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Gendered Discourses

Asian Fury: Gender, Orientalism and the Indo-Pakistani Nuclear ‘Threat’ in US Foreign Policy Discourse, 1998 – 2009

Citation:

Vaughan, Tom. 2013. “Asian Fury: Gender, Orientalism and the Indo-Pakistani Nuclear ‘Threat’ in US Foreign Policy Discourse, 1998 – 2009.” Working Paper No. 09-13, School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Author: Tom Vaughan

Abstract:

Since India and Pakistan each carried out their second tests of nuclear weapons in 1998, US foreign policy discourse and Western media has often taken as fact the 'threat' of nuclear conflict in the region. This dissertation argues that a critical constructivist approach is required when studying Indo-Pakistani nuclear relations, given the inadequacies of structural realism and its unhelpful assumptions about the 'nature' of international politics. Since realist accounts make up the majority of recent literature on the subject, this dissertation aims to provide an alternative account, examining how US foreign policy discourse constructs the condition of threat through representations of the US, India and Pakistan. Using a discourse analysis methodology, I investigate the gendered and orientalist constructions of India and Pakistan which contribute to the mainstream perception of nuclear threat on the South Asian subcontinent. In a two-part analysis, I examine the effect that the September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks have had on the US discourse around Indo-Pakistani nuclear behaviour. I find that the US discourse changes significantly over time. From the 1998 tests onwards, a direct and imminent nuclear threat to international security is constructed. After 9/11, this threat is increasingly negated. Across both periods, the US discourse constitently feminises and orientalises India and Pakistan in relation to a dominant US masculinity – practices which are instrumental in the representation of threat – although the uses and effects of these representational practices shift over time. The discursive changes observed demonstrate how 'radical breaks' in history can change knowledge about international politics, and illustrate how US foreign policy discourse reconfigures the US's global identity after 9/11.

Keywords: United States, India, Pakistan, nuclear, non-proliferation, Foucault, discourse, gender, orientalism

Topics: Coloniality/Post-Coloniality, Feminisms, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gendered Discourses, Nationalism, Security, Weapons /Arms Regions: Americas, North America, Asia, South Asia Countries: India, Pakistan, United States of America

Year: 2013

'The Militarization of All Hindudom’? The Bharatiya Janata Party, the Bomb, and the Political Spaces of Hindu Nationalism

Citation:

Corbridge, Stuart. 1999. “‘The Militarization of All Hindudom’? The Bharatiya Janata Party, the Bomb, and the Political Spaces of Hindu Nationalism.” Economy and Society 28 (2): 222–55.

Author: Stuart Corbridge

Abstract:

This paper examines the means by which the Bharatiya janata Party (BJP) and its allies have sought to reinvent the political spaces of India (Hindudom). It describes the gendered rituals of pilgrimage and spatial representation that allow Hindu nationalists to position Bharat Mata(Mother India) as a geographical entity under threat from Islam and in need of the protective armies of Lord Rama. It also explores the geopolitical claims of the BJP and its attempts to position Greater India as a Great Power. The explosion of three nuclear devices in the Rajasthan desert on 11 May 1998 can be linked to this geopolitical imaginary. The paper argues, however, that the nuclear tests were triggered by the weakness of the BJP in India's centrist Political landscapes. The ‘militarization of all Hindudomis’ is sternly contested.

Keywords: Hindu nationalism, Bharatiya Janata Party, political space, Yatras, militarization, secularism

Topics: Gender, Gendered Discourses, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Militarization, Nationalism, Religion, Violence, Weapons /Arms Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 1999

Saying All the Right Things? Gendered Discourse in Climate-Smart Agriculture

Citation:

Collins, Andrea. 2018. “Saying All the Right Things? Gendered Discourse in Climate-Smart Agriculture.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 45 (1): 175-91. 

Author: Andrea Collins

Abstract:

Amidst debates about the role of ‘climate-smart agriculture’ (CSA), the intersection of concerns about climate change and agriculture offer an opportunity to consider how gender is considered in global policymaking. The latest module in the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, World Bank and International Fund for Agricultural Development Gender and Agriculture Sourcebook – ‘Gender and Climate Smart Agriculture’ – offers an opportunity to reassess how gender factors into these global recommendations. This contribution argues that the module makes strides toward more gender-aware policymaking, but the version of CSA discussed in the module sidesteps the market-led and productivity-oriented practices often associated with CSA. As a result, though the module pushes a more feminist agenda in many respects, it does not fully consider the gendered implications of corporate-led and trade-driven CSA. 

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, gender, FAO, global governance

Topics: Agriculture, Development, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Households, International Organizations, Livelihoods

Year: 2018

Constructions of Gender in the Nationalist Discourses of the Obiang Regime

Citation:

Allan, Joanna. 2019."Constructions of Gender in the Nationalist Discourses of the Obiang Regime." In Silenced Resistance: Women, Dictatorships, and Genderwashing in Western Sahara and Equatorial Guinea, 131-52. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Author: Joanna Allan

Abstract:

Summary: 
"In this chapter, I deconstruct the images of gender that are projected in the nationalist discourses of the Obiang regime and attempt to explain the ideological functions of such imaginations. This serves to add to wider research on African examples of “state feminism.” By focusing on Obiang, I show how an oppressive authoritarian regime employs constructions of gender (equality) to further its own ends. I compare this with observations of the previous chapter, to illustrate how similar mechanisms of discourse can be used for very different purposes. That is to say, POLISARIO used particular constructions of gender and “gender equality” to strengthen the national liberation movement and has been largely successful in making these part of hegemonic nationalist discourse. Obiang uses similar discourses on gender equality to oppress his population, often through domination rather than hegemony.
 
"First, I describe how Obiang came to power and how he has attempted to build a national identity, with himself as its foundation. I also explain how the Equatoguinean government is structured. This helps us establish the extent to which Obiang and government discourse are one and the same. Then, I move on to deconstruct gender and gender equality in regime discourse, before exploring the internal and external functions of such constructions. Finally, taking into account that the oil industry today dominates the economy of Equatorial Guinea, I look at what oil has meant for women’s socioeconomic opportunities" (Allan 2019, 131-2). 

Topics: Gender, Women, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality Regions: Africa, Central Africa Countries: Equatorial Guinea

Year: 2019

Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration

Citation:

Rothe, Delf. 2017. "Gendering Resilience: Myths and Stereotypes in the Discourse on Climate-induced Migration." Global Policy 8 (1): 40-7.

Author: Delf Rothe

Abstract:

The research article critically investigates recent European policy proposals that promote migration as an adaptation strategy to increase the resilience of communities vulnerable to the environmental crisis. Such proposals have been welcomed for breaking with alarmist discourses that framed climate-induced migration as a threat to national or international security. The present article seeks to contribute to this ongoing debate by bringing in a fresh perspective that has so far been neglected: the perspective of gender. Drawing on a poststructuralist perspective on gender the article reveals that policy debates on climate-induced migration take place within highly gendered discourses. Applying this perspective to recent policy reports on climate change, migration and resilience, the article helps to paint a more nuanced picture of the highly criticized notion of resilience. The analysis shows that, on the one hand, resilience thinking helped overcoming a masculinized discourse of security as control. On the other hand, it reproduces a series of ‘gender myths’ about the role of women in the so-called Global South.

Topics: Displacement & Migration, Migration, Climate Displacement, Environment, Climate Change, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gendered Discourses

Year: 2017

Curious Erasures: The Sexual in Wartime Sexual Violence

Citation:

Baaz, Maria Eriksson, and Maria Stern. 2018. “Curious Erasures: The Sexual in Wartime Sexual Violence.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 20 (3): 295-314.

Authors: Maria Eriksson Baaz, Maria Stern

Abstract:

Wartime sexual violence is especially egregious precisely because it is a sexual form of violence that causes particular harms. Yet, curiously, and in contrast to feminist theory on sexual violence more generally, the sexual has been erased from frames of understanding in dominant accounts of wartime rape. This article places the seeming certainty that “wartime rape is not about sex (it’s about power/violence)” under critical scrutiny and poses questions about the stakes of the erasure of the sexual in explanations of conflict-related sexual violence. It argues that the particular urgency that accompanies this erasure reflects the workings of familiar distinctions between war and peace, as well as efforts to clearly recognize violence and separate it from sex. Erasing the sexual from accounts of wartime rape thus ultimately reinscribes the normal and the exceptional as separate and reproduces a reductive notion of heterosexual masculine sex (in peacetime) that is ontologically different from the violence of war.

Keywords: sexual violence, wartime, peacetime, rape, feminist theory, sexuality

Topics: Armed Conflict, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Discourses, Sexual Violence, Rape, Sexuality, Violence

Year: 2018

The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy

Citation:

Faxon, Hilary Oliva. 2015. “The Praxis of Access: Gender in Myanmar’s National Land Use Policy.” Paper presented at the Conference on Land Grabbing, Conflict and Agrarian‐Environmental Transformations: Perspectives from East and Southeast Asia, Chaing Mai University, June 5-6. 

Author: Hilary Olivia Faxon

Abstract:

In Myanmar, heated struggles around land grabs, acquisition, and formalization fail to acknowledge the complexity and heterogeneity of existing land relations. Gender dynamics are key to shaping these systems, and have been neglected in current research and policy. This paper examines women’s access to land and the emergence of gender discourse in land policy debates through a participant ethnography of the National Land Use Policy consultation process. I explore both ways in which land access is lived by rural women, and feminist contributions to land-based social movements. Attention to the differentiated yet interlinked spheres of the household, customary law, and land formalization enhances understanding of land politics, and women’s presence, gender concerns, and the nascent common identity of the pan-Myanmar women can catalyze effective advocacy for just land reform in Myanmar.

Topics: Development, Feminisms, Gender, Gendered Discourses, Households, Land grabbing, Rights, Land Rights, Property Rights, Women's Rights Regions: Asia, Southeast Asia Countries: Myanmar

Year: 2015

Women Reclaiming Sustainable Livelihoods: Spaces Lost, Spaces Gained

Citation:

Harcourt, Wendy, ed. 2012. Women Reclaiming Sustainable Livelihoods: Spaces Lost, Spaces Gained. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author: Wendy Harcourt

Abstract:

Annotation:

Summary: 
This volume highlights women's work sustaining local economies and environments, particularly in response to the current food, fuel and climate crises. It includes women's role in the green entrepreneurship, women's reproductive and productive work in the care economy, and a further examination of eco feminist debates. (Summary from Palgrave Macmillan)
 
Table of Contents:
1. Redefining Sustainable Livelihoods 
Sumi Krishna
 
2. Women Advocating for Sustainable Livelihoods and Gender Equality on the Global Stage
Irene Dankelman
 
3. Towards Gender Equality in Global Sustainable Consumption and Production Agreements 
Kathleen Sexsmith
 
4. Gender Equality in Certified Agricultural Value Chains 
Noortje Verhart and Rhiannon Pyburn 
 
5. Global Agricultural Policies, Institutional Interventions, and Women's Livelihoods 
Rao Aruna 
 
6. Global Institutions Try to Get it Right: An Insiders Perspective 
Gretchen Bloom
 
7. Your Caring Sharing Co-op: Women, Work and Sustainability in a Polanyian Paradigm
Molly Scott Cato
 
8. Gender and Sustainable Livelihoods in India: 'Side Stream'/'Mainstream'
Sumi Krishna 
 
9. The Dream Merchants Have No Clothes: Women's Rights and Empowerment in the Microfinance Regime 
Soma Kishore Parthasarathy 
 
10. The Cost of Peace: Exploring Opportunities for Women's Livelihoods in Post-Conflict Settings 
Sabrina Aguiari
 
11. Sustaining Women's and Community Livelihoods in Rural Tanzania 
Mwajuma Masaiganah
 
12. Sustainable Livelihoods and Gender in the Marginal Alpine Communities of Trentino
Micdiela Zucca
 
13. Indigenous Women Claiming Their Land 
Marisa Belausteguigoitia Rius
 
14. Biocapital, Biopolitics and Biosocialities: Reframing Health, Livelihoods and Environments with New Genetics and Biotechnology
Liliana Acero
 
15. Gender and Sustainable Livelihoods in Urban Honiara
Anita Lacey
 
16. Gender and Climate Justice 
Ana Agostino and Rosa Lizarde
 
17. Epilogue: Green-Washing Warnings 
Wendy Harcourt

Topics: Agriculture, Economies, Care Economies, Environment, Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Livelihoods, Rights, Land Rights

Year: 2012

Comparisons as Feminist Method: Denaturalising Gender and Nation

Citation:

Åse, Cecilia, and Maria Wendt. 2019. "Comparisons as Feminist Method: Denaturalising Gender and Nation." In Gendering Military Sacrifice: A Feminist Comparative Analysis, edited by Cecilia Åse and Maria Wendt. Routledge. 

Authors: Cecilia Åse, Maria Wendt

Topics: Gender, Gender Analysis, Gendered Discourses, Gendered Discourses, Nationalism

Year: 2019

Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies

Citation:

Swim, Janet K., Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, and Stephanie J. Zawadzki. 2018. “Gendered Discourse About Climate Change Policies.” Global Environmental Change 48: 216–25.

Authors: Janet K. Swim, Theresa K. Vescio, Julia L. Dahl, Stephanie J. Zawadzki

Abstract:

Extending theory and research on gender roles and masculinity, this work predicts and finds that common ways of talking about climate change are gendered. Climate change policy arguments that focus on science and business are attributed to men more than to women. By contrast, policy arguments that focus on ethics and environmental justice are attributed to women more than men (Study 1). Men show gender matching tendencies, being more likely to select (Study 2) and positively evaluate (Study 3) arguments related to science and business than ethics and environmental justice. Men also tend to attribute negative feminine traits to other men who use ethics and environmental justice arguments, which mediates the relation between type of argument and men’s evaluation of the argument (Study 3). The gendered nature of public discourse about climate change and the need to represent ethical and environmental justice topics in this discourse are discussed.

Keywords: gender, climate change, political discourse, masculinity, environmental justice

Topics: Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Masculinity/ies, Gender Roles, Gendered Discourses, Justice

Year: 2018

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