bring an end to economic and ecological oppression through climate justice and gender justice.

Keywords: Africa's Vulnerability, women, natural resources, colonial legacies, hazardous waste dumping, land grabs, biofuels, mining, deforestation, liberation, gender justice, climate justice

Topics: Class, Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Globalization, Justice, Land grabbing, Race Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

Globalization, Agriculture and Food in the Caribbean: Climate Change, Gender and Geography

Citation:

Beckford, Clinton L., and Kevin Rhiney, eds. 2016. Globalization, Agriculture and Food in the Caribbean: Climate Change, Gender and Geography. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Clinton L. Beckford, Kevin Rhiney

Annotation:

Summary: 
The last decade has seen a growing body of research about globalization and climate change in the Caribbean. This collection is a significant addition to the literature on a topic that is of critical importance to the region. It explores research from a number of Caribbean islands dealing with a range of issues related to agriculture and food in the context of globalization and climate change. Using a broad livelihoods perspective, the impacts on rural livelihoods are explored as well as issues related to community level resilience, adaptability and adaptations. The volume is strengthened by gendered analyses of issues and discussions informed by a diverse range of research methods and methodologies. Scholars of Caribbean studies and studies pertaining to social, cultural, economic and environmental issues facing Small Island Developing States (SIDS) will greatly benefit from this book. (From Palgrave MacMillan)
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Globalization, Climate Change and Food and Agriculture in the Caribbean: Perspectives of Caribbean Geographers
Clinton L. Beckford and Kevon Rhiney 
 
2. From Plantations to Services: A Historical and Theoretical Assessment of the Transition from Agrarian to Service-based Industries in the Caribbean
Kevon Rhiney
 
3. Securing the Female Future and Reframing Rural Resilience in Post-Sugar St. Kitts
Joyelle Clarke
 
4. Globalization and Fair Trade Bananas in St. Lucia: A Solution to Building Resilience?
Chanelle Fingal-Robinson
 
5. The Decline of the Preferential Markets and the Sugar Industry: A Case Study of Trade Liberalization in Central Jamaica
Dorlan Burrell
 
6. The Jamaican Coffee Industry: Challenges and Responses to Increased Global Competition
Mario Mighty
 
7. The Gendered Dimensions of Climate Change: Women, Indigenous Knowledge and Adaptation
Ayesha Constable
 
8. Impacts of Climate Change on the Quality of Planting Materials for Domestic Roots and Tubers; Mitigating Potential of In-vitro Plant Production and Protected Agriculture
Clinton L. Beckford and Anthony Norman
 
9. Livelihood Vulnerability to Global Change amongst Carib Communities in North Eastern St. Vincent
Rose-Ann J. Smith 
 
10. Impacts Of Climate Change On Coastal Artisanal Caribbean Fishers
April Baptiste
 
11. Future of Food and Agriculture in the Caribbean in the Context of Climate Change and Globalization: Where Do We Go From Here?
Clinton L. Beckford and Kevon Rhiney.

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Analysis, Globalization, Livelihoods Regions: Americas, Caribbean countries

Year: 2016

Mortgaging Women's Lives: Feminist Critiques of Structural Adjustment

Citation:

Sparr, Pamela, ed. 1994. Mortgaging Women's Lives: Feminist Critiques of Structural Adjustment. London: Zed Books

Author: Pamela Sparr

Annotation:

Summary:
This book explores the impact on Third World women of the stringent economic prescriptions of the World Bank and IMF. Introductory chapters explain in non-jargonistic terms exactly what structural adjustment is. These are followed by feminist critiques of its implications, and then a series of carefully chosen case studies examining the specific dimensions of structural adjustment in countries as diverse as Jamaica, Ghana, Nigeria, Egypt, Turkey, Sri Lanka and the Philippines (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. What is structural adjustment?
Pamela Sparr
 
2. Feminist critiques of structural adjustment
Pamela Sparr
 
3. Privatization and the demise of state feminism in Egypt
Mervat F. Hatem
 
4. Ghana: women in the public and informal sectors under the economic recovery programme
Takyiwaa Manuh
 
5. What has export-oriented manufacturing meant for Turkish women?
Nilüfer Çagatay, Günseli Berik
 
6. Structural adjustment policies, industrial development and women in Sri Lanka
Swarna Jayaweera
 
7. The dynamics of economic change and gender roles: export cropping in the Philippines
Maria Sagrario Floro
 
8. Nigeria: agricultural exports and compensatory schemes -- rural women's production resources and quality of life
Patience Elabor-Idemudia
 
9. Hitting where it hurts most: Jamaican women's livelihoods in crisis
Joan French
 
10. Banking on women: where do we go from here?
Pamela Sparr
 

Topics: Development, Globalization, Privatization Regions: Africa, MENA, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Egypt, Jamaica, Nigeria, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey

Year: 1994

The Gendered Impacts of Liberalization: Towards “Embedded Liberalism?”

Citation:

Razavi, Shahra, and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2009. The Gendered Impacts of Liberalization: Towards “Embedded Liberalism?” London: Routledge.

Authors: Shahra Razavi, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development

Annotation:

Summary:
Addresses key issues and questions surrounding the debates about globalization and liberalization policies, including whether states have the capacity to remedy the social distress unleashed by liberalization and whether the proposed social policy reforms can redress gender-based inequalities in access to resources and power. (Summary from WorldCat)

Topics: Economies, Globalization, Privatization

Year: 2009

Gender and Macroeconomic Policy

Citation:

Raj, Nallari, Griffith Breda, and the World Bank. 2011. Gender and Macroeconomic Policy. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Authors: Raj Nallari, Breda Griffith, World Bank

Annotation:

Summary:
This report aims to show how macroeconomic policies create differential opportunities for women and men. This volume comprises nine chapters covering four broad themes: gender as a category of analysis in macroeconomics; the implications of gender for macroeconomic aggregates, in particular consumption and economic growth; the role of gender in the labor market, globalization, and access to credit; and gender budgeting. Chapters one and two address the first theme. Chapter one focuses on the macroeconomic cost to growth and development that arises from rigid gender roles and associated gender asymmetries. Chapter two documents the progress made in gender mainstreaming by highlighting developments in data collection and monitoring that have moved beyond simply disaggregating data by male and female. Chapters three and four cover the second theme. Chapter three considers the role of gender relations in the macroeconomic aggregates of consumption, savings, investment, and government expenditure and the implications for macroeconomic policy in these areas. Chapter four examines gender relations and economic growth. Chapters five through seven focus on the third theme. Chapter five examines the labor market. Chapter six examines how globalization affects gender relations, particularly employment. Chapter seven concentrates on women's access to finance and documents gender asymmetries in this market. Chapter eight, on the fourth theme, highlights the impact fiscal policies have on gender relations. It documents how policy can be made more gender specific and reports on the progress made by countries that have adopted gender-responsive government budgeting. Chapter nine summarizes what is known about gender and macroeconomic policy, noting areas in which the literature is well developed as well as areas that require further research and study (Summary from WorldCat).
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Gender Budgeting, Globalization, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2011

Feminist Economics and the World Bank: History, Theory and Policy

Citation:

Kuiper, Edith, and Drucilla K. Barker, eds. 2006. Feminist Economics and the World Bank: History, Theory and Policy. London: Routledge. 

Authors: Edith Kuiper, Drucilla Barker

Annotation:

Summary:
With contributions from leading scholars, this anthology critically examines the relationships between gender, growth, development and the World Bank. Highlighting the importance and challenge of taking gender into account in development theory and policy, it will be a useful resource for policymakers, activists and scholars alike (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Feminist economics and the World Bank : an introduction
Drucilla K. Barker and Edith Kuiper
 
2. The World Bank, development, adjustment and gender equality
Zafiris Tzannatos
 
3. An assessment of efforts to promote gender equality at the World Bank
Carolyn M. Long
 
4. Rhetoric and realities : a comment
Sakuntala Navarsimhan
 
5. Engendering development : a critique
Rose-Marie Avin
 
6. Engendering agricultural technology for Africa's farmers
Cheryl Doss
 
7. Taking gender differences in bargaining power seriously
Stephanie Seguino
 
8. World Bank discourse and World Bank policy in Engendering development : a comment
Karin Schoenpflug
 
9. Colonizing knowledge : economics and interdisciplinarity in Engendering development
Suzanne Bergeron
 
10. Adjustment with a woman's face : gender and macroeconomic policy at the World Bank
Cynthia Wood
 
11. Gender and intrahousehold decision-making : international migration and other frontiers for development policy
Aida Orgocka and Gale Summerfield
 
12. Engendering development or gender main-streaming? : a critical assessment from the Commonwealth Caribbean
Violet Eudine Barriteau
 
13. "Disciplining" and "engendering" the World Bank : a comment
Laura Parisi
 
14. A seat at the table : feminist economists negotiate development
Drucilla K. Barker
 
15. Why feminist economists should pay more attention to the coherence between the World Bank and the WTO
Mariama Williams
 
16. Engendering the German Parliamentary Commission report on "Globalization of the world economy"
Brigitte Young
 
17. Women's rights and Engendering development
Diane Elson.
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Globalization, International Financial Institutions Regions: Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries

Year: 2006

The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economics Marginalities

Citation:

Kingsolver, Ann, and Nandini Gunewardena, eds. 2008. The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economics Marginalities. Oxford: School for Advanced Research Press.

Authors: Ann Kingsolver, Nandini Gunewardena

Annotation:

Summary:
As "globalization" moves rapidly from buzzword to cliche, evaluating the claims of neoliberal capitalism to empower and enrich remains urgently important. The authors in this volume employ feminist, ethnographic methods to examine what free trade and export processing zones, economic liberalization, and currency reform mean to women in Argentina, Sri Lanka, Mexico, Ghana, the United States, India, Jamaica, and many other places (Summary from Jacket).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Feminist methodology as a tool for ethnographic inquiry on globalization
Faye V. Harrison
 
2. Disrupting subordination and negotiating belonging : women workers in the transnational production sites of Sri Lanka
Nandini Gunewardena
 
3. Making hay while the sun shines : Ghanaian female traders and their insertion into the global economy
Akosua K. Darkwah
 
4. Clothing difference : commodities and consumption in Southeastern Liberia
Mary H. Moran
 
5. Progressive women, traditional men : globalization, migration, and equality in the northern periphery of the European Union
Ulrika Dahl
 
6. Neoliberal policy as structural violence : its links to domestic violence in black communities in the United States
William L. Conwill
 
7. Gendered bodily scars of neoliberal globalization in Argentina
Barbara Sutton
 
8. Geographies of race and class : the place and placelessness of migrant Filipina domestic workers
Rhacel Salazar Parreñas
 
9. Sticking to the union : anthropologists and "union maids" in San Francisco
Sandy Smith-Nonini
 
10. "The Caribbean is on sale" : globalization and women tourist workers in Jamaica
A. Lynn Bolles
 
11. In the fields of free trade : gender and plurinational en/countering of neoliberal agricultural policies
Ann Kingsolver
 
12. Globalization, "swadeshi", and women's movements in Orissa, India
Annapurna Pandey
 
13. Complex negotiations : gender, capitalism, and relations of power
Mary Anglin and Louise Lamphere
 
14. Navigating paradoxical globalizations
Ann Kingsolver
 
15. Reconstituting marginality : gendered repression and women's resistance
Nandini Gunewardena.
 

Topics: Economies, Globalization, Multi-national Corporations, Privatization Regions: Africa, North Africa, West Africa, Americas, Caribbean countries, North America, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Argentina, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Liberia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, United States of America

Year: 2008

Gendering the World Bank: Neoliberalism and the Gendered Foundations of Global Governance

Citation:

Griffin, Penny. 2009. Gendering the World Bank: Neoliberalism and the Gendered Foundations of Global Governance. Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Penny Griffin

Annotation:

Summary:
This text provides a wide-ranging and accessible acount of the constitution and effects of discourses of neoliberal governance. Paying particular attention to how gender matters in and to contemporary global governance, the author focuses in particular on the development discourse of the World Bank (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Discourse, sex and gender in global governance
 
2. Analysing 'the economy'
 
3. Analysing the World Bank
 
4. World Bank policy-making (1) : gender in/and the World Bank
 
5. World Bank policy-making (2) : reproducing (economically viable) gender norms
 
6. World bank policy-making (3) : gender, HIV/AIDS and sub-Saharan Africa
 
App. 1. Interviewee codes (anonymised)
 
App. 2. Schedule of questions for interview
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Globalization, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2009

Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality

Citation:

Ringrose, Jessica. 2007. “Successful Girls? Complicating Post-Feminist, Neoliberal Discourses of Educational Achievement and Gender Equality.” Gender & Education 19 (4): 471–89.

Author: Jessica Ringrose

Abstract:

This paper examines how an ongoing educational panic over failing boys has contributed to a new celebratory discourse about successful girls. Rather than conceive of this shift as an anti-feminist feminist backlash, the paper examines how the successful girl discourse is postfeminist, and how liberal feminist theory has contributed to narrowly conceived, divisive educational debates and policies where boys' disadvantage/success are pitted against girls' disadvantage/success. The paper illustrates that gender-only and gender binary conceptions of educational achievement are easily recuperated into individualizing neo-liberal discourses of educational equality, and consistently conceal how issues of achievement in school are related to issues of class, race, ethnicity, religion, citizenship and location. Some recent media examples that illustrate the intensification of the successful girl discourse are examined. It is argued that the gender and achievement debate fuels a seductive postfeminist discourse of girl power, possibility and choice with massive reach, where girls' educational performance is used as evidence that individual success is attainable and educational policies are working in contexts of globalization, marketization and economic insecurity. The new contradictory work of 'doing' successful femininity, which requires balancing traditional feminine and masculine qualities, is also considered. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Education, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Femininity/ies, Globalization, Privatization

Year: 2007

Gender, Governance and the Global Political Economy

Citation:

Griffin, Penny. 2010. “Gender, Governance and the Global Political Economy.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 64 (1): 86–104.

Author: Penny Griffin

Abstract:

This article considers a range of governance actors (including also the role of political enquiry into the global political economy in and of itself) to analyze how neo-liberal governance strategies seek to socialize human bodies (female, male or otherwise) into a global system of neo-liberal economic productivity. Contemporary mechanisms of global governance, it is suggested, seek to engineer a capitalist ‘market society’ while claiming to ‘empower’ poor people. In recent years, ‘empowerment’ rhetoric in global governance has increasingly depended on measuring the ‘economic’ role(s) of women in developing countries, judging their contributions productive only where they can be gauged to directly contribute to ‘formal economy’ growth. Reinforcing the assumption that ‘formal’ contributions are the only contributions worth measuring, such rhetoric simultaneously eradicates all other (non-competitive and/or non-entrepreneurial) behavioral possibilities for women, while clearly excluding all those who are not ‘women’. Against the instrumentalization of gender (as a category pertaining only to women and studies of women), this article argues that gender in global governance means much more than simply describing whether people are male or female and quantifying their productive capacities accordingly. As a broad and complex category of analysis, gender enriches the dynamism both of our studies of and practices in the global political economy. To ignore gender's role in the global political economy is to fail to see the power that gender (as a composite part of the relations of power that drive systems of economic development and growth) brings to our everyday understandings, and especially to our understandings of economic ‘common sense.’ (Abstract from original)

Topics: Globalization, International Financial Institutions, Political Economies

Year: 2010

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