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Gender Mainstreaming

Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges

Citation:

Cornwall, Andrea, Elizabeth Harrison, and Ann Whitehead. 2007. Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges. Zed Books.

Authors: Andrea Cornwall, Elizabeth Harrison, Anna Whitehead

Annotation:

Summary:
The political project of reasserting feminist engagement with development has proceeded uneasily in recent years. This text examines how the arguments of feminist researchers have often become depoliticised by development institutions and offers accounts of the pitfalls and compromises of the politics of engagement (Summary from WorldCat).
 
Table of Contents:
1. Gender myths that instrumentalise women : a view from the Indian frontline
Srilatha Batliwala and Deepa Dhanraj
 
2. Dangerous equations? : how female-headed households became the poorest of the poor : causes, consequences and cautions
Sylvia Chant
 
3. Back to women? translations, re-significations, and myths of gender in policy and practice in Brazil
Cecilia Sardenberg
 
4. Battles over booklets : gender myths in the British aid programme
Rosalind Eyben
 
5. Not very poor, powerless or pregnant : the African woman forgotten by development
Everjoice Win
 
6. 'Streetwalkers show the way' : reframing the debate on trafficking from sex workers' perspective
Nandinee Bandyopadhyay with Swapna Gayen [and others]
 
7. Gender, myth and fable : the perils of mainstreaming in sector bureaucracies
Hilary Standing
 
8. Making sense of gender in shifting institutional contexts : some reflections on gender mainstreaming
Ramya Subrahmanian
 
9. Gender mainstreaming : what is it (about) and should we continue doing it?
Prudence Woodford-Berger
 
10. Mainstreaming gender or 'streaming' gender away : feminists marooned in the development business
Maitrayee Mukhopadhay
 
11. Critical connections : feminist studies in African contexts
Amina Mama
 
12. SWApping gender : from cross-cutting obscurity to sectoral security?
Anne Marie Goetz and Joanne Sandler
 
13. The NGO-ization of Arab Women's Movements
Islah Jad
 
14. Political fiction meets gender myth : post-conflict reconstruction, 'democratisation' and women's rights
Deniz Kandiyoti
 
15. Re-assessing paid work and women's empowerment : lessons from the global economy
Ruth Pearson
 
16. Announcing a new dawn prematurely? human rights feminists and the rights based approaches to development
Dzodzi Tsikata
 
17. The chimera of success : gender ennui and the changed international policy environment
Maxine Molyneux.
 

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender Mainstreaming, Households, International Financial Institutions, NGOs Regions: Africa, MENA, Americas, South America, Asia, South Asia, Europe, Western Europe Countries: Brazil, India, United Kingdom

Year: 2007

Engendering' Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs): the Issues and the Challenges

Citation:

Zuckerman, Elaine. 2002. "'Engendering' Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs): the Issues and the Challenges." Gender and Development 10 (3): 88-94.
 

Author: Elaine Zuckerman

Abstract:

This paper discusses the 'engendering' of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), and the role of organisations such as Oxfam in supporting this process, at the country level and internationally. It is based on an evaluation assessing the extent to which Oxfam Great Britain's (GB's) work on PRSPs has been mainstreaming perspectives on gender and diversity. The evaluation was part of a larger gender mainstreaming evaluation, demonstrating Oxfam's strong commitment to promoting gender equality in its development work. (Abstract from original)

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender Mainstreaming

Year: 2002

'Poor' Romanian Women Between the Policy (Politics) of IMF and Local Government

Citation:

Neaga D.E. 2012. "'Poor' Romanian Women Between the Policy (Politics) of IMF and Local Government." European Journal of Science and Theology 8 (1): 291-301.

Author: D.E. Neaga

Abstract:

There are a consistent number of studies showing that women are more vulnerable than men in terms of poverty and social exclusion. Romania is not an exception. Poverty and underdevelopment are major topics in the area of international political economy and, in the context of global economic crisis, international institutions like IMF and WB became more and more relevant. The main question to which I try to give an answer in this paper is: how the IMF policies/politics and those of the Romanian government challenged the issue of gender inequalities during the recent economic crisis? In order to do so I will concentrate my arguments in two major directions. First, I will underline the necessity of gender mainstreaming in international political economy and secondly I will analyze the neoliberal project and the Romanian case in terms of a deepening gender gap as a result of the agreement with IMF. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: neoliberalism, economic crisis, women, IMF, international political economy

Topics: Development, Economies, Poverty, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions Regions: Europe, Eastern Europe Countries: Romania

Year: 2012

Mainstreaming Gender in Global Governance

Citation:

Hafner-Burton, Emilie, and Mark A. Pollack. 2002. “Mainstreaming Gender in Global Governance.” European Journal of International Relations 8 (3): 339-73.

Authors: Emilie Hafner-Burton, Mark A. Pollack

Abstract:

In this article, we seek to explain both the origins of gender mainstreaming as a `policy frame' in International Relations, as well as the variable implementation of mainstreaming over time and across various international organizations. We emphasize that in the years since the UN Fourth World Women's Conference in Beijing (1995), mainstreaming has been endorsed and adopted not only by European organizations and governments, but also by nearly every important international organization, and we compare the adoption and implementation of mainstreaming in two international organizations, the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme. We suggest, however, that the rhetorical acceptance of mainstreaming by various international organizations obscures considerable diversity in both the timing and the nature of mainstreaming processes within and among organizations. This variation, we argue, can be explained in terms of the categories of political opportunity, mobilizing structures and strategic framing put forward by social movement theorists. (Abstract from original)

Keywords: framing, gender mainstreaming, global governance, mobilizing structures, political opportunity structure, social movements, United Nations Development Programme, World Bank

Topics: Development, Gender Mainstreaming, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2002

The World Bank and Women's Sustainable Economic Development: A Beautiful Marriage or a Contradiction in Terms?

Citation:

Collison, Brooke. 2003. "The World Bank and Women's Sustainable Economic Development: A Beautiful Marriage or a Contradiction in Terms?" Canadian Woman Studies 23: 22-28.

Author: Brooke Collison

Annotation:

Summary:
The World Bank (WB) boldly declares "Our dream is a world free of poverty"; there are, however, a number of parties (i.e., Bello; Lopez; Whitehead and Lockwood) who would beg to differ. Despite its critics, the WB states that in the last two decades, it has increased its focus on women and, more recently, on gender. In its approach to gender, the WB has adopted a "Gender and Development" or "GAD" model as a means of reducing gender disparities and increasing women's participation in economic development (WB Group 1999). However, in the following pages, I will argue that, despite its convincing rhetoric, current WB strategies for women's sustainable economic development in developing nations cannot achieve their stated objectives even with the WB's "progressive" GAD approach.
 
For all the criticisms of the World Bank and its GAD programs, there exist an equal number of proposed alternatives for women's sustainable economic development. Two words that often appear in the literature on GAD and women's sustainable economic development are "transformation" and "transformatory." Young (1997b) discusses the notion of "transformatory potential," which she identifies as the interrogation of practical needs, by women, to see how they can be transformed into strategic concerns. She defines strategic concerns as interests arising from the fact that women as a social category have unequal access to resources and power. Essentially, what such transformation means is changing what societies value and consider "productive." As both Kate Young (1997b) and Andrea Cornwall emphasize, abiding by current gendered categories or simply altering the division of labour will not bring about transformation for women or men. What this essentially means is shifting from integration to an agenda-setting approach (Razavi and Miller).
 
Lastly, any alternative measures for women's sustainable economic development must ensure that "gender" and "GAD" are defined and acted upon in their entireties. We must continue to challenge ourselves to think of gender not in terms of women, but in terms of women and men together. Although this article has focused primarily on women's sustainable economic development, it is clear that for such development to occur, relationships between men and women and the interests of both genders must be considered. Both women and men must undergo a reflective and transformative process (Young 1997b) in order to avoid "a zero-sum game in which women-in general are pitted against men-in-general" (Cornwall 24). It is clear that women's sustainable economic development cannot and will not occur in a vacuum. Rather, sustainable alternatives must include aspects of social equity, sustainable livelihoods, social justice, and ecological awareness (Bhatta) (Collison, 2003, p. 22).
 

Topics: Development, Gender Mainstreaming, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2003

International Organizations and Gender: New Paradigms and Old Habits

Citation:

Bessis, Sophie. 2004. "International Organizations and Gender: New Paradigms and Old Habits." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 29 (2): 633-647.

Author: Sophie Bessis

Annotation:

Summary:
“The principal arguments that the bank presents to justify its 1987 conversion to a gender approach are of a purely economic and strategic nature. Women should be assisted not because their rights are scandalously abused but because the abuse of their rights is an obstacle to the reproduction of dominant economic models in the countries of the South. The fact that women, even in the most difficult circumstances, are able to capture the dynamism of the market sphere is, in the eyes of World Bank experts, a significant step toward the much-desired generalization of market forces. The question of women’s rights is thus secondary for an institution that sees women first and foremost as a new type of economic actor, a possible guarantor of social stability in an era when that stability is increasingly difficult to achieve. The World Bank has thus instrumentalized women in the sense that their promotion is not an end in itself but rather a means of implementing the bank’s policies for economic growth and eradication of poverty” (Bessis 2004, 641).

Topics: Gender Mainstreaming, International Financial Institutions, Rights, Women's Rights

Year: 2004

Mainstreaming and Neoliberalism: A Contested Relationship

Citation:

Bacchi, Carol, and Joan Eveline. 2003. “Mainstreaming and Neoliberalism: A Contested Relationship.” Policy and Society 22 (2): 98–118.

Authors: Carol Bacchi, Joan Eveline

Abstract:

The paper offers a comparative analysis of dominant mainstreaming and gender analysis frameworks to consider the nature of the relationship between these equality initiatives and neoliberalism. We challenge the portrayal of mainstreaming as necessarily resistant to neoliberalism, and show how dominant forms of mainstreaming illustrate characteristics congruent with neoliberal premises and policy agendas. Our particular concern is the extent to which some forms of mainstreaming and gender analysis are unable to put in question neoliberal premises because of their ex post character. For this reason we describe the relationship as contested. Our goal is to identify ways to strengthen the potential of mainstreaming initiatives to step outside of and critique neoliberalism's strategic norms. To advance this objective we offer some first steps towards producing gender analysis as an ex ante intervention. Significantly, we suggest that effective implementation requires a focus on policy's creative (active) role in constructing “problems” and in shaping gender relations.

Topics: Gender Mainstreaming, Globalization, Privatization

Year: 2003

Gender Exploitation: from Structural Adjustment Policies to Poverty Reduction Strategies

Citation:

Ali, Khadija, and Eshya Mujahid-Mukhtar. 2003. "Gender Exploitation: from Structural Adjustment Policies to Poverty Reduction Strategies." The Pakistan Development Review 42 (4): 669-694.
 

Authors: Khadija Ali, Eshya Mujahid-Mukhtar

Annotation:

Summary:

This paper presents a comparison of Structural Adjustment Policies (SAPs) and Poverty Reduction Strategies, particularly with reference to gender issues. To strengthen the case for engendering, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), this paper provides empirical evidence of the effects of SAPs on the lives of women in many developing countries. A rich body of literature has been used to analyse how different policy measures imposed by the World Bank and the IMF have affected women, particularly the poor women. Most of the studies, regarding this aspect of adjustment policies, have found women in a deteriorated condition in every field of life. Women, whether they are producers, consumers, household managers, or community organisers, have been affected more adversely than their male counterparts, mostly because of the gender blindness of these policies. But while adopting alternative strategies meant for poverty reduction, no lesson has been learnt from past experiences. Only very few countries so far have engendered their PRSPs in an appropriate way. Others have given very little importance or no importance at all to this issue. It is therefore suggested that Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers must be engendered, if the objective is to tackle the problem of poverty, and gender issues must be mainstreamed in the PRSPs (Abstract from JSTOR). 

Topics: Gender Mainstreaming, International Financial Institutions, Privatization

Year: 2003

Gender Mainstreaming in the Multilateral Trading System

Citation:

Williams, Mariama. 2003. Gender Mainstreaming in the Multilateral Trading System. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.

Author: Mariama Williams

Annotation:

“This reference manual is intended to serve as an information and training tool for policy-makers and inter-governmental and civil society organisations interested in building and enhancing their knowledge of the important linkages between trade and investment policy and gender equality objectives and priorities. It also presents recommendations on the key issues as well as the identification of strategies that could be utilised by different stakeholders (Williams, 2003, p. xv)."
 
Summary:
"The social dimension of trade policy and trade liberalization is now a common topic in many official trade fora. This discussion is proceeding with little or no attention to the different needs, constraints and interests of women. This handbook provides an integrated framework for a sustainable, propoor and gendersensitive approach to trade policymaking. It is an information and training tool for policymakers and intergovernmental and civil society organisations interested in building and enhancing their knowledge of the important linkages between trade and investment policy and gender equality objectives and priorities. It also presents recommendations on the key issues as well as the identification of strategies that could be utilized by different stakeholders. Each section includes case studies from Commonwealth countries." (Summary from Google Books)

Topics: Civil Society, Democracy / Democratization, Development, Economies, Economic Inequality, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, International Financial Institutions

Year: 2003

Women, Disempowerment, and Resistance: An Analysis of Logging and Mining Activities in the Pacific

Citation:

Scheyvens, Regina, and Leonard Lagisa. 1998. “Women, Disempowerment, and Resistance: An Analysis of Logging and Mining Activities in the Pacific.” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 19 (1): 51–70. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9493.1998.tb00250.x.

Authors: Regina Scheyvens, Leonard Lagisa

Abstract:

There are many arguments supporting the need for a reduction of large scale logging and mining activities in Pacific Island countries. In addition to ecological and economic concerns, logging and mining have had significant social impacts, including gendered impacts. Women tend to be excluded from decision-making processes, and they have limited access to royalty payments and business and employment opportunities which emerge. Women also bear a disproportionate share of the responsibility for dealing with the social and environmental mess which accumulates. However, women are not simply passive victims of logging and mining activities, as this discussion of the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea will argue. They are often the first to feel dissatisfaction with logging and mining and it is such dissatisfaction which has fuelled civil unrest, from family break-ups to sabotage of machinery to civil war, in some communities. It may thus be useful for companies to more carefully monitor the effects of their activities on women and involve women more actively in decision-making bodies if they wish to avoid such unrest in the future.

Topics: Armed Conflict, Civil Wars, Environment, Extractive Industries, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Oceania Countries: Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands

Year: 1998

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