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Gendered Power Relations

Women’s Status and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Quantitative Cross-National Analysis

Citation:

Ergas, Christina, and Richard York. 2012. “Women’s Status and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Quantitative Cross-National Analysis.” Social Science Research 41 (4): 965–76.

Authors: Christina Ergas, Richard York

Abstract:

Global climate change is one of the most severe problems facing societies around the world. Very few assessments of the social forces that influence greenhouse gas emissions have examined gender inequality. Empirical research suggests that women are more likely than men to support environmental protection. Various strands of feminist theory suggest that this is due to women’s traditional roles as caregivers, subsistence food producers, water and fuelwood collectors, and reproducers of human life. Other theorists argue that women’s status and environmental protection are linked because the exploitation of women and the exploitation of nature are interconnected processes. For these theoretical and empirical reasons, we hypothesize that in societies with greater gender equality there will be relatively lower impacts on the environment, controlling for other factors. We test this hypothesis using quantitative analysis of cross-national data, focusing on the connection between women’s political status and CO2 emissions per capita. We find that CO2 emissions per capita are lower in nations where women have higher political status, controlling for GDP per capita, urbanization, industrialization, militarization, world-system position, foreign direct investment, the age dependency ratio, and level of democracy. This finding suggests that efforts to improve gender equality around the world may work synergistically with efforts to curtail global climate change and environmental degradation more generally.

Keywords: gender and environment, women's status, carbon dioxide emissions

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Extractive Industries, Feminisms, Gender, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Political Participation

Year: 2012

Deconstructing Resilience: Why Gender and Power Matter in Responding to Climate Stress in Bangladesh

Citation:

Jordan, J. C. 2019. “Deconstructing Resilience: Why Gender and Power Matter in Responding to Climate Stress in Bangladesh.” Climate and Development 11 (2): 167–79. 

Author: J.C. Jordan

Abstract:

Resilience is increasingly becoming the new buzz word. This paper examines the utility of the concept of resilience for understanding the gendered experiences of women to climate stress, through case study research in South-west Bangladesh. It provides evidence that resilience, as commonly understood, is inadequate for understanding the intersecting vulnerabilities that women face because of embedded socio-cultural norms and practices. These vulnerabilities culminate in a gendered experience of climate stress, where some groups of women are more likely go without education, food and access to good quality water. Such circuits of control highlight the importance of a more radical, transformational, gendered and power sensitive frame for moving beyond coping mechanisms to strategies that deal with the fundamental root causes of vulnerability to climate stress. A failure to do so risks further reinforcing gender inequalities due to the reality of social difference and inequities within local power structures.

Keywords: Resilience, vulnerability, gender, climate stress, Bangladesh

Topics: Education, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Bangladesh

Year: 2019

Adaptation Actions in Africa: Evidence That Gender Matters

Citation:

Twyman, Jennifer, Molly Green, Quinn Bernier, Patti Kristjanson, Sandra Russo, Arame Tall, Edidah Ampaire, Mary Nyasimi, Joash Mango, Sarah McKune, Caroline Mwongera, Yacine Ndourba. 2014. “Adaptation Actions in Africa: Evidence That Gender Matters.” CCAFS Working Paper 83, CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS), Copenhagen.

Authors: Jennifer Twyman, Molly Green, Quinn Bernier, Patti Kristjanson, Sandra Russo, Arame Tall, Edidah Ampaire, Mary Nyasimi, Joash Mango, Sarah McKune, Caroline Mwongera, Yacine Ndourba

Abstract:

This paper presents the initial data analyses of the CCAFS gender survey implemented in four sites in Africa. Using descriptive statistics we show gender differences in terms of perceptions of climate change, awareness and adoption of climate smart agricultural (CSA) practices, and types and sources of agro-climatic information in the four sites. We find that both men and women are experiencing changes in long-run weather patterns and that they are changing their behaviours in response; albeit relatively minor shifts in existing agricultural practices. For example, the most prevalent changes reported include switching crop varieties, switching types of crops and changing planting dates. As expected, women are less aware of many CSA practices. Encouragingly, this same pattern does not hold when it comes to adoption; in many cases, in East Africa in particular, women, when aware, are more likely than or just as likely as men to adopt CSA practices. In West Africa, overall, the adoption of these practices was much lower. In addition, we see that access to information from different sources varies greatly between men and women and among the sites; however, promisingly, those with access to information report using it to make changes to their agricultural practices. Our findings suggest that targeting women with climate and agricultural information is likely to result in uptake of new agricultural practices for adaptation.

Keywords: gender, climate change, climate smart agriculture, climate information, adaptation

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Infrastructure, Livelihoods Regions: Africa

Year: 2014

Women’s Representation in the UN Climate Change Negotiations: A Quantitative Analysis of State Delegations, 1995–2011

Citation:

Kruse, Johannes. 2014. “Women’s Representation in the UN Climate Change Negotiations: A Quantitative Analysis of State Delegations, 1995–2011.” International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 14 (4): 349–70. 

Author: Johannes Kruse

Abstract:

This paper examines which factors influence women’s descriptive representation in state delegations to the international climate change negotiations. Due to the gendered nature of climate change as an issue, it is important to study the representation of women in the negotiations and to examine its normative and functional implications. Theoretically, I propose to look at institutional, socioeconomic, and cultural factors as potential explanations for the variation in the proportion of women in state delegations across countries. I examine this variation by drawing on a dataset containing all member state delegations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations from 1995 to 2011. The theoretical arguments are then tested on these data using a fractional probit model. This is the first comparative study of women’s descriptive representation in international environmental negotiations. It contributes to our under- standing of the variation in women’s representation both over time and across countries. In particular, I find that women’s representation is higher in countries that enjoy a higher level of development and a higher degree of political gender equality. The effects of other institutional and socioeconomic factors such as the level of democracy or gender-equal development remain statistically insignificant. Cultural factors measured by regional proxies show that Eastern Europe and Latin America are positively and the Middle East negatively linked with women’s descriptive representation in delegations.

Keywords: UNFCCC, climate change, women, gender, representation, negotiations, state delegations

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, International Organizations, Political Participation

Year: 2014

Climate Change through the Lens of Intersectionality

Citation:

Kaijser, Anna, and Annica Kronsell. 2014. “Climate Change through the Lens of Intersectionality.” Environmental Politics 23 (3): 417–33.

Authors: Anna Kaijser, Annica Kronsell

Abstract:

Investigations of the interconnectedness of climate change with human societies require profound analysis of relations among humans and between humans and nature, and the integration of insights from various academic fields. An intersectional approach, developed within critical feminist theory, is advantageous. An intersectional analysis of climate change illuminates how different individuals and groups relate differently to climate change, due to their situatedness in power structures based on context-specific and dynamic social categorisations. Intersectionality sketches out a pathway that stays clear of traps of essentialisation, enabling solidarity and agency across and beyond social categories. It can illustrate how power structures and categorisations may be reinforced, but also challenged and renegotiated, in realities of climate change. We engage with intersectionality as a tool for critical thinking, and provide a set of questions that may serve as sensitisers for intersectional analyses on climate change.

Keywords: Environmental politics, gender, feminist theory, power relations, difference, human-nature relations

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Power Relations, intersectionality

Year: 2014

What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development

Citation:

Jerneck, Anne. 2018. “What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development.” Sustainability 10 (3).

Author: Anne Jerneck

Abstract:

Adaptation and mitigation are two key responses to climate change. In the global South they prompt many questions: what is the direction and degree of change needed? How can new climate change policies be aligned with existing development initiatives? How are core social relations such as gender understood and prioritized in relation to technical and other solutions? In search of synergies between adaptation, development and mitigation, this article asks a pertinent question for sub-Saharan small-scale agriculture in particular: what can adaptation and mitigation learn from development debates on social goal setting, institutional change and gender equality? From the perspective of sustainability science and feminist literature, three main findings emerge. First, as regards social goal setting, adaptation and mitigation should, like development, support the escape out of poverty, ill-health and food-insecurity. Second, as regards institutions, adaptation and mitigation should address how gender regulates access to, use of and control over resources in terms of labor, land and strategic decision-making power. Third, as regards gender equality, adaptation and mitigation should learn from how development in theory and practice has addressed gender, women, nature and the environment. At its core, the analysis contributes twelve salient themes that can significantly inform adaptation and mitigation in research, policy and practice, thus serving as inspiration for a critical debate on much needed synergetic trajectories.

Keywords: adaptation, climate change, development, environment, gender, sustainability science

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Environment, Climate Change, Feminisms, Gender, Women, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2018

Climate Change and Gender: Economic Empowerment of Women through Climate Mitigation and Adaptation?

Citation:

Bäthge, Sandra. 2010. “Climate Change and Gender: Economic Empowerment of Women through Climate Mitigation and Adaptation?” Working Paper, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn. 

Author: Sandra Bäthge

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This discussion paper attempts to describe the potential that lies in climate mitigation and adaptation for the economic empowerment of women. It intends to discuss the aspects to be considered in order to enhance economic empowerment with the help of mitigation and adaptation measures and to contribute to the genuine advancement of gender equality as against merely cementing existing roles” (Bäthge 2010, 5).

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Women, Gender Roles, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year:

Gendering Local Climate Adaptation

Citation:

Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson, and Sven Ove Hansson. 2013. “Gendering Local Climate Adaptation.” Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability 18 (2): 217–32.

Authors: Karin Edvardsson Björnberg, Sven Ove Hansson

Abstract:

Empirical evidence suggests that climate change will hit women disproportionately hard. Lack of political power, small economic resources, gender-bound patterns in the division of labour, entrenched cultural patterns and possibly biological differences in heat sensitivity combine to make women and girls particularly vulnerable to extreme weather and other climate-related events. Adaptation responses will likely reduce some of these vulnerabilities. However, just as climate change is likely to impact more severely on women than men, the costs and benefits of adaptation could be unevenly distributed between the sexes. Unless adaptation measures are carefully designed from a gender perspective, they may contribute to preserving prevailing gender inequalities and reinforce women’s vulnerability to climate change. Institutions and decision-making processes need to be remodelled so as to guarantee that gender issues are adequately targeted within adaptation. This article identifies a number of methodologies and decision tools that could be used to mainstream gender in local adaptation planning.

Keywords: gender issues, climate impacts, adaptation policy, equality, local policy, mainstreaming

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2013

Gender and Land Rights: The Struggle over Resources in Post-Apartheid South Africa

Citation:

Meer, Shamim. 1997. “Gender and Land Rights: The Struggle over Resources in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” IDS Bulletin 28 (3): 133–44.

Author: Shamim Meer

Abstract:

This article argues that the goals of social justice, poverty alleviation and gender equality within the post‐apartheid government's land reform programme are threatened by government's neo‐liberal macroeconomic framework, by shortcomings in addressing gender and because rural women do not constitute an organised social force. The article outlines the key elements of the land reform programme and points to limitations arising from the market‐based nature of the land reform programme. The article highlights innovative mechanisms within the programme aimed at involving women in land reform. These include the requirements of women's participation in land reform pilot programme structures and of gender equality within group ownership entities – the ‘Community Property Associations’. However, the overall approach is to target women without adequately considering gender power relations. The article suggests that while the state can play a significant role in providing an enabling framework, the key to advancing gender equality is women's organisation.

Topics: Economies, Poverty, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance, Justice Regions: Africa, Southern Africa Countries: South Africa

Year: 1997

From Male to Joint Land Ownership: Women's Experiences of the Land Tenure Reform Programme in Rwanda

Citation:

Bayisenge, Jeannette. 2018. "From Male to Joint Land Ownership: Women's Experiences of the Land Tenure Reform Programme in Rwanda." Journal of Agrarian Change 18 (3): 588-605.

Author: Jeannette Bayisenge

Abstract:

During the post‐genocide period, the Government of Rwanda embarked on a land tenure reform programme that culminated in a land registration and titling process in 2009. This paper intends to capture women's experiences in relation to this programme. The empirical data were collected in Musanze District using a household survey, semi‐structured interviews, and focus group discussions. The main findings reveal that there is support of the general idea that women should benefit from the land tenure reform in Rwanda. However, there is some criticism towards parts of the land laws, and women have limited actual knowledge about land‐related laws. With land titles, women mostly have a say on the land use decisions requiring each of the spounses' legal consents but not on the daily management of land and its produce. Finally, the paper reports the persistence of social norms and culturally biased gender ideologies affecting the effective implementation of land‐related laws and policies. Therefore, the paper underscores the need to build the implementation of new laws and policies on a good understanding of customary practices to strengthen women's land rights in Rwanda.

Keywords: land rights, land tenure reform, Rwanda, women's experiences

Topics: Gender, Gendered Power Relations, Governance, Post-conflict Governance, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Africa, Central Africa, East Africa Countries: Rwanda

Year: 2018

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