Printer-friendly versionSend by emailPDF version

Girls

Female Adolescents and their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods

Citation:

Rashid, Sabina Faiz, and Stephanie Michaud. 2000. “Female Adolescents and their Sexuality: Notions of Honour, Shame, Purity and Pollution during the Floods.” Disasters 24 (1): 54–70.

Authors: Sabina Faiz Rashid, Stephanie Michaud

Abstract:

This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio‐cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's families and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their ‘purity’. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their ‘space’ and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately `secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were underwater. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far‐reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, 1998 floods, adolescence, sexuality, gender, women

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Girls, Health, Mental Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Sexuality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2000

Gender and Food Security in Bangladesh: The Impact of Climate Change

Citation:

Alston, Margaret, and Badi Akhter. 2016. “Gender and Food Security in Bangladesh: The Impact of Climate Change.” Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 23 (10): 1450–64.

Authors: Margaret Alston, Badi Akhter

Abstract:

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 
Food security remains a critical global issue, made more difficult because of the rising world population, climate challenges affecting food production and a focus on market-based solutions that undermine subsistence production in vulnerable rural areas. Particularly affected are countries across Asia where poverty, hunger and malnourishment affect a significant proportion of the population. Drawing on Sen’s entitlement theory, we argue that a shift in focus from national food production to intra-household food access enables a critical reflection on consumption smoothing strategies adopted at this level. In particular, we draw attention to the tendency for women and girls to eat less as an intra-household adaptation strategy. We present findings from our research in rural areas of Bangladesh and note that adaptation strategies adopted by households in response to food insecurity. We note that strategies designed to address food insecurity must include gender mainstreaming to ensure that women and girls are not taking a disproportionate responsibility for intra-household food security. 
 
SPANISH ABSTRACT: 
La seguridad alimentaria sigue siendo un tema global crítico, dificultado más aún por la creciente población mundial, los desafíos climáticos que afectan a la producción de alimentos y una búsqueda de soluciones centrada en los mercados que socava la producción de subsistencia en las áreas rurales vulnerables. Los países asiáticos donde la pobreza, el hambre y la desnutrición afectan a una proporción significativa de la población son particularmente perjudicados. Basándonos en la teoría de derechos de Sen, argumentamos que un cambio de orientación de una producción de alimentos nacional al acceso de alimentos dentro de los hogares permite hacer una reflexión crítica sobre las estrategias de emparejamiento del consumo adoptadas a este nivel. En particular, llamamos la atención sobre la tendencia de las mujeres y las niñas a consumir menos alimentos como una estrategia de adaptación intra hogar. Presentamos los resultados de nuestra investigación en las áreas rurales de Bangladesh y notamos las estrategias de adaptación adoptadas por los hogares en respuesta a la inseguridad alimentaria. Destacamos que las estrategias diseñadas para abordar la inseguridad alimentaria deben incluir la incorporación de la perspectiva de género para asegurarse de que las mujeres y niñas no estén asumiendo demasiada responsabilidad por la seguridad alimentaria intra hogareña.
 
CHINESE ABSTRACT:
粮食安全仍然是关键性的全球议题,并且因为世界人口增长、影响粮食 生产的气候挑战,以及聚焦以市场为基础的解决方案以至损害脆弱农村 地区的生计生产,而使之愈发困难。特别受到影响的,则是很大比率的 人口饱受贫穷、飢饿与营养不良之苦的亚洲国家。我们运用森(Sen)的 权益理论,主张将焦点从全国粮食生产转移至家户内部的粮食获取,将 能够对此一层级所採用的缓解消费策略进行批判性的反思。我们特别关 注女性和女童以减少食量作为家户内部调适策略的倾向。我们呈现孟加 拉农村地区的研究发现,以及家户为了回应粮食不安全所採取的调适策 略之记录。我们表明,设计用来应对粮食不安全的策略,必须包含性别 主流化,以确保女性和女童不会在家户内部的粮食安全中担负不成比例 的责任。

Keywords: gender, food security, climate change, adaptation, food production, gênero, seguridad alimentaria, cambio climático, adaptación, producción de alimentos, 性别, 粮食安全, 气候变迁, 调适, 粮食生产

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, Security Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2016

Demobilisation of Female Ex-Combatants in Colombia

Citation:

Schwitalla, Gunhild, and Luisa Maria Dietrich. 2007. “Demobilisation of Female Ex-Combatants in Colombia.” Forced Migration Review 27: 58–9.

Authors: Gunhild Schwitalla, Luisa Maria Dietrich

Annotation:

Summary: 
"Among the millions of Colombian IDPs one group is particularly invisible – women and girls associated with illegal armed groups. The current demobilisation process does not adequately address the consequences of the sexual violence they have suffered before, during and after conflict" (Schwitalla and Dietrich 2007, 58).

Topics: Armed Conflict, Combatants, Child Soldiers, Female Combatants, DDR, Displacement & Migration, IDPs, Gender, Women, Girls, Gender-Based Violence, conflict, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Paramilitaries, Non-state armed groups, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence Regions: Americas, South America Countries: Colombia

Year: 2007

Message from our Syrian Sisters

"Despite navigating a world of constant disruption, Syrian women and girls living as refugees in Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon bravely share why and how they continue to challenge inequalities and stereotypes in order to realize peace. These women peacebuilders may be separated by borders and war, but they have a single message to the world: Syrian women have ambitions and capacities to make change." 

Source: https://giwps.georgetown.edu/

Natural and Man-Made Disasters: The Vulnerability of Women-Headed Households and Children Without Families

Citation:

Sapir, Debarati Guha. 1993. "Natural and Man-Made Disasters: The Vulnerability of Women-Headed Households and Children Without Families." World Health Statistics Quarterly 46 (4): 227-33.

Author: Debarati Guha Sapir

Abstract:

Since 1980, over 2 million people have died as an immediate result of natural and man-made disasters and by 1992, the refugee population registered nearly 16 million people. This article reviews the human impact of disasters as a composite of two elements: the catastrophic event itself and the vulnerability of people. It also examines the specific case of women and children in the current world emergency context. It identifies four broad policy areas that affect women and children in disaster situations and discusses them with examples and field evidence. The first policy area addresses humanitarian assistance and armed conflicts, and armed conflict and international humanitarian law, the use of food as instrument of war, mines and civilian disability, and rape and sexual violence are discussed within this context. The second problem discussed is the issue of unaccompanied and abandoned children in terms of its magnitude and implications for relief response. Thirdly, the article examines the differential risks in emergencies for mortality and morbidity, specifically for women and children. Finally, it addresses certain policies and approaches to disaster rehabilitation which effectively mirror and reinforce inherent inequities in the affected society. The article notes that: (i) the largest proportion of disaster victims today arise from civil strife and food crises and that the majority of those killed, wounded and permanently disabled are women and children; and (ii) the ability of any country to respond effectively to disasters depends on the strength of its health and social infrastructure, and its overall developmental status. It concludes by identifying seven areas where concrete measures could be taken to improve the current situation.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Displacement & Migration, Refugees, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Humanitarian Assistance, International Law, International Humanitarian Law IHL, Post-Conflict, Sexual Violence, Rape, SV against women

Year: 1993

'Women and Children First’: Introducing a Gender Strategy into Disaster Preparedness

Citation:

Myers, Mary. 1994. "'Women and Children First': Introducing a Gender Strategy into Disaster Preparedness." Focus on Gender 2 (1): 14-6.

Author: Mary Myers

Abstract:

Women have been included in development strategies, but women's issues and women's involvement have been missing from centrally planned government programs of disaster relief. The axiom of putting women and children first has been lost in the maelstrom of immediate need planning without consideration of consequences. The UN developed a training manual and seminars for disaster management. Included in one of the UN manuals are directives that emphasized priorities for nine main components of disaster relief: 1) vulnerability assessment, 2) planning, 3) institutional framework, 4) information systems, 5) resource base, 6) warning systems, 7) response mechanisms, 8) public education and training, and 9) rehearsals. Gender issues should be addressed for each of these components. The question of whether gender was included in a disaster assessment must be answered. Male planners may not be sufficiently informed of how women are affected; therefore, women need to be consulted at the planning stage. A national ministry of women should be involved in disaster relief planning. Women's needs and coping strategies must be accounted for in data-gathering instruments. Emergency supplies must include gynecological and obstetric supplies. The media must be able to reach women and children with disaster warnings. Relief plans must consider whether women will be unduly burdened by the strategy. The inclusion of women in disaster relief efforts not only helps women in crises but helps to break down gender inequalities and imbalances in general. (Abstract from PubMed)

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Gendered Discourses, Health, International Organizations

Year: 1994

Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa

Citation:

Porter, Gina. 2007. "Transport, (Im)mobility, and Spatial Poverty Traps: Issues for Rural Women and Girl Children in Sub-Saharan Africa." Paper presented at Understanding and Addressing Spatial Poverty Traps: An International Workshop, Durham University, UK, March 29.

Author: Gina Porter

Abstract:

This paper reflects on the experiences of women and girl children residents in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa with poor physical accessibility (to services and markets) because of poor roads and inadequate transport (in terms of regularity, reliability and cost). Examples from field research conducted in diverse agro-ecological and cultural contexts in western and southern Africa are used to explore the impacts of relative immobility and poor access to services on women and girls. Three themes are examined in some detail: access to education, access to health services and access to markets. (Abstract from original source)

Topics: Gender, Women, Girls, Infrastructure, Transportation, Water & Sanitation Regions: Africa, Southern Africa, West Africa

Year: 2007

Climate Finance: Why Does It Matter for Women?

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2017. “Climate Finance: Why Does It Matter for Women?” In Financing for Gender Equality: Realising Women’s Rights through Gender Responsive Budgeting, edited by Zohra Khan and Nalini Burn, 273-311. Medford, MA: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“Ultimately, climate goals, priorities and the concomitant actions that are implemented to address the growing climate challenges concern the well-being, livelihood and lives of all citizens—women, men and children, across different socio-economic classes and life cycles. The preamble of Paris Agreement paragraph 7 exhorts Parties to the agreement, ‘when taking action to address climate change (to) respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity’ (Williams, 2017, p. 276)."

Topics: Civil Society, Class, Development, Economic Inequality, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Girls, Boys, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Globalization, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2017

Gender and Trade: Impacts and Implications for Financial Resources for Gender Equality

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2008. Gender and Trade: Impacts and Implications for Financial Resources for Gender Equality. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“Financing gender equality in the context of development and democracy requires specific and focused attention to allocating budgetary resources for the education, health care, training, skills and entrepreneurial development that is necessary to improve the lives of girls and women and to promote the overall economic empowerment of women. In order for this to occur in a predictable and sustainable manner, there must be a strategic rethinking of frameworks of fiscal policy, public finance, debt sustainability, monetary policy, exchange rate management, financial market regulation, trade reform and the negotiation of trade agreements. Increasingly, these areas are no longer the sole preserve of domestic policy makers but are becoming interlinked with the operations of the broader multilateral trading system (MTS), global finance and global macroeconomic arrangements through formal processes of coherence between trade and financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the World Trade Organization (WTO). This is also true of the harmonisation of aid under the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (Williams, 2007, p. 3)."

Topics: Civil Society, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Education, Gender, Women, Girls, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Organizations

Year: 2008

Pages

© 2018 CONSORTIUM ON GENDER, SECURITY & HUMAN RIGHTSLEGAL STATEMENT All photographs used on this site, and any materials posted on it, are the property of their respective owners, and are used by permission. Photographs: The images used on the site may not be downloaded, used, or reproduced in any way without the permission of the owner of the image. Materials: Visitors to the site are welcome to peruse the materials posted for their own research or for educational purposes. These materials, whether the property of the Consortium or of another, may only be reproduced with the permission of the owner of the material. This website contains copyrighted materials. The Consortium believes that any use of copyrighted material on this site is both permissive and in accordance with the Fair Use doctrine of 17 U.S.C. § 107. If, however, you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated, please contact the Consortium at info@genderandsecurity.org.

Subscribe to RSS - Girls