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Gender Mainstreaming

Gendering Local Climate Adaptation

Citation:

Björnberg, Karin Edvardsson, and Sven Ove Hansson. 2013. “Gendering Local Climate Adaptation.” Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability 18 (2): 217–32.

Authors: Karin Edvardsson Björnberg, Sven Ove Hansson

Abstract:

Empirical evidence suggests that climate change will hit women disproportionately hard. Lack of political power, small economic resources, gender-bound patterns in the division of labour, entrenched cultural patterns and possibly biological differences in heat sensitivity combine to make women and girls particularly vulnerable to extreme weather and other climate-related events. Adaptation responses will likely reduce some of these vulnerabilities. However, just as climate change is likely to impact more severely on women than men, the costs and benefits of adaptation could be unevenly distributed between the sexes. Unless adaptation measures are carefully designed from a gender perspective, they may contribute to preserving prevailing gender inequalities and reinforce women’s vulnerability to climate change. Institutions and decision-making processes need to be remodelled so as to guarantee that gender issues are adequately targeted within adaptation. This article identifies a number of methodologies and decision tools that could be used to mainstream gender in local adaptation planning.

Keywords: gender issues, climate impacts, adaptation policy, equality, local policy, mainstreaming

Topics: Economies, Environment, Climate Change, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2013

Swedish Feminist Foreign Policy in the Making: Ethics, Politics, and Gender

Citation:

Aggestam, Karin, and Annika Bergman-Rosamond. 2016. “Swedish Feminist Foreign Policy in the Making: Ethics, Politics, and Gender.” Ethics & International Affairs 30 (3): 323–34. 

Authors: Karin Aggestam, Annika Bergman-Rosamond

Annotation:

Summary: 
"In this essay, we argue that the launching of a “feminist” foreign policy is distinct for two reasons. First, by adopting the “f-word” it elevates politics from a broadly consensual orientation of gender mainstreaming toward more controversial politics, and specifically toward those that explicitly seek to renegotiate and challenge power hierarchies and gendered institutions that hitherto defined global institutions and foreign and security policies. As Swedish Foreign Minister Margot Wallström has noted, “It’s time to become a little braver in foreign policy. I think feminism is a good term. It is about standing against the systematic and global subordination of women.” Second, it contains a normative reorientation of foreign policy that is guided by an ethically informed framework based on broad cosmopolitan norms of global justice and peace. The content of Sweden’s feminist foreign policy is still in the making, and is currently focused on incremental change in two areas: (1) international agenda-setting through a gender-sensitive lens that allows for the reframing and mobilization of international policy action; and (2) normative entrepreneurship, which is guided by an ethically informed framework of cosmopolitanism and human rights that seeks to shape global developments in a gender-sensitive direction" (Aggestam and Bergman-Rosamond 2016, 323). 
 

Topics: Feminisms, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Hierarchies, International Organizations, Justice, Rights, Human Rights

Year: 2016

Gendered Companies, Gendered Security

Citation:

Bongiovi, Joseph R., and Lisa Leitz. 2019. “Gendered Companies, Gendered Security.” In The Sociology of Privatized Security, edited by Ori Swed and Thomas Crosbie, 173-216. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.

Authors: Joseph R. Bongiovi, Lisa Leitz

Abstract:

Using archival, interview, and industry observation data, this chapter examines how the private military and security company (PMSC) industry uses gender as a claim to legitimacy. However, our findings suggest that this growing industry still has areas for improvement before being a positive force for gender mainstreaming. As this industry grew, so did concerns about its handling of gender issues. A series of high-profile scandals has contrasted with international efforts to both protect and involve women in peacekeeping operations. The industry developed its own regulatory organizations and put a number of checks in place to bring PMSC firms into compliance with international norms. These include involving women in peace processes and ensuring gender equality in military and security work. However, the lack of attention to gender in industry guidelines and organizations demonstrates the ongoing gap between aspirations and achievement. As international norms move toward gender mainstreaming, so does the pressure to demonstrate that they can effectively reflect those expectations. While high-level changes have occurred, it is less clear how much substantive and measurable change has occurred within the industry. (Abstract from SpringerLink)

Topics: Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Military Forces & Armed Groups, Private Military & Security, Peacekeeping, Peace Processes

Year: 2019

Gendered Environmental Security in IDP and Refugee Camps

Citation:

Rosenow-Williams, Kerstin, and Katharina Behmer. 2015. “Gendered Environmental Security in IDP and Refugee Camps.” Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 27: 188–95.

Authors: Kerstin Rosenow-Williams, Katharina Behmer

Annotation:

Summary:
"The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and its Executive Committee have long stressed that situations of flight and displacement affect men and women differently and that effective programming must recognize these differences. In the mid-1980s UNHCR, and various other humanitarian actors, began incorporating a gender perspective into their humanitarian activities. Since then a large variety of handbooks, guidelines, and toolkits have been developed. The 2008 UNHCR Handbook for the Protection of Women and Girls, for example, notes that gender mainstreaming has been adopted as a United Nations (UN)–wide policy, recognizing that centralizing the differing needs of women and men into the design of programs, policies, and operations is necessary to fundamentally improve the position of gender equality.
 
"To monitor and advance this policy approach, this essay advocates the use of a gendered human security perspective as an analytical tool to disentangle the gendered dimensions of security for individuals and groups during displacement. It places a special focus on the interrelation between gender categories, their social construction, and the intersectionality of individual characteristics. An intersectional focus on gender-specific dimensions of displacement means taking into account other factors that can cause vulnerability and insecurities (such as age, sexuality, race, religion, class, and ethnicity), thus, also acknowledging the different security situations of individuals within the same gender group. Fusing the concepts of gender mainstreaming and human security proves to be a useful approach to conceptualize and address the multilayered and interrelated security needs of men, women, boys, and girls while providing evidence of the importance of making both sexes the key referents for human security" (Rosenow-Williams and Behmer 2015, 188). 

Topics: Age, Clan, Displacement & Migration, Migration, Refugees, Ethnicity, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, International Organizations, Race, Religion, Security, Human Security, Sexuality

Year: 2015

How to Resist Austerity: The Case of the Gender Budgeting Strategy in Andalusia

Citation:

Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa, Marisol E. Ruiz, María del Mar García-Calvente, Davide Malmusi, Esther Sánchez, Lluís Camprubí, Carles Muntaner, Imma Cortès-Franch, Lucía Artazcoz, and Carme Borrell. 2017. “How to Resist Austerity: The Case of the Gender Budgeting Strategy in Andalusia.” Gender, Work and Organization 24 (1): 34–55. 

Authors: Vanessa Puig-Barrachina, Marisol E. Ruiz, María del Mar García-Calvente, Davide Malmusi, Esther Sánchez, Lluís Camprubí, Carles Muntaner, Imma Cortès-Franch, Lucía Artazcoz, Carme Borrell

Abstract:

While most countries have imposed austerity policies that risk jeopardizing the progress towards gender equality, there are examples of European regions that have maintained or strengthened gender-equality policies in a climate of economic downturn. Following a realist approach and adopting Kingdon’s agenda-setting model as our framework, this explanatory case study examines how, why and under which circumstances the gender budgeting strategy has resisted austerity measures. This strategy represents a key tool for gender mainstreaming in Andalusia, a southern region of Spain. Results have shown that the existence of a strong left-wing government is a necessary context for the maintenance of gender equality policies. The feasibility given by the previous context of institutionalization of this strategy and its low cost, together with political commitment — with a decisive contribution from female leadership — have been the major factors allowing the maintenance of the gender budgeting strategy in Andalusia.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, public policies assessment, gender budgeting, austerity measures, Andalusia

Topics: Economies, Gender, Gender Budgeting, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Governance Regions: Europe, Southern Europe Countries: Spain

Year: 2017

Gender and Disasters

Citation:

Fordham, Maureen. 2011. “Gender and Disasters.” In Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, edited by J. O. Nriagu, 834–38. Burlington: Elsevier.

Author: Maureen Fordham

Abstract:

The gendered dimensions of disasters remain underreported and poorly managed. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that women and men (girls and boys) experience disasters and their aftermath in different ways. The differences arise, on the one hand, from women's frequent subordinate status, and on the other, from the socialization of boys and men to take risks and assume dominance, in societies around the world. This can lead to increased female workloads at one end of the scale, to gender-based violence (GBV) and excess female deaths at the extreme end. For men and boys it can create situations where their emotional needs are not met and they adopt negative coping behaviors. Key areas of environmental health including shelter/housing and livelihoods; water, sanitation, and waste management; general environmental health; and food safety and nutrition can be seen to have gender aspects in disaster contexts and require attention on both service delivery efficiency and equity grounds.

Keywords: Gender-based violence (GBV), Gender disaggregated data, gender mainstreaming, Rights-based transformative approach, Vulnerability approach, Women (and child) friendly space

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender-Based Violence, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Health, Infrastructure, Water & Sanitation, Livelihoods

Year: 2011

Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives

Citation:

Enarson, Elaine, and P.G. Dhar Chakrabarti, eds. 2009. Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications India.

Authors: Elaine Enarson, P.G. Dhar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Women, Gender and Disaster: Global Issues and Initiatives examines gender within the context of disaster risk management. It argues for gender mainstreaming as an effective strategy towards achieving disaster risk reduction and mitigating post-disaster gender disparity. Highlighting that gender inequalities pervade all aspects of life, it analyses the failure to implement inclusive and gender-sensitive approaches to relief and rehabilitation work. While examining positive strategies for change, the collection focuses on women’s knowledge, capabilities, leadership and experience in community resource management. The authors emphasize that these strengths in women, which are required for building resilience to hazards and disasters, are frequently overlooked. This timely book will be extremely useful to policy makers and professionals active in the field of disaster management and to academics and students. (Sage Publications India)

Annotation:

Table of Contents
Part One: Understanding Gender Relations in Disaster
 
1. Sex, Gender and Gender Relations in Disasters
Madhavi Malalgoda Ariyabandu
 
2. A Gender Perspective on Disaster Risk Reduction
Helena Molin Valdés
 
3. Let’s Share the Stage: Involving Men in Gender Equality and Disaster Risk Reduction
Prafulla Mishra
 
4. Organising for Risk Reduction: The Honolulu Call to Action
Cheryl L. Anderson
 
Part Two: Gendered Challenges and Responses in Disasters
 
5. Reducing Disaster Risk through Community Resilience in the Himalayas
Manjari Mehta
 
6. Gender Perspectives on Disaster Reconstruction in Nicaragua: Reconstructing Roles and Relations?
Sarah Bradshaw and Brian Linneker
 
7. Environmental Management and Disaster Mitigation: Middle Eastern Gender Perspective
Samia Galal Saad
 
8. ‘Everything Became a Struggle, Absolute Struggle’: Post-Flood Increases in Domestic Violence in New Zealand
Rosalind Houghton
 
9. Parenting in the Wake of Disaster: Mothers and Fathers Respond to Hurricane Katrina
Lori Peek and Alice Fothergill
 
10. Women in the Great Hanshin Earthquake
Reiko Masai, Lisa Kuzunishi and Tamiyo Kondo
 
11. Victims of Earthquake and Patriarchy: The 2005 Pakistan Earthquake
Azra Talat Sayeed
 
12. ‘A Part of Me Had Left’: Learning from Women Farmers in Canada about Disaster Stress
Simone Reinsch
 
13. Supporting Women and Men on the Front Lines of Biological Disaster
Tracey L. O'Sullivan and Carol A. Amaratunga
 
Part Three: Women’s Organised Initiatives
 
14. ‘We Can Make Things Better for Each other’: Women and Girls Organise to Reduce Disasters in Central America
Maureen Fordham
 
15. Women’s Participation in Disaster Relief and Recovery
Ayse Yonder with Sengül Akçar and Prema Gopalan
 
16. Work-Focused Responses to Disasters: India’s Self Employed Women’s Association
Francie Lund and Tony Vaux
 
17. A Climate for Change: Humanitarian Disaster and the Movement for the Commons in Kenya
Leigh Brownhill
 
18. Sri Lankan Women’s Organisations Responding to Post-Tsunami Violence
Sarah Fisher
 
19. ‘A We Run Tings’: Women Rebuilding Montserrat
Judith Soares and Audrey Y. Mullings
 
20. Women Responding to Drought in Brazil
Adélia de Melo Branco
 
Part Four: Gender-Sensitive Disaster Risk Reduction
 
21. Balancing Gender Vulnerabilities and Capacities in the Framework of Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management: The Case of Mexico
Cecilia Castro García and Luisa Emilia Reyes Zúñiga
 
22. Towards Gender Equality in Climate Change Policy: Challenges and Perspectives for the Future
Ulrike Röhr, Minu Hemmati and Yianna Lambrou
 
23. Engendering Tsunami Recovery in Sri Lanka: The Role of UNIFEM and its Partners
Chandni Joshi and Mihir R. Bhatt
 
24. Gendering Disaster Risk Reduction: 57 Steps from Words to Action
Elaine Enarson
 
25. Toolkit for Mainstreaming Gender in Emergency Response
P. G. Dhar Chakrabarti and Ajinder Walia

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality

Year: 2009

Gender Mainstreaming in to Community Based Disaster Risk Management

Citation:

Iqbal, Muhammad Jawed, Muhammad Naseem Baig, Haleema Sadia, Muhammad Bilal Khurshed, and Sadaf Saleem. 2013. “Gender Mainstreaming in to Community Based Disaster Risk Management.” European Scientific Journal 9 (32): 463–70.

Authors: Muhammad Jawed Iqbal, Muhammad Naseem Baig, Haleema Sadia, Muhammad Bilal Khurshed, Sadaf Saleem

Abstract:

Although women are considered as the most vulnerable group in the society; but very little attention has been made to take into consideration the issue of gender sensitivity during the phase of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction as well as Management in both natural and manmade disaster. In Pakistan a very limited number of organization are working to address the issue of mainstreaming of women in pre and post disaster activities. The goal of this paper is to synthesize and review the issue of disaster and gender mainstreaming. This paper highlights the gaps in terms of disaster preparedness by adopting CBDRM; and also critically analyzes the importance of the mainstreaming the element of gender in the phase of Disaster Mainstreaming overall in general and specific in the context of Pakistan. Recommendations and suggestions of the paper can be used to design and implement comprehensive CBDRM Preparedness Plan by mainstreaming the element of Gender sensitivity.

Keywords: gender mainstreaming, disaster, CBDRM

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Mainstreaming Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: Pakistan

Year: 2013

Women in Disasters and Conflicts in India: Interventions in View of the Millennium Development Goals

Citation:

Bhadra, Subhasis. 2017. “Women in Disasters and Conflicts in India: Interventions in View of the Millennium Development Goals.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 8 (2): 196–207.

Author: Subhasis Bhadra

Abstract:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with their holistic perspective of development are focused on different issues of vulnerability. This article highlights the situation of women in disasters and the challenges in achieving the MDGs with special reference to India. It is accepted that there is no disaster without human engagement and that issues of differential impact on genders is an essential consideration for recovery. The international guidelines on disaster management and intervention have a considerable focus on gender equality, balance, mainstreaming, and sensitive programing, yet the situation is quite grim. India still lacks separate policy guidelines on gender aspects in disaster. In the twenty-first century, India has witnessed a series of disasters in different parts of the country. The author’s personal experiences of working in intervention programs of these disasters showed that gender vulnerability depends on various factors like the intensity of the disaster impact, local sociocultural perspectives, effective disaster intervention strategies, the specific focus on issues of women in training of personnel, and gender-sensitive disaster intervention programs in the community. In the context of the MDGs, while development has become a priority concern to end age-old inequalities in society, the added challenge of disasters needs considerable focus on gender inequalities to achieve the goal of gender equity.
 

Keywords: Disaster intervention strategies, gender inequalities, gender vulnerability, India, Millennium Development Goals

Topics: Development, Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Women, Gender Balance, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, Gender Equity, Humanitarian Assistance Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2017

Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India

Citation:

Pincha, Chaman. 2008. Indian Ocean Tsunami through the Gender Lens: Insights from Tamil Nadu, India. Mumbai: Earthworm Books.

Author: Chaman Pincha

Annotation:

Summary: 
“This study attempts to analyze the differential impact of the Tsunami on men, women, and Aravanis. It captures the experience of the most marginalized communities and of the women within them, i.e., experiences of unmarried girls, widows without children as against those of widows with children. Although the analysis focuses on women’s lives, it does so with the understanding that their lives operate within a system of gender inequalities and gender power relations. The study also focuses on understanding the role played by NGOs at the time of the Tsunami, as they were working actively alongside government agencies in the delivery of relief and development of rehabilitation programs. An attempt has been made to look at the gender mainstreaming strategies of NGOs, an area, which has hitherto not been systematically analyzed. This initiative by the gender researcher and her team was made under the auspices of Anawim Trust and with support from Oxfam America to understand and analyze the steps taken by NGOs to enhance the agency of women, vulnerable men, and excluded groups (such as Aravanis), with the purpose of cross-agency learning and replication. This work therefore documents both the good practices as well as missed opportunities with the belief that these will deepen our understanding of “what works” and “what does not” in integrating the SGNs and PGNs of both men and women in disaster response and preparedness” (Pincha 2008, 12-13).
 
Table of Contents: 
1. Introduction
 
2. Gender Differential Impacts of Tsunami 
 
3. NGO's Gender Mainstreaming Strategies: An Analysis
 
4. Toward Strengthening Gender Mainstreaming Efforts
 
5. Mainstreaming Gender in Disaster Management: Opportunities and Future Challenges 
 
6. Annex - 1
 
7. Annex - 2 
 
8. Annex - 3

Topics: Environment, Environmental Disasters, Gender, Gender Mainstreaming, Gendered Power Relations, Gender Equality/Inequality, NGOs Regions: Asia, South Asia Countries: India

Year: 2008

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